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102.03 Annotation The Seaman loaned employee test is a 3-element test that is often miscast because the Seaman court indicated that there are 4 "vital questions" that must be answered. The 3 elements are: 1) consent by the employee; 2) entry by the employee upon work for the special employer; and 3) power of the special employer to to control details of the work. The distinction between employee consent to perform certain acts and consent to enter into a new employment relationship is important. Borneman v. Corwyn Transport, Ltd. 219 Wis. 2d 346, 580 N.W.2d 253 (1998).
102.03 Annotation Under sub. (1) (f), there is a presumption that a travelling employee performs services incidental to employment at all times on a trip. The burden of proving a personal deviation on the trip is on the party asserting the deviation. Recreational activities may be considered a usual and proper part of the trip but do not always fit the presumption. CBS, Inc. v. LIRC, 219 Wis. 2d 565, 579 N.W.2d 668 (1998).
102.03 Annotation LIRC's determination of "scope of employment" is given great weight deference. Whether any agency's determination is given great weight depends on whether it has experience in interpreting a particular statutory scheme and not on whether it has ruled on the specific facts. Town of Russell Volunteer Fire Department v. LIRC, 223 Wis. 2d 723, 589 N.W.2d 445 (Ct. App. 1998).
102.03 Annotation A compensable injury must arise out of employment, which refers to the casual origin of the injury, and occur while the employee performs a service growing out of and incidental to employment, which refers to the time, place, and circumstances of the injury. Die v. LIRC, 224 Wis. 2d 159, 589 N.W.2d 363 (1999).
102.03 Annotation Intentional harm to an employee is an "accident " subject to this chapter if caused by acts of a coemployee, but not if caused by acts of an employer. Intentionally self-inflicted injury is not subject to this chapter, but death by suicide is not necessarily "intentionally self-inflicted" and is subject to this chapter if the suicide results from a work-related injury without an independent intervening cause. Cohn v. Apogee, Inc. 225 Wis. 2d 815, 593 N.W.2d 921 (Ct. App. 1999).
102.03 Annotation Sub. (1) (f) does not establish a bright line rule that if a travelling employee stays over past the conclusion of a business part of a trip, there is a personal deviation. An employee is not required to seek immediate seclusion in a hotel and to remain away from human beings at the risk of being charged with deviating from employment. Wisconsin Electric Power Co. v. LIRC, 226 Wis. 2d 778, 595 N.W.2d 23 (1999).
102.03 Annotation Injuries did not arise out of employment when the injured party was injured while collecting a paycheck as a matter of personal convenience. Secor v. LIRC, 2000 WI App 11, 232 Wis. 2d 519, 606 N.W.2d 175.
102.03 Annotation An employee's claim under s. 134.01 against fellow employees for injury to reputation and profession was preempted by this section. Mudrovich v. Soto, 2000 WI App 174, 238 Wis. 2d 162, 617 N.W.2d 242.
102.03 Annotation Under sub. (2), recovery of compensation is the exclusive remedy against a worker's compensation carrier and the carrier's agents. Walstrom v. Gallagher Bassett Services, Inc. 2000 WI App 247, 239 Wis. 2d 473, 620 N.W.2d 223.
102.03 Annotation It was reasonable for LIRC to hold that an employee had temporarily abandoned his job and was not performing services incidental to employment under sub. (1) (c) 1. when he left the workplace to seek medical attention for an immediate need that was not related to his employment, even though intending to return. Fry v. LIRC, 2000 WI App 239, 239 Wis. 2d 574, 620 N.W.2d 449.
102.03 Annotation Whether a traveling employee's multiple drinks at a tavern was a deviation was irrelevant when the employee was injured while engaged in a later act reasonably necessary to living. Under s. 102.58, intoxication does not defeat a worker's compensation claim but only decreases the benefits. Heritage Mutual Insurance Co. v. Larsen, 2001 WI 30, 242 Wis. 2d 47, 624 N.W.2d 129.
102.03 Annotation Under the private errand doctrine, if a person in authority over the employee asks the employee to perform a service for the personal benefit of the employer or the employee's superior and the employee is injured while performing the task, the injury grew out of and was incidental to employment unless the request is clearly unauthorized. Begel v. LIRC, 2001 WI App 134, 246 Wis. 2d 345, 631 N.W.2d 220.
102.03 Annotation Under the "dual persona" doctrine, the employer's second role must be so unrelated to its role as an employer that it constitutes a separate legal person. St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Co. v. Keltgen, 2003 WI App 53, 260 Wis. 2d 523, 659 N.W.2d 906, 02-1249.
102.03 Annotation When one company was the injured employee's employer on the date of the injury, but another company contracted to become the employer retroactive to a date prior to the injury, the former and its insurer were the responsible for providing benefits under ch. 102. Epic Staff Management, Inc. v. LIRC, 2003 WI App 143, 266 Wis. 2d 369, 667 N.W.2d 765, 02-2310.
102.03 Annotation Under the last exception in sub. (2), an employee who receives worker's compensation benefits may also file suit against a coemployee when a governmental unit is obligated to pay judgments against that employee pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement or a local ordinance. Keller v. Kraft, 2003 WI App 212, 267 Wis. 2d 444, 671 N.W.2d 361, 02-3377.
102.03 Annotation The exclusive remedy provision does not bar a ship owner from asserting a right to indemnification against the employer of the injured worker even though he has been paid compensation. Bagrowski v. American Export Isbrantsen Lines, Inc. 440 F.2d 502 (1971).
102.03 Annotation Emotional distress injury due to sexual harassment was exclusively compensable under this section. Zabkowicz v. West Bend Co., Div. Dart Industries, 789 F.2d 540 (1986).
102.03 Annotation When 2 employees left their place of employment to fight each other, neither was acting within the scope of employment. There was no cause of action against the employer under ch. 102, tort law, or agency law. Johnson v. Hondo, Inc. 125 F.3d 408 (1997).
102.03 Annotation Sexual harassment was an accident under sub. (1) (e) and subject to the exclusivity provision of sub. (2). Lentz, 195 Wis. 2d 457, is distinguished. Hibben v. Nardone, 137 F.3d 480 (1998).
102.03 Annotation A 3rd-party was required to pay 95% of the damages even though only 25% negligent because an employer was shielded by sub. (2). Schuldies v. Service Machine Co. 448 F. Supp. 1196 (1978).
102.03 Annotation The plaintiff was a special employee of a 3rd-party defendant and a 3rd-party action was barred by the exclusivity provisions of this section. Simmons v. Atlas Vac Mach. Co. 493 F. Supp. 1082 (1980).
102.03 Annotation Although the employer of an injured employee was found to be at fault, a manufacturer who was also found to be at fault was not entitled to contribution from the employer. Ladwig v. Ermanco, Inc. 504 F. Supp. 1229 (1981).
102.03 Annotation Unauthorized sexual touching did not constitute an assault intended to cause bodily harm under sub. (2). Hrabak v. Marquip, Inc. 798 F. Supp. 550 (1992).
102.03 Annotation The exclusivity provision of the worker's compensation act does not bar a claim for invasion of privacy under s. 895.50. Marino v. Arandell Corp. 1 F. Supp. 2d 947 (1998).
102.03 Annotation Worker's Compensation Act No Longer Protects Against Employment Discrimination Claims. Skinner. Wis. Law. March 1998.
102.04 102.04 Definition of employer.
102.04(1) (1) The following shall constitute employers subject to the provisions of this chapter, within the meaning of s. 102.03:
102.04(1)(a) (a) The state, each county, city, town, village, school district, sewer district, drainage district, family care district and other public or quasi-public corporations therein.
102.04(1)(b)1.1. Every person who usually employs 3 or more employees, whether in one or more trades, businesses, professions or occupations, and whether in one or more locations.
102.04(1)(b)2. 2. Every person who usually employs less than 3 employees, provided the person has paid wages of $500 or more in any calendar quarter for services performed in this state. Such employer shall become subject on the 10th day of the month next succeeding such quarter.
102.04(1)(b)3. 3. This paragraph shall not apply to farmers or farm labor.
102.04(1)(c) (c) Every person engaged in farming who on any 20 consecutive or nonconsecutive days during a calendar year employs 6 or more employees, whether in one or more locations. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to such employer 10 days after the twentieth such day.
102.04(1)(d) (d) Every joint venture electing under s. 102.28 (2) (a) to be an employer.
102.04(1)(e) (e) Every person to whom pars. (a) to (d) are not applicable, who has any person in service under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, and who, at or prior to the time of the injury to the employee for which compensation may be claimed, shall, as provided in s. 102.05, have elected to become subject to the provisions of this chapter, and who shall not, prior to such accident, have effected a withdrawal of such election.
102.04(2) (2) Except with respect to a partner or member electing under s. 102.075, members of partnerships or limited liability companies shall not be counted as employees. Except as provided in s. 102.07 (5) (a), a person under contract of hire for the performance of any service for any employer subject to this section is not the employer of any other person with respect to that service, and that other person shall, with respect to that service, be an employee only of the employer for whom the service is being performed.
102.04(2m) (2m) A temporary help agency is the employer of an employee whom the temporary help agency has placed with or leased to another employer that compensates the temporary help agency for the employee's services. A temporary help agency is liable under s. 102.03 for all compensation payable under this chapter to that employee, including any payments required under s. 102.16 (3), 102.18 (1) (b) or (bp), 102.22 (1), 102.35 (3), 102.57 or 102.60. Except as permitted under s. 102.29, a temporary help agency may not seek or receive reimbursement from another employer for any payments made as a result of that liability.
102.04(3) (3) As used in this chapter "farming" means the operation of farm premises owned or rented by the operator. "Farm premises" means areas used for operations herein set forth, but does not include other areas, greenhouses or other similar structures unless used principally for the production of food and farm plants. "Farmer" means any person engaged in farming as defined. Operation of farm premises shall be deemed to be the planting and cultivating of the soil thereof; the raising and harvesting of agricultural, horticultural or arboricultural crops thereon; the raising, breeding, tending, training and management of livestock, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals, wildlife or aquatic life, or their products, thereon; the processing, drying, packing, packaging, freezing, grading, storing, delivering to storage, to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, distributing directly to consumers or marketing any of the above-named commodities, substantially all of which have been planted or produced thereon; the clearing of such premises and the salvaging of timber and management and use of wood lots thereon, but not including logging, lumbering or wood cutting operations unless conducted as an accessory to other farming operations; the managing, conserving, improving and maintaining of such premises or the tools, equipment and improvements thereon and the exchange of labor, services or the exchange of use of equipment with other farmers in pursuing such activities. The operation for not to exceed 30 days during any calendar year, by any person deriving the person's principal income from farming, of farm machinery in performing farming services for other farmers for a consideration other than exchange of labor shall be deemed farming. Operation of such premises shall be deemed to include also any other activities commonly considered to be farming whether conducted on or off such premises by the farm operator.
102.04 Annotation When an employee simultaneously performs service for 2 employers under their joint control and the service for each is the same or closely related, both employers are liable for worker's compensation. Insurance Co. of North America v. DILHR 45 Wis. 2d 361, 173 N.W.2d 192 (1970).
102.05 102.05 Election by employer, withdrawal.
102.05(1) (1) An employer who has had no employee at any time within a continuous period of 2 years shall be deemed to have effected withdrawal, which shall be effective on the last day of such period. An employer who has not usually employed 3 employees and who has not paid wages of at least $500 for employment in this state in every calendar quarter in a calendar year may file a withdrawal notice with the department, which withdrawal shall take effect 30 days after the date of such filing or at such later date as is specified in the notice. If an employer who is subject to this chapter only because the employer elected to become subject to this chapter under sub. (2) cancels or terminates his or her contract for the insurance of compensation under this chapter, that employer is deemed to have effected withdrawal, which shall be effective on the day after the contract is canceled or terminated.
102.05(2) (2) Any employer who shall enter into a contract for the insurance of compensation, or against liability therefor, shall be deemed thereby to have elected to accept the provisions of this chapter, and such election shall include farm laborers, domestic servants and employees not in the course of a trade, business, profession or occupation of the employer if such intent is shown by the terms of the policy. Such election shall remain in force until withdrawn in the manner provided in sub. (1).
102.05(3) (3) Any person engaged in farming who has become subject to this chapter may withdraw by filing with the department a notice of withdrawal, if the person has not employed 6 or more employees as defined by s. 102.07 (5) on 20 or more days during the current or previous calendar year. Such withdrawal shall be effective 30 days after the date of receipt by the department, or at such later date as is specified in the notice. Such person may again become subject to this chapter as provided by s. 102.04 (1) (c) and (e).
102.05 History History: 1983 a. 98 s. 31; 1993 a. 81, 492; 1999 a. 14.
102.06 102.06 Joint liability of employer and contractor. An employer shall be liable for compensation to an employee of a contractor or subcontractor under the employer who is not subject to this chapter, or who has not complied with the conditions of s. 102.28 (2) in any case where such employer would have been liable for compensation if such employee had been working directly for the employer, including also work in the erection, alteration, repair or demolition of improvements or of fixtures upon premises of such employer which are used or to be used in the operations of such employer. The contractor or subcontractor, if subject to this chapter, shall also be liable for such compensation, but the employee shall not recover compensation for the same injury from more than one party. The employer who becomes liable for and pays such compensation may recover the same from such contractor, subcontractor or other employer for whom the employee was working at the time of the injury if such contractor, subcontractor or other employer was an employer as defined in s. 102.04. This section does not apply to injuries occurring on or after the first day of the first July beginning after the day that the secretary files the certificate under s. 102.80 (3) (a), except that if the secretary files the certificate under s. 102.80 (3) (ag) this section does apply to claims for compensation filed on or after the date specified in that certificate.
102.06 History History: 1975 c. 147 s. 54; 1975 c. 199; 1989 a. 64; 1995 a. 117.
102.06 Annotation A "contractor under the employer" is one who regularly furnishes to a principal employer materials or services that are integrally related to the finished product or service provided by that principal employer. Green Bay Packaging, Inc. v. DILHR, 72 Wis. 2d 26, 240 N.W.2d 422 (1976).
102.06 Annotation A franchisee was a "contractor under" a franchisor within the meaning of this section. Maryland Casualty Co. v. DILHR, 77 Wis. 2d 472, 253 N.W.2d 228 (1977).
102.06 Annotation Liability of principal employer for injuries to employees of his contractors or subcontractors. 1977 WLR 185.
102.07 102.07 Employee defined. "Employee" as used in this chapter means:
102.07(1) (1)
102.07(1)(a)(a) Every person, including all officials, in the service of the state, or of any municipality therein whether elected or under any appointment, or contract of hire, express or implied, and whether a resident or employed or injured within or without the state. The state and any municipality may require a bond from a contractor to protect the state or municipality against compensation to employees of such contractor or employees of a subcontractor under the contractor. This paragraph does not apply beginning on the first day of the first July beginning after the day that the secretary files the certificate under s. 102.80 (3) (a), except that if the secretary files the certificate under s. 102.80 (3) (ag) this paragraph does apply to claims for compensation filed on or after the date specified in that certificate.
102.07(1)(b) (b) Every person, including all officials, in the service of the state, or of any municipality therein whether elected or under any appointment, or contract of hire, express or implied, and whether a resident or employed or injured within or without the state. This paragraph first applies on the first day of the first July beginning after the day that the secretary files the certificate under s. 102.80 (3) (a), except that if the secretary files the certificate under s. 102.80 (3) (ag) this paragraph does apply to claims for compensation filed on or after the date specified in that certificate.
102.07(2) (2) Any peace officer shall be considered an employee while engaged in the enforcement of peace or in the pursuit and capture of those charged with crime.
102.07(3) (3) Nothing herein contained shall prevent municipalities from paying teachers, police officers, fire fighters and other employees full salaries during disability, nor interfere with any pension funds, nor prevent payment to teachers, police officers or fire fighters therefrom.
102.07(4) (4)
102.07(4)(a)(a) Every person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, all helpers and assistants of employees, whether paid by the employer or employee, if employed with the knowledge, actual or constructive, of the employer, including minors, who shall have the same power of contracting as adult employees, but not including the following:
102.07(4)(a)1. 1. Domestic servants.
102.07(4)(a)2. 2. Any person whose employment is not in the course of a trade, business, profession or occupation of the employer, unless as to any of said classes, the employer has elected to include them.
102.07(4)(b) (b) Par. (a) 2. shall not operate to exclude an employee whose employment is in the course of any trade, business, profession or occupation of the employer, however casual, unusual, desultory or isolated the employer's trade, business, profession or occupation may be.
102.07(4m) (4m) For the purpose of determining the number of employees to be counted under s. 102.04 (1) (b), but for no other purpose, a member of a religious sect is not considered to be an employee if the conditions specified in s. 102.28 (3) (b) have been satisfied with respect to that member.
102.07(5) (5) For the purpose of determining the number of employees to be counted under s. 102.04 (1) (c), but for no other purpose, the following definitions shall apply:
102.07(5)(a) (a) Farmers or their employees working on an exchange basis shall not be deemed employees of a farmer to whom their labor is furnished in exchange.
102.07(5)(b) (b) The parents, spouse, child, brother, sister, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, or sister-in-law of a farmer shall not be deemed the farmer's employees.
102.07(5)(c) (c) A shareholder-employee of a family farm corporation shall be deemed a "farmer" for purposes of this chapter and shall not be deemed an employee of a farmer. A "family farm corporation" means a corporation engaged in farming all of whose shareholders are related as lineal ancestors or lineal descendants, whether by blood or by adoption, or as spouses, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, cousins, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, fathers-in-law, mothers-in-law, brothers-in-law or sisters-in-law of such lineal ancestors or lineal descendants.
102.07(5)(d) (d) A member of a religious sect is not considered to be an employee of a farmer if the conditions specified in s. 102.28 (3) (b) have been satisfied with respect to that member.
102.07(6) (6) Every person selling or distributing newspapers or magazines on the street or from house to house. Such a person shall be deemed an employee of each independent news agency which is subject to this chapter, or (in the absence of such agencies) of each publisher's (or other intermediate) selling agency which is subject to this chapter, or (in the absence of all such agencies) of each publisher, whose newspapers or magazines the person sells or distributes. Such a person shall not be counted in determining whether an intermediate agency or publisher is subject to this chapter.
102.07(7) (7)
102.07(7)(a)(a) Every member of a volunteer fire company or fire department organized under ch. 213, a legally organized rescue squad or a legally organized diving team is considered to be an employee of that company, department, squad or team. Every member of a company, department, squad or team described in this paragraph, while serving as an auxiliary police officer at an emergency, is also considered to be an employee of that company, department, squad or team. If a company, department, squad or team described in this paragraph has not insured its liability for compensation to its employees, the municipality or county within which that company, department, squad or team was organized shall be liable for that compensation.
102.07(7)(b) (b) The department may issue an order under s. 102.31 (1) (b) permitting the county within which a volunteer fire company or fire department organized under ch. 213, a legally organized rescue squad, an ambulance service provider, as defined in s. 146.50 (1) (c), or a legally organized diving team is organized to assume full liability for the compensation provided under this chapter of all volunteer members of that company, department, squad, provider or team.
102.07 Cross-reference Cross Reference: See also s. DWD 80.30, Wis. adm. code.
102.07(7m) (7m) An employee, volunteer, or member of an emergency management unit is an employee for purposes of this chapter as provided in s. 166.03 (8) (d), and a member of a regional emergency response team who is acting under a contract under s. 166.215 (1) is an employee for purposes of this chapter as provided in s. 166.215 (4).
102.07(8) (8)
102.07(8)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), every independent contractor is, for the purpose of this chapter, an employee of any employer under this chapter for whom he or she is performing service in the course of the trade, business, profession or occupation of such employer at the time of the injury.
102.07(8)(b) (b) An independent contractor is not an employee of an employer for whom the independent contractor performs work or services if the independent contractor meets all of the following conditions:
102.07(8)(b)1. 1. Maintains a separate business with his or her own office, equipment, materials and other facilities.
102.07(8)(b)2. 2. Holds or has applied for a federal employer identification number with the federal internal revenue service or has filed business or self-employment income tax returns with the federal internal revenue service based on that work or service in the previous year.
102.07(8)(b)3. 3. Operates under contracts to perform specific services or work for specific amounts of money and under which the independent contractor controls the means of performing the services or work.
102.07(8)(b)4. 4. Incurs the main expenses related to the service or work that he or she performs under contract.
102.07(8)(b)5. 5. Is responsible for the satisfactory completion of work or services that he or she contracts to perform and is liable for a failure to complete the work or service.
102.07(8)(b)6. 6. Receives compensation for work or service performed under a contract on a commission or per job or competitive bid basis and not on any other basis.
102.07(8)(b)7. 7. May realize a profit or suffer a loss under contracts to perform work or service.
102.07(8)(b)8. 8. Has continuing or recurring business liabilities or obligations.
102.07(8)(b)9. 9. The success or failure of the independent contractor's business depends on the relationship of business receipts to expenditures.
102.07(8)(c) (c) The department may not admit in evidence state or federal laws, regulations, documents granting operating authority or licenses when determining whether an independent contractor meets the conditions specified in par. (b) 1. or 3.
102.07(8m) (8m) An employer who is subject to this chapter is not an employee of another employer for whom the first employer performs work or service in the course of the other employer's trade, business, profession or occupation.
102.07(9) (9) Members of the national guard and state defense force, when on state active duty under direction of appropriate authority, but only in case federal laws, rules or regulations provide no benefits substantially equivalent to those provided in this chapter.
102.07(10) (10) Further to effectuate the policy of the state that the benefits of this chapter shall extend and be granted to employees in the service of the state, or of any municipality therein on the same basis, in the same manner, under the same conditions, and with like right of recovery as in the case of employees of persons, firms or private corporations, any question whether any person is an employee under this chapter shall be governed by and determined under the same standards, considerations, and rules of decision in all cases under subs. (1) to (9). Any statutes, ordinances, or administrative regulations which may be otherwise applicable to the classes of employees enumerated in sub. (1) shall not be controlling in deciding whether any person is an employee for the purposes of this chapter.
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This is an archival version of the Wis. Stats. database for 2003. See Are the Statutes on this Website Official?