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961.41(5)(a)(a) When a court imposes a fine for a violation of this section, it shall also impose a drug abuse program improvement surcharge in an amount of 50% of the fine and penalty assessment imposed.
961.41(5)(b) (b) The clerk of the court shall collect and transmit the amount to the county treasurer as provided in s. 59.40 (2) (m). The county treasurer shall then make payment to the state treasurer as provided in s. 59.25 (3) (f) 2.
961.41(5)(c) (c) All moneys collected from drug surcharges shall be deposited by the state treasurer in and utilized in accordance with s. 20.435 (6) (gb).
961.41 Annotation An inference of intent could be drawn from possession of hashish with a street value of $2,000 to $4,000 and opium with a street value of $20,000 to $24,000. State v. Trimbell, 64 Wis. 2d 379, 219 N.W.2d 369 (1974).
961.41 Annotation No presumption of intent to deliver is raised by sub. (1m). The statute merely lists evidence from which intent may be inferred. State ex rel. Bena v. Hon. John J. Crosetto, 73 Wis. 2d 261, 243 N.W.2d 442 (1976).
961.41 Annotation Evidence of a defendant's possession of a pipe containing burnt residue of marijuana was insufficient to impute knowledge to the defendant of possession of a controlled substance. Kabat v. State, 76 Wis. 2d 224, 251 N.W.2d 38 (1977).
961.41 Annotation This section prohibits the act of manufacture, as defined in 161.01 (13) [now 961.01 (13)]. Possession of a controlled substance created by an accused is not required for conviction. This section is not unconstitutionally vague. State ex rel. Bell v. Columbia County Ct. 82 Wis. 2d 401, 263 N.W.2d 162 (1978).
961.41 Annotation A conviction under sub. (1m) was upheld when the defendant possessed 1/3 gram of cocaine divided into 4 packages and evidence of defendant's prior sales of other drugs was admitted under s. 904.04 (2) as probative of intent to deliver the cocaine. Peasley v. State, 83 Wis. 2d 224, 265 N.W.2d 506 (1978).
961.41 Annotation Testimony that weapons were found at the accused's home was admissible as part of the chain of facts relevant to the accused's intent to deliver heroin State v. Wedgeworth, 100 Wis. 2d 514, 302 N.W.2d 810 (1981).
961.41 Annotation Being a procuring agent of the buyer is not a valid defense to a charge under this section. By facilitating a drug deal, the defendant was party to the crime. State v. Hecht, 116 Wis. 2d 605, 342 N.W.2d 721 (1984).
961.41 Annotation When police confiscated a large quantity of drugs from an empty home and the next day searched the defendant upon his return to the home, confiscating a small quantity of the same drugs, the defendant's conviction for the lesser-included offense of possession and the greater offense of possession with intent to deliver did not violate double jeopardy. State v. Stevens, 123 Wis. 2d 303, 367 N.W.2d 788 (1985).
961.41 Annotation The defendant was properly convicted of attempted delivery of cocaine even though a noncontrolled substance was delivered. State v. Cooper, 127 Wis. 2d 429, 380 N.W.2d 383 (Ct. App. 1985).
961.41 AnnotationPossession is not a lesser included offense of manufacturing. State v. Peck, 143 Wis. 2d 624, 422 N.W.2d 160 (Ct. App. 1988).
961.41 Annotation Identification of a controlled substance can be established by circumstantial evidence such as lay experience based on familiarity through prior use, trading, or law enforcement. State v. Anderson, 176 Wis. 2d 196, N.W.2d (Ct. App. 1993).
961.41 Annotation A conspiracy under sub. (1x) must involve at least 2 people with each subject to the same penalty for the conspiracy. If the buyer of drugs is guilty of misdemeanor possession only, a felony conspiracy charge may not be brought against the buyer. State v. Smith, 189 Wis. 2d 496, 525 N.W.2d 264 (1995).
961.41 Annotation The state is not required to prove that a defendant knew the exact nature or precise chemical name of a possessed controlled substance. The state must only prove that the defendant knew or believed that the substance was a controlled substance. State v. Sartin, 200 Wis. 2d 47, 546 N.W.2d 449 (1996).
961.41 Annotation A delivery conspiracy under sub. (1x) requires an agreement between a buyer and a seller that the buyer will deliver at least some of the controlled substance to a 3rd party. State v. Cavallari, 214 Wis. 2d 42, 571 N.W.2d 176 (Ct. App. 1997).
961.41 Annotation Standing alone, the presence of drugs in someone's system is insufficient to support a conviction for possession, but it is circumstantial evidence of prior possession. Evidence that the defendant was selling drugs is irrelevant to a charge of simple possession. Evidence that the defendant had money but no job does not have a tendency to prove possession. State v. Griffin, 220 Wis. 2d 371, 584 N.W.2d 127 (Ct. App. 1998)
961.41 Annotation Double jeopardy was not violated when the defendant was convicted of separate offenses under s. 161.41 [now 961.41] for simultaneous delivery of different controlled substances. Leonard v. Warden, Dodge Correctional Inst. 631 F. Supp. 1403 (1986).
961.42 961.42 Prohibited acts B—penalties.
961.42(1) (1) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft or other structure or place, which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for manufacturing, keeping or delivering them in violation of this chapter.
961.42(2) (2) Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class I felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (2) Any person who violates this section may be fined not more than $25,000 or imprisoned not more than 2 years or both.
961.42 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 267; Stats. 1995 s. 961.42; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.42 Annotation "Keeping" a substance under sub. (1) means more than simple possession; it means keeping for the purpose of warehousing or storage for ultimate manufacture or delivery. State v. Brooks, 124 Wis. 2d 349, 369 N.W.2d 183 (Ct. App. 1985).
961.43 961.43 Prohibited acts C—penalties.
961.43(1) (1) It is unlawful for any person:
961.43(1)(a) (a) To acquire or obtain possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception or subterfuge;
961.43(1)(b) (b) Without authorization, to make, distribute or possess any punch, die, plate, stone or other thing designed to print, imprint or reproduce the trademark, trade name or other identifying mark, imprint or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as:
961.43(1)(b)1. 1. To make a counterfeit substance; or
961.43(1)(b)2. 2. To duplicate substantially the physical appearance, form, package or label of a controlled substance.
961.43(2) (2) Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class H felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (2) Any person who violates this section may be fined not more than $30,000 or imprisoned not more than 6 years or both.
961.43 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1981 c. 90; 1995 a. 448 s. 268; Stats. 1995 s. 961.43; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.435 961.435 Specific penalty. Any person who violates s. 961.38 (5) may be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than 30 days or both.
961.435 History History: 1975 c. 190; 1995 a. 448 s. 269; Stats. 1995 s. 961.435.
961.437 961.437 Possession and disposal of waste from manufacture of methamphetamine.
961.437(1) (1) In this section:
961.437(1)(a) (a) "Dispose of" means discharge, deposit, inject, dump, spill, leak or place methamphetamine manufacturing waste into or on any land or water in a manner that may permit the waste to be emitted into the air, to be discharged into any waters of the state or otherwise to enter the environment.
961.437(1)(b) (b) "Intentionally" has the meaning given in s. 939.23 (3).
961.437(1)(c) (c) "Methamphetamine manufacturing waste" means any solid, semisolid, liquid or contained gaseous material or article that results from or is produced by the manufacture of methamphetamine or a controlled substance analog of methamphetamine in violation of this chapter.
961.437(2) (2) No person may do any of the following:
961.437(2)(a) (a) Knowingly possess methamphetamine manufacturing waste.
961.437(2)(b) (b) Intentionally dispose of methamphetamine manufacturing waste.
961.437(3) (3)Subsection (2) does not apply to a person who possesses or disposes of methamphetamine manufacturing waste under all of the following circumstances:
961.437(3)(a) (a) The person is storing, treating or disposing of the methamphetamine manufacturing waste in compliance with chs. 287, 289, 291 and 292 or the person has notified a law enforcement agency of the existence of the methamphetamine manufacturing waste.
961.437(3)(b) (b) The methamphetamine manufacturing waste had previously been possessed or disposed of by another person in violation of sub. (2).
961.437(4) (4) A person who violates sub. (2) is subject to the following penalties:
961.437(4)(a) (a) For a first offense, the person is guilty of a Class H felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Par. (a) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (a) For a first offense, the person shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $100,000 or imprisoned for not more than 7 years and 6 months or both.
961.437(4)(b) (b) For a 2nd or subsequent offense, the person is guilty of a Class F felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Par. (b) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (b) For a 2nd or subsequent offense, the person shall be fined not less than $5,000 nor more than $150,000 or imprisoned for not more than 15 years or both.
961.437(5) (5) Each day of a continuing violation of sub. (2) (a) or (b) constitutes a separate offense.
961.437 History History: 1999 a. 129; 2001 a. 109.
961.438 961.438 Minimum sentence. Any minimum sentence under this chapter is a presumptive minimum sentence. Except as provided in s. 973.09 (1) (d), the court may impose a sentence that is less than the presumptive minimum sentence or may place the person on probation only if it finds that the best interests of the community will be served and the public will not be harmed and if it places its reasons on the record.
Effective date note NOTE: This section is repealed eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109.
961.438 History History: 1989 a. 121; 1995 a. 448 s. 270; Stats. 1995 s. 961.438; 2001 a. 109.
961.438 Annotation "Except as provided in s. 973.09 (1) (d)" separates minimum sentences of one year or less from other sentences; that part of the statute regarding making certain findings relates only to situations not arising under s. 973.09 (1) (d). State v. DeLeon, 171 Wis. 2d 200, 490 N.W.2d 767 (Ct. App. 1992).
961.44 961.44 Penalties under other laws. Any penalty imposed for violation of this chapter is in addition to, and not in lieu of, any civil or administrative penalty or sanction otherwise authorized by law.
961.44 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 271; Stats. 1995 s. 961.44.
961.45 961.45 Bar to prosecution. If a violation of this chapter is a violation of a federal law or the law of another state, a conviction or acquittal under federal law or the law of another state for the same act is a bar to prosecution in this state.
961.45 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1995 a. 448 s. 272; Stats. 1995 s. 961.45.
961.45 Annotation Under this section, a "prosecution" is to be equated with a conviction or acquittal. The date on which a sentence is imposed is not relevant to the determination of whether a "prosecution" has occurred. State v. Petty, 201 Wis. 2d 337, 548 N.W.2d 817 (1996).
961.45 Annotation This section bars a Wisconsin prosecution under ch. 961 for the same conduct on which a prior federal conviction is based. The restriction is not limited to the same crime as defined by its statutory elements. State v. Hansen, 2001 WI 53, 243 Wis. 328, 627 N.W. 2d 195.
961.455 961.455 Using a child for illegal drug distribution or manufacturing purposes.
961.455(1) (1) Any person who has attained the age of 17 years who knowingly solicits, hires, directs, employs or uses a person who is under the age of 17 years for the purpose of violating s. 961.41 (1) is guilty of a Class F felony.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (1) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (1) Any person who has attained the age of 17 years who knowingly solicits, hires, directs, employs or uses a person who is 17 years of age or under for the purpose of violating s. 961.41 (1) may be fined not more than $50,000 or imprisoned for not more than 15 years or both.
961.455(2) (2) The knowledge requirement under sub. (1) does not require proof of knowledge of the age of the child. It is not a defense to a prosecution under this section that the actor mistakenly believed that the person solicited, hired, directed, employed or used under sub. (1) had attained the age of 18 years, even if the mistaken belief was reasonable.
961.455(3) (3) Solicitation under sub. (1) occurs in the manner described under s. 939.30, but the penalties under sub. (1) apply instead of the penalties under s. 939.30.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (3) is shown as amended eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text (3) Solicitation under sub. (1) occurs in the manner described under s. 939.30, but the penalties under sub. (1) apply instead of the penalties under s. 939.30 or 948.35.
961.455(4) (4) If the conduct described under sub. (1) results in a violation under s. 961.41 (1), the actor is subject to prosecution and conviction under s. 961.41 (1) or this section or both.
961.455 History History: 1989 a. 121; 1991 a. 153; 1995 a. 27; 1995 a. 448 ss. 273 to 275; Stats. 1995 s. 961.455; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
961.46 961.46 Distribution to persons under age 18. If a person 17 years of age or over violates s. 961.41 (1) by distributing or delivering a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog to a person 17 years of age or under who is at least 3 years his or her junior, the applicable maximum term of imprisonment prescribed under s. 961.41 (1) for the offense may be increased by not more than 5 years.
Effective date note NOTE: This section is shown as affected eff. 2-1-03 by 2001 Wis. Act 109. Prior to 2-1-03 it reads:
Effective date text 961.46 Distribution to persons under age 18. (1) Except as provided in sub. (3), any person 17 years of age or over who violates s. 961.41 (1) by distributing or delivering a controlled substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug or a controlled substance analog of a controlled substance included in schedule I or II which is a narcotic drug to a person 17 years of age or under who is at least 3 years his or her junior is punishable by the fine authorized by s. 961.41 (1) (a) or a term of imprisonment of up to twice that authorized by s. 961.41 (1) (a), or both.
961.46 Note (2) Except as provided in sub. (3), any person 17 years of age or over who violates s. 961.41 (1) by distributing or delivering any other controlled substance included in schedule I, II, III, IV or V or a controlled substance analog of any other controlled substance included in schedule I or II to a person 17 years of age or under who is at least 3 years his or her junior is punishable by the fine authorized by s. 961.41 (1) (b), (i) or (j) or a term of imprisonment of up to twice that authorized by s. 961.41 (1) (b), (i) or (j) or both.
961.46 Note (3) If any person 17 years of age or over violates s. 961.41 (1) (cm), (d), (e), (em), (f), (g), (h) or (im) by distributing or delivering cocaine, cocaine base, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocin, psilocybin, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone, flunitrazepam or any form of tetrahydrocannabinols or a controlled substance analog of any of these substances to a person 17 years of age or under who is at least 3 years his or her junior, any applicable minimum and maximum fines and minimum and maximum periods of imprisonment under s. 961.41 (1) (cm), (d), (e), (em), (f), (g), (h) or (im) are doubled.
961.46 History History: 1971 c. 219; 1985 a. 328; 1987 a. 339; 1989 a. 121; 1993 a. 98, 118, 490; 1995 a. 27; 1995 a. 448 ss. 276 to 279; Stats. 1995 s. 961.46; 1999 a. 48, 57; 2001 a. 109.
961.465 961.465 Distribution to prisoners.
961.465(1) (1) Except as provided in sub. (2), any person who violates s. 961.41 (1) or (1m) by delivering, distributing or possessing with intent to deliver or distribute a controlled substance or controlled substance analog to a prisoner within the precincts of any prison, jail or house of correction is subject to the applicable fine under s. 961.41 (1) or (1m) or a term of imprisonment of up to twice that authorized by s. 961.41 (1) or (1m) or both.
961.465(2) (2) If a person violates s. 961.41 (1) (cm), (d), (e), (em), (f), (g) or (h) or (1m) (cm), (d), (e), (em), (f), (g) or (h) by delivering, distributing or possessing with intent to deliver or distribute cocaine, cocaine base, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocin, psilocybin, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone or any form of tetrahydrocannabinols, or a controlled substance analog of any of these substances, to a prisoner within the precincts of any prison, jail or house of correction, any applicable minimum and maximum fines and minimum and maximum periods of imprisonment under s. 961.41 (1) (cm), (d), (e), (em), (f), (g) or (h) or (1m) (cm), (d), (e), (em), (f), (g) or (h) are doubled.
961.465(2m) (2m) A person may be subject to increased penalties under both this section and s. 961.49 regarding the same unlawful act.
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This is an archival version of the Wis. Stats. database for 2001. See Are the Statutes on this Website Official?