Sentence Credit: More Than Just Math. White. Wis. Law. Oct. 1991.
If an order or judgment releasing a prisoner on habeas corpus is reversed, the time during which the prisoner was at liberty thereunder shall not be counted as part of the prisoner's term.
History: 1993 a. 486
Judgment against a corporation or limited liability company. 973.17(1)(1)
If a corporation or limited liability company fails to appear within the time required by the summons, the default of such corporation or limited liability company may be recorded and the charge against it taken as true, and judgment shall be rendered accordingly.
Upon default of the defendant corporation or limited liability company or upon conviction, judgment for the amount of the fine shall be entered.
A judgment against a corporation or limited liability company shall be collected in the same manner as in civil actions.
History: 1993 a. 112
Notice of rights to appeal and representation. 973.18(1)(1)
In this section, "postconviction relief" and "sentencing" have the meanings ascribed in s. 809.30 (1)
The trial judge shall personally inform the defendant at the time of sentencing of the right to seek postconviction relief and, if indigent, the right to the assistance of the state public defender.
Before adjourning the sentencing proceeding, the judge shall direct the defendant and defendant's trial counsel to sign a form to be entered in the record, indicating that the lawyer has counseled the defendant regarding the decision to seek postconviction relief, and that the defendant understands that a notice of intent to pursue postconviction relief must be filed in the trial court within 20 days after sentencing for that right to be preserved.
The judge shall direct the defendant's counsel to confer with the defendant before signing the form, during the proceeding or as soon thereafter as practicable, and may make appropriate orders to allow the defendant to confer with counsel before being transferred to the state prison. The defendant shall be given a copy of the form.
If the defendant desires to pursue postconviction relief, the defendant's trial counsel shall file the notice required by s. 809.30 (2) (b)
History: Sup. Ct. Order, 123 Wis. 2d xi (1985).
Judicial Council Note, 1984: Sub. (2) is similar to prior s. 809.30 (1) (b). Subs. (3) and (4) codify State v. Argiz, 101 Wis. 2d 546
, 305 N.W. 2d 124
(1981). Sub. (5) codifies trial counsel's continuing duty to provide representation until appellate counsel is retained or appointed. Whitmore v. State, 56 Wis. 2d 706
, 203 NW 2d 56 (1973). [Re order effective July 1, 1985]
Motion to modify sentence. 973.19(1)(a)(a)
A person sentenced to imprisonment or the intensive sanctions program or ordered to pay a fine who has not requested the preparation of transcripts under s. 809.30 (2)
may, within 90 days after the sentence or order is entered, move the court to modify the sentence or the amount of the fine.
Within 90 days after a motion under sub. (1) (a)
is filed, the court shall enter an order either determining the motion or extending the time for doing so by not more than 90 days for cause.
If an order determining a motion under sub. (1) (a)
is not entered timely under sub. (2)
, the motion shall be considered denied and the clerk of the court shall immediately enter an order denying the motion.
An appeal from an order determining a motion under sub. (1) (a)
is governed by the procedure for civil appeals.
By filing a motion under sub. (1) (a)
the defendant waives his or her right to file an appeal or postconviction motion under s. 809.30 (2)
Sup. Ct. Order, 123 Wis. 2d xiv (1985); 1991 a. 39
Judicial Council Note, 1984: This section is intended as an expeditious alternative to the procedure prescribed in s. 809.30 (2) when the only claim for postconviction relief relates to the severity of the sentence. It is not intended to alter the substantive grounds for such relief and it restores the time limits governing such motions prior to the 1978 revision of the appellate rules.
This section will probably be most frequently used in guilty plea cases, although it is not limited to such cases. However, if the defendant intends to withdraw a guilty plea or file other postconviction motions, s. 809.30 (2) or 974.06 provides the appropriate procedure. Motions under this section should usually be filed by trial counsel without the need for transcripts or for appointment of an appellate public defender. A defendant must elect between the remedies provided by this section and s. 809.30 (2). Filing a motion under this section waives relief under s. 809.30 (2). However, a defendant who has filed a notice of intent to pursue postconviction relief under s. 809.30 (2) (b) may invoke this remedy at any time before transcripts are ordered under s. 809.30 (2). If transcripts are required for prosecution of a motion under sub. (1) (a), they should be sought under SCR 71.03
Sub. (4) does not expand the scope of appellate review. [Re Order effective July 1, 1985.]
There are two alternative means to seek modification of a sentence; proceeding under (1) (a) or (b). Under either, a motion must be first made in the trial court. State v. Norwood, 161 Wis. 2d 676
, 468 N.W.2d 741
(Ct. App. 1991).
"Crime considered at sentencing" means any crime for which the defendant was convicted and any read-in crime.
"Read-in crime" means any crime that is uncharged or that is dismissed as part of a plea agreement, that the defendant agrees to be considered by the court at the time of sentencing and that the court considers at the time of sentencing the defendant for the crime for which the defendant was convicted.
When imposing sentence or ordering probation for any crime for which the defendant was convicted, the court, in addition to any other penalty authorized by law, shall order the defendant to make full or partial restitution under this section to any victim of a crime considered at sentencing or, if the victim is deceased, to his or her estate, unless the court finds substantial reason not to do so and states the reason on the record. Restitution ordered under this section is a condition of probation, extended supervision or parole served by the defendant for a crime for which the defendant was convicted. After the termination of probation, extended supervision or parole, or if the defendant is not placed on probation, extended supervision or parole, restitution ordered under this section is enforceable in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action by the victim named in the order to receive restitution or enforced under ch. 785
If a crime considered at sentencing resulted in damage to or loss or destruction of property, the restitution order may require that the defendant:
Return the property to the owner or owner's designee; or
If return of the property under par. (a)
is impossible, impractical or inadequate, pay the owner or owner's designee the reasonable repair or replacement cost or the greater of:
The value of the property on the date of its damage, loss or destruction; or
The value of the property on the date of sentencing, less the value of any part of the property returned, as of the date of its return. The value of retail merchandise shall be its retail value.
If a crime considered at sentencing resulted in bodily injury, the restitution order may require that the defendant do one or more of the following:
Pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary medical and related professional services and devices relating to physical, psychiatric and psychological care and treatment.
Pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation.
Reimburse the injured person for income lost as a result of a crime considered at sentencing.
If the injured person's sole employment at the time of the injury was performing the duties of a homemaker, pay an amount sufficient to ensure that the duties are continued until the person is able to resume performance of the duties.
If a crime considered at sentencing resulted in death, the restitution order may also require that the defendant pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary funeral and related services under s. 895.04 (5)
If the defendant violated s. 940.225
and sub. (3) (a)
does not apply, the restitution order may require that the defendant pay an amount, not to exceed $10,000, equal to the cost of necessary professional services relating to psychiatric and psychological care and treatment. The $10,000 limit under this subsection does not apply to the amount of any restitution ordered under sub. (3)
for the cost of necessary professional services relating to psychiatric and psychological care and treatment.
In any case, the restitution order may require that the defendant do one or more of the following:
Pay all special damages, but not general damages, substantiated by evidence in the record, which could be recovered in a civil action against the defendant for his or her conduct in the commission of a crime considered at sentencing.
Pay an amount equal to the income lost, and reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred, by the person against whom a crime considered at sentencing was committed resulting from the filing of charges or cooperating in the investigation and prosecution of the crime.
Reimburse any person or agency for amounts paid as rewards for information leading to the apprehension or successful prosecution of the defendant for a crime for which the defendant was convicted or to the apprehension or prosecution of the defendant for a read-in crime.
If justice so requires, reimburse any insurer, surety or other person who has compensated a victim for a loss otherwise compensable under this section.
Any order under sub. (5) (c)
shall require that all restitution to victims under the order be paid before restitution to other persons.
If the court orders that restitution be paid to more than one person, the court may direct the sequence in which payments are to be transferred under sub. (11) (a)
. If more than one defendant is ordered to make payments to the same person, the court may apportion liability between the defendants or specify joint and several liability. If the court specifies that 2 or more defendants are jointly and severally liable, the department or the clerk to whom payments are made under sub. (11) (a)
shall distribute any overpayments so that each defendant, as closely as possible, pays the same proportion of the ordered restitution.
Restitution ordered under this section does not limit or impair the right of a victim to sue and recover damages from the defendant in a civil action. The facts that restitution was required or paid are not admissible as evidence in a civil action and have no legal effect on the merits of a civil action. Any restitution made by payment or community service shall be set off against any judgment in favor of the victim in a civil action arising out of the facts or events which were the basis for the restitution. The court trying the civil action shall hold a separate hearing to determine the validity and amount of any setoff asserted by the defendant.
If a crime victim is paid an award under ch. 949
for any loss arising out of a criminal act, the state is subrogated to the rights of the victim to any restitution required by the court. The rights of the state are subordinate to the claims of victims who have suffered a loss arising out of the offenses or any transaction which is part of the same continuous scheme of criminal activity.
When restitution is ordered, the court shall inquire to see if an award has been made under ch. 949
and if the department of justice is subrogated to the cause of action under s. 949.15
. If the restitution ordered is less than or equal to the award under ch. 949
, the restitution shall be paid only to the general fund. If the restitution ordered is greater than the award under ch. 949
, the general fund shall receive an amount equal to the award under ch. 949
and the balance shall be paid to the victim.
The court may require that restitution be paid immediately, within a specified period or in specified instalments. If the defendant is placed on probation or sentenced to imprisonment, the end of a specified period shall not be later than the end of any period of probation, extended supervision or parole. If the defendant is sentenced to the intensive sanctions program, the end of a specified period shall not be later than the end of the sentence under s. 973.032 (3) (a)
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the restitution order shall require the defendant to deliver the amount of money or property due as restitution to the department for transfer to the victim or other person to be compensated by a restitution order under this section. If the defendant is not placed on probation or sentenced to prison, the court may order that restitution be paid to the clerk of court for transfer to the appropriate person. The court shall require the defendant to pay a surcharge equal to 5% of the total amount of any restitution, costs and attorney fees and any fines and related payments ordered under s. 973.05 (1)
to the department or clerk of court for administrative expenses under this section.
The department shall establish a separate account for each person in its custody or under its supervision ordered to make restitution for the collection and disbursement of funds. A portion of each payment constitutes the surcharge for administrative expenses under par. (a)
If the court orders restitution in addition to the payment of fines, related payments under s. 973.05
and costs under s. 973.06
, it shall set the amount of fines, related payments and costs in conjunction with the amount of restitution and issue a single order, signed by the judge, covering all of the payments. If the costs for legal representation by a private attorney appointed under s. 977.08
are not established at the time of issuance of the order, the court may revise the order to include those costs at a later time.
Except as provided in par. (c)
, payments shall be applied first to satisfy the ordered restitution in full, then to pay any fines or related payments under s. 973.05
, then to pay costs other than attorney fees and finally to reimburse county or state costs of legal representation.
If a defendant is subject to more than one order under this section and the financial obligations under any order total $50 or less, the department or the clerk of court, whichever is applicable under sub. (11) (a)
, may pay these obligations first.
The court, in determining whether to order restitution and the amount thereof, shall consider all of the following:
The amount of loss suffered by any victim as a result of a crime considered at sentencing.
The present and future earning ability of the defendant.
The needs and earning ability of the defendant's dependents.
The district attorney shall attempt to obtain from the victim prior to sentencing information pertaining to the factor specified in par. (a) 1.
Law enforcement agencies, the department of corrections and any agency providing services under ch. 950
shall extend full cooperation and assistance to the district attorney in discharging this responsibility. The department of justice shall provide technical assistance to district attorneys in this regard and develop model forms and procedures for collecting and documenting this information.
The court, before imposing sentence or ordering probation, shall inquire of the district attorney regarding the amount of restitution, if any, that the victim claims. The court shall give the defendant the opportunity to stipulate to the restitution claimed by the victim and to present evidence and arguments on the factors specified in par. (a)
. If the defendant stipulates to the restitution claimed by the victim or if any restitution dispute can be fairly heard at the sentencing proceeding, the court shall determine the amount of restitution before imposing sentence or ordering probation. In other cases, the court may do any of the following:
Order restitution of amounts not in dispute as part of the sentence or probation order imposed and direct the appropriate agency to file a proposed restitution order with the court within 90 days thereafter, and mail or deliver copies of the proposed order to the victim, district attorney, defendant and defense counsel.
Adjourn the sentencing proceeding for up to 60 days pending resolution of the amount of restitution by the court, referee or arbitrator.
With the consent of the defendant, refer the disputed restitution issues to an arbitrator acceptable to all parties, whose determination of the amount of restitution shall be filed with the court within 60 days after the date of referral and incorporated into the court's sentence or probation order.
Refer the disputed restitution issues to a court commissioner or other appropriate referee, who shall conduct a hearing on the matter and submit the record thereof, together with proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, to the court within 60 days of the date of referral. Within 30 days after the referee's report is filed, the court shall determine the amount of restitution on the basis of the record submitted by the referee and incorporate it into the sentence or probation order imposed. The judge may direct that hearings under this subdivision be recorded either by audio recorder or by a court reporter. A transcript is not required unless ordered by the judge.
At any hearing under sub. (13)
, all of the following apply:
The burden of demonstrating by the preponderance of the evidence the amount of loss sustained by a victim as a result of a crime considered at sentencing is on the victim. The district attorney is not required to represent any victim unless the hearing is held at or prior to the sentencing proceeding or the court so orders.
The burden of demonstrating, by the preponderance of the evidence, the financial resources of the defendant, the present and future earning ability of the defendant and the needs and earning ability of the defendant's dependents is on the defendant. The defendant may assert any defense that he or she could raise in a civil action for the loss sought to be compensated. The office of the state public defender is not required to represent any indigent defendant unless the hearing is held at or prior to the sentencing proceeding, the defendant is incarcerated when the hearing is held or the court so orders.
The burden of demonstrating, by the preponderance of the evidence, such other matters as the court deems appropriate is on the party designated by the court, as justice requires.
All parties interested in the matter shall have an opportunity to be heard, personally or through counsel, to present evidence and to cross-examine witnesses called by other parties. The court, arbitrator or referee shall conduct the proceeding so as to do substantial justice between the parties according to the rules of substantive law and may waive the rules of practice, procedure, pleading or evidence, except provisions relating to privileged communications and personal transactions or communication with a decedent or mentally ill person or to admissibility under s. 901.05
. Discovery is not available except for good cause shown. If the defendant is incarcerated, he or she may participate by telephone under s. 807.13
unless the court issues a writ or subpoena compelling the defendant to appear in person.
Judicial Council Note, 1987: Sub. (1) allows restitution to be ordered although the defendant is not placed on probation. It allows restitution to be made payable to the estate of a deceased victim. It requires restitution ordered to be a condition of probation or parole served by the defendant for the offense. Finally, it allows restitution unpaid at the time probation or parole supervision terminates to be enforced by the victim as a judgment creditor. See 18 USC 3662 (a), (c) and (h).
Sub. (2) is patterned on 18 USC 3663 (b) (1) and prior s. 973.09 (1r), stats.
Sub. (3) is patterned on 18 USC 3663 (b) (2). Paragraph (d) is patterned on s. 949.06 (1) (b) 3., stats.
Sub. (4) is patterned on 18 USC 3663 (b) (3).
Sub. (5) (a) and (b) is based on prior s. 973.09 (8) (a) and (b), stats. A new provision allows the court to order restitution of income lost by the victim while participating in the investigation and prosecution of the offense.