No judgment in any action affecting the family may be granted unless this section is complied with or a court orders otherwise.
Family court commissioner or law partner; when interested; procedure.
Neither a family court commissioner nor a partner may appear in any action affecting the family in any court held in the county in which the family court commissioner is acting, except when authorized to appear by s. 767.14
. In case the commissioner or a partner shall be in any way interested in such action, the presiding judge shall appoint some reputable attorney to perform the services enjoined upon such family court commissioner and such attorney, so appointed, shall take and file the oath and receive the compensation provided by law.
History: 1979 c. 32
, 92 (4)
; 1979 c. 176
; 1979 c. 352
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.16.
Family court commissioner; salary.
In counties having a population of less than 500,000, the county board shall by resolution provide an annual salary for the family court commissioner whether on a full or part-time basis and may furnish an office with necessary office furnishings, supplies and stenographic services and may also by resolution prescribe other duties not in conflict with the duties as family court commissioner.
History: 1979 c. 32
; 1979 c. 176
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.17.
Record; impounding. 767.19(1)(1)
No record or evidence in any case shall be impounded, or access thereto refused, except by special written order of the court made in its discretion in the interests of public morals. And when impounded no officer or other person shall permit a copy of any of the testimony or pleadings, or the substance thereof, to be taken by any person other than a party to the action, or his or her attorney of record, without the special order of the court.
The court may on its own motion, or on motion of any party to an action affecting the family, exclude from the courtroom all persons other than the parties, their attorneys and any guardians ad litem.
History: 1977 c. 105
; 1979 c. 32
; 1979 c. 352
; Stats. s. 767.19.
Name of spouse.
The court, upon granting a divorce, shall allow either spouse, upon request, to resume a former legal surname, if any.
History: 1975 c. 94
; 1979 c. 32
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.20.
Women's names in Wisconsin: In Re Petition of Kruzel. MacDougall, 1975 WBB No. 4.
Full faith and credit; comity. 767.21(1)
Actions in courts of other states. 767.21(1)(a)(a)
Full faith and credit shall be given in all courts of this state to a judgment in any action affecting the family, except an action relating to child custody, by a court of competent jurisdiction in another state, territory or possession of the United States, when both spouses personally appear or when the respondent has been personally served. Full faith and credit shall also be given in all courts of this state to the amount of arrearages owed for nonpayment or late payment of a child support, family support or maintenance payment under an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction in another state, territory or possession of the United States. A court in this state may not adjust the amount of arrearages owed except as provided in s. 767.32 (1m)
Full faith and credit shall be given in all courts of this state to a determination of paternity made by any other state, whether established through voluntary acknowledgment or an administrative or judicial process.
(2) Actions in courts of foreign countries.
Any court of this state may recognize a judgment in any action affecting the family involving Wisconsin domiciliaries, except an action relating to child custody, by a court of competent jurisdiction in a foreign country, in accordance with the principles of international comity.
(3) Child custody actions.
All matters relating to the effect of the judgment of another court concerning child custody shall be governed by ch. 822
History: 1977 c. 105
; 1979 c. 32
; 1979 c. 352
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.21; 1989 a. 212
; 1993 a. 481
Full faith and credit is not applicable where a decree or judgment is obtained in a jurisdiction outside of the U.S. Estate of Steffke, 65 W (2d) 199, 222 NW (2d) 628.
A Wisconsin court has equitable jurisdiction to decide issues of maintenance and property division when an out-of-state divorce judgment fails to address those issues. Haeuser v. Haeuser, 200 W (2d) 750, 548 NW (2d) 750 (Ct. App. 1996).
Uniform divorce recognition act. 767.22(1)
A divorce obtained in another jurisdiction shall be of no force or effect in this state, if the court in such other jurisdiction lacks subject matter jurisdiction to hear the case because both parties to the marriage were domiciled in this state at the time the proceeding for the divorce was commenced.
Proof that a person obtaining a divorce in another jurisdiction was (a) domiciled in this state within 12 months prior to the commencement of the proceeding therefor, and resumed residence in this state within 18 months after the date of the person's departure therefrom, or (b) at all times after the person's departure from this state, and until the person's return maintained a place of residence within this state, shall be prima facie evidence that the person was domiciled in this state when the divorce proceeding was commenced.
This section shall be so interpreted and construed as to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law of those states which enact it.
This section may be cited as the Uniform Divorce Recognition Act.
History: 1977 c. 105
; 1979 c. 32
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.22; 1993 a. 486
Comity cannot be accorded a Mexican decree where no domicile existed in that foreign jurisdiction. Estate of Steffke, 65 W (2d) 199, 222 NW (2d) 628.
Temporary orders for support of spouse and children; suit money; attorney fees. 767.23(1)
Except as provided in ch. 822
, in every action affecting the family, the court or family court commissioner may, during the pendency thereof, make just and reasonable temporary orders concerning the following matters:
Upon request of one party, granting legal custody of the minor children to the parties jointly, to one party solely or to a relative or agency specified under s. 767.24 (3)
. The court or family court commissioner may order joint legal custody without the agreement of the other party and without the findings required under s. 767.24 (2) (b) 2.
This order may not have a binding effect on a final custody determination.
Upon the request of a party, granting periods of physical placement to a party. The court or family court commissioner shall make a determination under this paragraph within 30 days after the request for a temporary order regarding periods of physical placement is filed.
Requiring either party or both parties to make payments for the support of minor children, which payment amounts may be expressed as a percentage of parental income or as a fixed sum, or as a combination of both in the alternative by requiring payment of the greater or lesser of either a percentage of parental income or a fixed sum.
Requiring either party to pay for the maintenance of the other party. This maintenance may include the expenses and attorney fees incurred by the other party in bringing or responding to the action affecting the family.
Requiring either party to execute an assignment of income under s. 767.265
or an authorization for transfer under s. 767.267
Requiring either party or both parties to pay debts or perform other actions in relation to the persons or property of the parties.
Requiring counseling of either party or both parties.
Requiring either party or both parties to maintain minor children as beneficiaries on a health insurance policy or plan.
Requiring either party or both parties to execute an assignment of income for payment of health care expenses of minor children.
If a family court commissioner believes that a temporary restraining order or injunction under s. 813.12
is appropriate in an action, the court commissioner shall inform the parties of their right to seek the order or injunction and the procedure to follow. On a motion for such a restraining order or injunction, the family court commissioner shall submit the motion to the court within 5 working days.
Before making any temporary order under sub. (1)
, the court or family court commissioner shall consider those factors which the court is required by this chapter to consider before entering a final judgment on the same subject matter. If the court or family court commissioner makes a temporary child support order that deviates from the amount of support that would be required by using the percentage standard established by the department under s. 49.22 (9)
, the court or family court commissioner shall comply with the requirements of s. 767.25 (1n)
. A temporary order under sub. (1)
may be based upon the written stipulation of the parties, subject to the approval of the court or the family court commissioner. Temporary orders made by the family court commissioner may be reviewed by the court as provided in s. 767.13 (6)
Notice of motion for an order or order to show cause under sub. (1)
may be served at the time the action is commenced or at any time thereafter and shall be accompanied by an affidavit stating the basis for the request for relief.
Upon making any order for dismissal of an action affecting the family or for substitution of attorneys in an action affecting the family or for vacation of a judgment theretofore granted in any such action, the court shall prior to or in its order render and grant separate judgment in favor of any attorney who has appeared for a party to the action and in favor of any guardian ad litem for a party or a child for the amount of fees and disbursements to which the attorney or guardian ad litem is, in the court's judgment, entitled and against the party responsible therefor.
Upon making any order for dismissal of an action affecting the family or for vacation of a judgment granted in any such order, the court shall, prior to or in its order of dismissal or vacation, also preserve the right of the state or a political subdivision of the state to collect any arrearages, by an action under this chapter or under ch. 785
, owed to the state if either party in the case was a recipient of aid under ch. 49
History: 1971 c. 149
; 1971 c. 211
; 1971 c. 220
; 1975 c. 283
; Sup. Ct. Order, 73 W (2d) xxxi (1976); 1977 c. 105
; 1979 c. 32
, 92 (4)
; 1979 c. 111
; 1979 c. 352
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.23; 1983 a. 27
; 1983 a. 204
; 1983 a. 447
; 1985 a. 29
s. 3202 (9)
; 1987 a. 355
; 1989 a. 212
; 1991 a. 39
; 1993 a. 78
; 1995 a. 27
, 9126 (19)
; 1995 a. 70
Where a guardian ad litem is appointed where the issue of custody of a child is disputed, his fee should be divided between both parties when their ability to pay is equal. Lacey v. Lacey, 45 W (2d) 378, 173 NW (2d) 142.
An order for attorney's fees is enforceable by contempt; if the judgment only refers to a stipulation for attorney's fees, it is not so enforceable. The court cannot enter a judgment in favor of the attorneys directly. Before a contempt order is issued the defendant must have notice of an application for it which must be made by the wife to whom the fees are payable. O'Connor v. O'Connor, 48 W (2d) 535, 180 NW (2d) 735.
Order directing the husband to contribute $2,000 to the wife's attorney's fees is not an abuse of discretion. Tesch v. Tesch, 63 W (2d) 320, 217 NW (2d) 647.
Denial of the wife's motion for attorneys' fees to prosecute the wife's appeal is held to constitute an abuse of discretion, since the issues in the case were vigorously contested and in no way frivolous. Markham v. Markham, 65 W (2d) 735, 223 NW (2d) 616.
Sub. (3) (a) is strictly construed to apply to those situations expressly set forth in the statute, i.e., orders for dismissal, substitution of attorneys and vacation of judgments, in actions affecting families. In other cases, an action to recover legal fees may be instituted. Kotecki & Radtke, S.C. v. Johnson, 192 W (2d) 429, 531 NW (2d) 606 (Ct. App. 1995).
The federal tax consequences of divorce. Meldman, Ryan, 57 MLR 229.
Custody and physical placement. 767.24(1)
In rendering a judgment of annulment, divorce or legal separation, or in rendering a judgment in an action under s. 767.02 (1) (e)
, the court shall make such provisions as it deems just and reasonable concerning the legal custody and physical placement of any minor child of the parties, as provided in this section.
(2) Custody to party; joint or sole. 767.24(2)(a)(a)
Subject to par. (b)
, based on the best interest of the child and after considering the factors under sub. (5)
, the court may give joint legal custody or sole legal custody of a minor child.
The court may give joint legal custody only if it finds that doing so is in the child's best interest and that either of the following applies:
The parties do not agree to joint legal custody, but one party requests joint legal custody and the court specifically finds all of the following:
Both parties are capable of performing parental duties and responsibilities and wish to have an active role in raising the child.
No conditions exist at that time which would substantially interfere with the exercise of joint legal custody.
The parties will be able to cooperate in the future decision making required under an award of joint legal custody. In making this finding the court shall consider, along with any other pertinent items, any reasons offered by a party objecting to joint legal custody. Evidence that either party engaged in abuse, as defined in s. 813.122 (1) (a)
, of the child, as defined in s. 48.02 (2)
, or evidence of interspousal battery, as described under s. 940.19
or 940.20 (1m)
, or domestic abuse, as defined in s. 813.12 (1) (a)
, creates a rebuttable presumption that the parties will not be able to cooperate in the future decision making required. This presumption may be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence that the abuse will not interfere with the parties' ability to cooperate in the future decision making required.
If the interest of any child demands it, and if the court finds that neither parent is able to care for the child adequately or that neither parent is fit and proper to have the care and custody of the child, the court may declare the child to be in need of protection or services and transfer legal custody of the child to a relative of the child, as defined in s. 48.02 (15)
, to a county department, as defined under s. 48.02 (2g)
, or to a licensed child welfare agency. If the court transfers legal custody of a child under this subsection, in its order the court shall notify the parents of any applicable grounds for termination of parental rights under s. 48.415
If the legal custodian appointed under par. (a)
is an agency, the agency shall report to the court on the status of the child at least once each year until the child reaches 18 years of age, is returned to the custody of a parent or is placed under the guardianship of an agency. The agency shall file an annual report no less than 30 days before the anniversary of the date of the order. An agency may file an additional report at any time if it determines that more frequent reporting is appropriate. A report shall summarize the child's permanency plan and the recommendations of the review panel under s. 48.38 (5)
, if any.
The court shall hold a hearing to review the permanency plan within 30 days after receiving a report under par. (b)
. At least 10 days before the date of the hearing, the court shall provide notice of the time, date and purpose of the hearing to the agency that prepared the report, the child's parents, the child, if he or she is 12 years of age or over, and the child's foster parent, treatment foster parent or the operator of the facility in which the child is living.
Following the hearing, the court shall make all of the determinations specified under s. 48.38 (5) (c)
and, if it determines that an alternative placement is in the child's best interest, may amend the order to transfer legal custody of the child to another relative, other than a parent, or to another agency specified under par. (a)
The charges for care furnished to a child whose custody is transferred under this subsection shall be pursuant to the procedure under s. 48.36 (1)
or 938.36 (1)
except as provided in s. 767.29 (3)
(4) Allocation of physical placement. 767.24(4)(a)(a)
Except as provided under par. (b)
, if the court orders sole or joint legal custody under sub. (2)
, the court shall allocate periods of physical placement between the parties in accordance with this subsection. In determining the allocation of periods of physical placement, the court shall consider each case on the basis of the factors in sub. (5)
A child is entitled to periods of physical placement with both parents unless, after a hearing, the court finds that physical placement with a parent would endanger the child's physical, mental or emotional health.
No court may deny periods of physical placement for failure to meet, or grant periods of physical placement for meeting, any financial obligation to the child or the former spouse.
If a court denies periods of physical placement under this section, the court shall give the parent that was denied periods of physical placement the warning provided under s. 48.356
If the court grants periods of physical placement to more than one parent, it shall order a parent with legal custody and physical placement rights to provide the notice required under s. 767.327 (1)
(5) Factors in custody and physical placement determinations.
In determining legal custody and periods of physical placement, the court shall consider all facts relevant to the best interest of the child. The court may not prefer one potential custodian over the other on the basis of the sex or race of the custodian. The court shall consider reports of appropriate professionals if admitted into evidence when legal custody or physical placement is contested. The court shall consider the following factors in making its determination:
The wishes of the child's parent or parents.
The wishes of the child, which may be communicated by the child or through the child's guardian ad litem or other appropriate professional.
The interaction and interrelationship of the child with his or her parent or parents, siblings, and any other person who may significantly affect the child's best interest.
The child's adjustment to the home, school, religion and community.
The mental and physical health of the parties, the minor children and other persons living in a proposed custodial household.
The availability of public or private child care services.
Whether one party is likely to unreasonably interfere with the child's continuing relationship with the other party.