No person may practice medicine and surgery, or attempt to do so or make a representation as authorized to do so, without a license to practice medicine and surgery granted by the board.
No person may practice as a physician assistant unless he or she is licensed by the board as a physician assistant.
(1m) Certificate required to practice.
No person may practice respiratory care, or attempt to do so or make a representation as authorized to do so, without a certificate as a respiratory care practitioner granted by the board.
Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed either to prohibit, or to require, a license or certificate under this subchapter for any of the following:
Any person lawfully practicing within the scope of a license, permit, registration, certificate or certification granted to practice professional or practical nursing or nurse-midwifery under ch. 441
, to practice chiropractic under ch. 446
, to practice dentistry or dental hygiene under ch. 447
, to practice optometry under ch. 449
, to practice acupuncture under ch. 451
or under any other statutory provision, or as otherwise provided by statute.
The performance of official duties by a physician of any of the armed services or federal health services of the United States.
The activities of a medical student, respiratory care student or physician assistant student required for such student's education and training, or the activities of a medical school graduate required for training as required in s. 448.05 (2)
Actual consultation or demonstration by licensed physicians or certified respiratory care practitioners of other states or countries with licensed physicians or certified respiratory care practitioners of this state.
Any person other than a physician assistant who is providing patient services as directed, supervised and inspected by a physician who has the power to direct, decide and oversee the implementation of the patient services rendered.
The gratuitous domestic administration of family remedies.
Any person furnishing medical assistance or first aid at the scene of an emergency.
Any person assisting a respiratory care practitioner in practice under the direct, immediate, on-premises supervision of the respiratory care practitioner.
Any persons other than physician assistants who assist physicians.
No person may use or assume the title "doctor of medicine" or append to the person's name the letters "M.D." unless one of the following applies:
The person possesses the degree of doctor of medicine.
The person is licensed as a physician under this subchapter because the person satisfied the degree requirement of s. 448.05 (2)
by possessing a medical degree that was conferred by a medical school recognized and listed as such by the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
No person not possessing the degree of doctor of osteopathy may use or assume the title "doctor of osteopathy" or append to the person's name the letters "D.O.".
No person may designate himself or herself as a "physician assistant" or use or assume the title "physician assistant" or append to the person's name the words or letters "physician assistant" or "P.A." or any other titles, letters or designation which represents or may tend to represent the person as a physician assistant unless he or she is licensed as a physician assistant by the board.
(5) Civil liability; certain medical procedures and reports. 448.03(5)(a)(a)
No person licensed or certified under this subchapter shall be liable for any civil damages resulting from such person's refusal to perform sterilization procedures or to remove or aid in the removal of a human embryo or fetus from a person if such refusal is based on religious or moral precepts.
No physician shall be liable for any civil damages for either of the following:
Reporting in good faith to the department of transportation under s. 146.82 (3)
a patient's name and other information relevant to a physical or mental condition of the patient which in the physician's judgment impairs the patient's ability to exercise reasonable and ordinary control over a motor vehicle.
In good faith, not reporting to the department of transportation under s. 146.82 (3)
a patient's name and other information relevant to a physical or mental condition of the patient which in the physician's judgment does not impair the patient's ability to exercise reasonable and ordinary control over a motor vehicle.
A physician who in good faith provides the board with information concerning an allegation that another physician has engaged in unprofessional conduct or acted negligently in treating a patient is immune from liability for any damage that results from any act or omission in providing the information and may not be disciplined by the board for providing the information. In any administrative or court proceeding, the good faith of a physician who provides such information shall be presumed.
(6) Practice of Christian Science.
No law of this state regulating the practice of medicine and surgery may be construed to interfere with the practice of Christian Science. A person who elects Christian Science treatment in lieu of medical or surgical treatment for the cure of disease may not be compelled to submit to medical or surgical treatment.
Restrictions on business corporations providing medical, legal and dental services is discussed. 75 Atty. Gen. 200
Classes of license; certificate of licensure. 448.04(1)(a)(a)
License to practice medicine and surgery.
A person holding a license to practice medicine and surgery may practice as defined in s. 448.01 (9)
Temporary license to practice medicine and surgery. 448.04(1)(b)1.1.
An applicant for license to practice medicine and surgery who has passed an examination satisfactory to the board, or who is a graduate of a medical school in this state, and who more than 30 days prior to the date set by the board for the holding of its next examination has complied with all the requirements of s. 448.05 (2)
may, at the discretion of the board, be granted a temporary license to practice medicine and surgery. Such temporary license shall expire 60 days after the next examination for license is given or on the date following the examination on which the board grants or denies such applicant a license, whichever occurs first; but the temporary license shall automatically expire on the first day the board begins its examination of applicants after granting such license, unless its holder submits to examination on such date. The board may require an applicant for temporary licensure under this subdivision to appear before a member of the board for an interview and oral examination. A temporary license shall be granted under this subsection only once to the same person.
An applicant who is a graduate of a foreign medical school and who, because of noteworthy professional attainment, is invited to serve on the academic staff of a medical school in this state as a visiting professor, may be granted a temporary license to practice medicine and surgery if the applicant does not have an arrest or conviction record, subject to ss. 111.321
. Such license shall remain in force only while the holder is serving full-time on the academic staff of a medical school, and the holder's entire practice is limited to the duties of the academic position. Such license shall expire 2 years after its date of granting and may be renewed at the discretion of the board. The board may require an applicant for licensure under this subdivision to appear before a member of the board for an interview.
The board may grant a temporary license to practice medicine and surgery for a period not to exceed 90 days to a nonresident physician who is serving on a full-time or temporary basis in a camp or other recreational facility, or to a physician temporarily maintaining the practice of another physician. In either case, the applicant for such temporary license must satisfy the board that the applicant is needed in the area in which the applicant wishes to serve and that the applicant holds a license granted upon written examination in another licensing jurisdiction of the United States or Canada. The board may renew such temporary license for additional periods of 90 days each but may not renew such license more than 3 consecutive times. The board may require an applicant for such temporary license to appear before a member of the board for interview.
Temporary educational permit to practice medicine and surgery.
Application for a temporary educational permit to practice medicine and surgery may be made to the board by a person who meets the requirements of s. 448.05 (2)
. Such permit may be issued for a period not to exceed one year and may be renewed annually for not more than 4 years. Such permit shall entitle the holder to take postgraduate educational training in a facility approved by the board. The holder of such permit may, under the direction of a person licensed to practice medicine and surgery in this state, perform services requisite to the training authorized by this section. Acting under such direction, the holder of such permit shall also have the right to prescribe drugs other than narcotics and to sign any certificates, reports or other papers for the use of public authorities which are required of or permitted to persons licensed to practice medicine and surgery. The holder of such permit shall confine training and practice to the facility in which the holder is taking the training. The purpose of this paragraph is solely to provide opportunities in this state for the postgraduate education of certain persons having training in medicine and surgery satisfactory to the board, without compliance with the licensure requirements of this subchapter. Nothing in this paragraph changes in any respect the requirements for licensure to practice medicine and surgery in this state. The violation of this paragraph by the holder of such permit shall constitute cause for the revocation of the permit. All holders of such permits shall be subject to such provisions of this subchapter as the board, by rule, determines are appropriate and to any penalties applicable to those with a temporary or regular license to practice medicine and surgery. The board may require an applicant for licensure under this paragraph to appear before a member of the board for an interview and oral examination.
Physician assistant license.
The board shall license as a physician assistant an individual who meets the requirements for licensure under s. 448.05 (5)
. The board may, by rule, provide for various classes of temporary licenses to practice as physician assistants.
Certificate as respiratory care practitioner.
The board may certify as a respiratory care practitioner any individual who meets the qualifications for certification under s. 448.05 (5r)
and passes the examination required under s. 448.05 (6)
. The board may, by rule, provide for a temporary certificate to practice respiratory care to be granted to any individual who meets the requirements of s. 448.05 (5r)
but has not passed the examination required by s. 448.05 (6)
. Temporary certificates may be issued for a period not to exceed one year and may not be renewed.
(2) Certificate of licensure.
Each license granted by the board shall be attested by a certificate of licensure.
Any person holding a license or certificate granted under this subchapter, which is lost, stolen or destroyed, may apply to the board for a duplicate thereof. Such application shall be made in such manner as the board may designate and shall be accompanied by an affidavit setting out the circumstances of loss. The board shall then issue a duplicate bearing on its face the word "duplicate".
Discussion of circumstances under which physical therapist may practice without a referral under (1) (e). 75 Atty. Gen. 217
Qualification for licensure or certification; examinations; application. 448.05(1)
To be qualified for the grant of any license or certificate by the board, an applicant must:
Meet the specific requirements as set out in this section for that class of license or certificate for which applying.
Achieve a passing grade in the examinations required in this section.
Be found qualified by three-fourths of the members of the board, except that an applicant for a temporary license under s. 448.04 (1) (b) 1.
must be found qualified by 2 members of the board.
(2) License to practice medicine and surgery.
An applicant for any class of license to practice medicine and surgery must supply evidence satisfactory to the board that the applicant is a graduate of and possesses a diploma from a medical or osteopathic college approved by the board and has completed postgraduate training of 12 months in a facility approved by the board. If an applicant is a graduate of a foreign medical school which has not been approved by the board, and if such applicant has had postgraduate training in this country in a 12-month program approved by the board or has had other professional experience which the board deems has given the applicant the education and training substantially equivalent, and if such applicant has passed the examinations given by the educational council for foreign medical graduates or its successors, the board may make such additional inquiry including a personal interview as satisfies it that the applicant has had such education and training. If a majority of the board is so satisfied, the applicant may then be admitted to examination for a license to practice medicine and surgery. If an applicant is a graduate of a foreign medical school not approved by the board, and such foreign medical school requires either social service or internship or both of its graduates, and if such applicant has not completed such requirements but has completed a 12-month supervised clinical training program under the direction of a medical school approved by the board and has complied with all other requirements of this subsection for graduates of foreign medical schools not approved by the board, the applicant may then be admitted to examination for a license to practice medicine and surgery.
The board shall promulgate rules establishing licensing standards and practice standards for physician assistants and shall license persons under those rules. The board may not grant a license as a physician assistant to an applicant unless the applicant submits evidence satisfactory to the board of all of the following:
That the applicant has passed the certifying examination administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants.
That the applicant has satisfactorily completed a physician assistant training program that is accredited by the American Medical Association's Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation or its successor.
(5r) Certificate as respiratory care practitioner.
An applicant for a certificate or a temporary certificate to practice respiratory care shall submit evidence satisfactory to the board that the applicant is a graduate of a school with a course of instruction in respiratory care approved by the commission on accreditation of allied health education programs of the American Medical Association.
The board shall examine each applicant it finds eligible under this section in such subject matters as the board deems applicable to the class of license or certificate which the applicant seeks to have granted. Examinations may be both written and oral. In lieu of its own examinations, in whole or in part, the board may make such use as it deems appropriate of examinations prepared, administered, and scored by national examining agencies, or by other licensing jurisdictions of the United States or Canada. The board shall specify passing grades for any and all examinations required.
The board may require an applicant who fails to appear for or to complete the required examinations to reapply for licensure or certification before being admitted to subsequent examinations.
An applicant who fails to achieve a passing grade in the required examinations may request reexamination, and may be reexamined not more than twice at not less than 4-month intervals, and shall pay a reexamination fee for each such reexamination. An applicant who fails to achieve a passing grade on the 2nd such reexamination may not be admitted to further examination until the applicant reapplies for licensure or certification and also presents to the board evidence of further professional training or education as the board may deem appropriate.
Application for any class of license or certificate shall be made as a verified statement in a form provided by the department and at such time and place as the board may designate, and shall be accompanied by satisfactory evidence setting out the qualifications imposed by this section. Application for any class of license to practice medicine and surgery also shall be accompanied by a verified statement that the applicant is familiar with the state health laws and the rules of the department of health and family services as related to communicable diseases.
License, certificate or limited permit granted, denied. 448.06(1)(1)
Grant of license, certificate or limited permit.
If three-fourths of the members of the board find that an applicant who has passed the required examinations is qualified, the board shall so notify the applicant and shall grant the license, certificate or limited permit.
(1m) Grant of limited license or certificate.
If the board finds, based upon considerations of public health and safety, that the applicant has not demonstrated adequate education, training or performance on examinations or in past practice, if any, to qualify for full licensure or certification under sub. (1)
, the board may grant the applicant a limited license or certificate and shall so notify the applicant.
(2) Denial of license or certificate.
The board may deny an application for any class of license or certificate and refuse to grant such license or certificate on the basis of unprofessional conduct on the part of the applicant, failure to possess the education and training required for that class of license or certificate for which application is made, or failure to achieve a passing grade in the required examinations.
Permanent license for certain professors.
A person who possesses a temporary license under s. 448.04 (1) (b) 2.
and who has practiced under such license for 4 or more years may apply for a license to practice medicine and surgery under s. 448.04 (1) (a)
. If the applicant achieves a passing grade in the examination for a license to practice medicine and surgery and three-fourths of the board find that the applicant is qualified, notwithstanding s. 448.05 (1) (b)
, the board may grant the license. The board may limit the license and, notwithstanding s. 448.02 (3) (e)
, may continue such limits indefinitely or may remove the limits when it is satisfied that the reasons for the limits no longer exist, except that the board shall remove any limitations on the geographical areas of this state in which the physician may practice and any limitations on the persons with whom the physician may associate, after a period of 5 years of continuous medical practice within this state by the physician.
Every person licensed or certified under this subchapter shall register on or before November 1 of each odd-numbered year following issuance of the license or certificate with the board in such manner as the board shall designate and upon forms the board shall provide. The secretary of the board, on or before October 1 of each odd-numbered year, shall mail or cause to be mailed to every person required to register a registration form. The board shall furnish to each person registered under this section a certificate of registration, and the person shall display the registration certificate conspicuously in the office at all times. No person may exercise the rights or privileges conferred by any license or certificate granted by the board unless currently registered as required under this subsection.
The board shall maintain the register required by s. 440.035 (4)
, which shall be divided according to the activity for which the registrant is licensed or certified. The board shall make copies available for purchase at cost.
Every registration made as provided in this section shall be presumptive evidence in all courts and other places that the person named therein is legally registered for the period covered by such registration, and shall be deemed to fulfill any statutory requirement for renewal of license or certificate.
No registration may be permitted by the secretary of the board in the case of any physician who has failed to meet the requirements of s. 448.13
or any person whose license, certificate or limited permit has been suspended or revoked and the registration of any such person shall be deemed automatically annulled upon receipt by the secretary of the board of a verified report of such suspension or revocation, subject to the licensee's or permittee's right of appeal. A person whose license, certificate or limited permit has been suspended or revoked and subsequently restored shall be registered by the board upon tendering a verified report of such restoration of the license, certificate or limited permit, together with an application for registration and the registration fee.
The fees for examination and licenses granted or renewed under this subchapter are specified in ss. 440.05
Fee splitting; separate billing required, partnerships and corporations; contract exceptions. 448.08(1)(1)
As used in this section:
"Hospital" means an institution providing 24-hour continuous service to patients confined therein which is primarily engaged in providing facilities for diagnostic and therapeutic services for the surgical and medical diagnosis, treatment and care, of injured or sick persons, by or under the supervision of a professional staff of physicians and surgeons, and which is not primarily a place of rest for the aged, drug addicts or alcoholics, or a nursing home. Such hospitals may charge patients directly for the services of their employee nurses, nonphysician anesthetists, physical therapists and medical assistants other than physicians or dentists, and may engage on a salary basis interns and residents who are participating in an accredited training program under the supervision of the medical staff, and persons with a temporary educational certificate issued under s. 448.04 (1) (c)
"Medical education and research organization" means a medical education and medical research organization operating on a nonprofit basis.
(1m) Fee splitting.
Except as otherwise provided in this section, no person licensed or certified under this subchapter may give or receive, directly or indirectly, to or from any person, firm or corporation any fee, commission, rebate or other form of compensation or anything of value for sending, referring or otherwise inducing a person to communicate with a licensee in a professional capacity, or for any professional services not actually rendered personally or at his or her direction.
(2) Separate billing required.
Any person licensed under this subchapter who renders any medical or surgical service or assistance whatever, or gives any medical, surgical or any similar advice or assistance whatever to any patient, physician or corporation, or to any other institution or organization of any kind, including a hospital, for which a charge is made to such patient receiving such service, advice or assistance, shall, except as authorized by Title 18 or Title 19 of the federal social security act, render an individual statement or account of the charges therefor directly to such patient, distinct and separate from any statement or account by any physician or other person, who has rendered or who may render any medical, surgical or any similar service whatever, or who has given or may give any medical, surgical or similar advice or assistance to such patient, physician, corporation, or to any other institution or organization of any kind, including a hospital.
(3) Billing for tests performed by the state laboratory of hygiene.
A person other than a state or local government agency who charges a patient, other person or 3rd party payer for services performed by the state laboratory of hygiene shall identify the actual amount charged by the state laboratory of hygiene and shall restrict charges for those services to that amount.
(4) Professional partnerships and corporations permitted.
Notwithstanding any other provision in this section, it is lawful for 2 or more physicians, who have entered into a bona fide partnership for the practice of medicine, to render a single bill for such services in the name of such partnership, and it also is lawful for a service corporation to render a single bill for services in the name of the corporation, provided that each individual licensed, registered or certified under this chapter or ch. 446
that renders billed services is individually identified as having rendered such services.
(5) Contract exceptions; terms.
Notwithstanding any other provision in this section, when a hospital and its medical staff or a medical education and research organization and its medical staff consider that it is in the public interest, a physician may contract with the hospital or organization as an employee or to provide consultation services for attending physicians as provided in this subsection.
Require the physician to be a member of or acceptable to and subject to the approval of the medical staff of the hospital or medical education and research organization.
Permit the physician to exercise professional judgment without supervision or interference by the hospital or medical education and research organization.