Judicial officer collecting claims.
Any judicial officer who causes to be brought in a court over which the officer presides any action or proceeding upon a claim placed with the officer as agent or attorney for collection is guilty of a Class B misdemeanor.
History: 1977 c. 173
Corrupt means to influence legislation; disclosure of interest.
Any person who gives or agrees or offers to give anything of value to any person, for the service of such person or of any other person in procuring the passage or defeat of any measure before the legislature or before either house or any committee thereof, upon the contingency or condition of the passage or defeat of the measure, or who receives, or agrees to receive anything of value for such service, upon any such contingency or condition, or who, having a pecuniary or other interest, or acting as the agent or attorney of any person in procuring or attempting to procure the passage or defeat of any measure before the legislature or before either house or any committee thereof, attempts in any manner to influence any member of the legislature for or against the measure, without first making known to the member the real and true interest he or she has in the measure, either personally or as such agent or attorney, is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
History: 1977 c. 278
; Stats. 1977 s. 946.17; 1993 a. 213
Misconduct sections apply to all public officers. Sections 946.10
apply to public officers, whether legally constituted or exercising powers as if legally constituted.
History: 1977 c. 278
; 1979 c. 110
PERJURY AND FALSE SWEARING
Whoever under oath or affirmation orally makes a false material statement which the person does not believe to be true, in any matter, cause, action or proceeding, before any of the following, whether legally constituted or exercising powers as if legally constituted, is guilty of a Class H felony:
An administrative agency or arbitrator authorized by statute to determine issues of fact;
A notary public while taking testimony for use in an action or proceeding pending in court;
An officer authorized to conduct inquests of the dead;
It is not a defense to a prosecution under this section that the perjured testimony was corrected or retracted.
An arbitrator selected from a list provided by WERC is authorized by s. 111.10 to arbitrate as provided in ch. 298 [now ch. 788] and so is "authorized by statute" within meaning of s. 946.31 (1) (d). Layton School of Art & Design v. WERC, 82 Wis. 2d 324
, 262 N.W.2d 218
Perjury consists of a false statement that the defendant knew was false, was made under oath in a proceeding before a judge, and was material to the proceeding. Materiality is determined by whether the trial court could have relied on the testimony in making a decision, not on whether it actually did. State v. Munz, 198 Wis. 2d 379
, 541 N.W.2d 821
(Ct. App. 1995), 95-0635
A defendant may be charged with multiple counts of perjury based on testimony given in the same proceeding when each charge requires proof of an additional fact that the others do not. State v. Warren, 229 Wis. 2d 172
, 599 N.W.2d 431
(Ct. App. 1999), 99-0129
Issue preclusion does not bar the prosecution of a defendant for perjury who was tried and acquitted on a single issue when newly discovered evidence suggests that the defendant falsely testified on the issue. The state must show that: 1) the evidence came to the state's attention after trial; 2) the state was not negligent in failing to discover the evidence; 3) the evidence is material to the issue; and 4) the evidence is not merely cumulative. State v. Canon, 2001 WI 11, 241 Wis. 2d 164
, 622 N.W.2d 270
Perjury prosecutions after acquittals. Shellenberger. 71 MLR 703 (1988).
Whoever does either of the following is guilty of a Class H felony:
Under oath or affirmation makes or subscribes a false statement which he or she does not believe is true, when such oath or affirmation is authorized or required by law or is required by any public officer or governmental agency as a prerequisite to such officer or agency taking some official action.
Makes or subscribes 2 inconsistent statements under oath or affirmation in regard to any matter respecting which an oath or affirmation is, in each case, authorized or required by law or required by any public officer or governmental agency as a prerequisite to such officer or agency taking some official action, under circumstances which demonstrate that the witness or subscriber knew at least one of the statements to be false when made. The period of limitations within which prosecution may be commenced runs from the time of the first statement.
Whoever under oath or affirmation makes or subscribes a false statement which the person does not believe is true is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
This section applies to oral statements. The mere fact that a statement is permitted by law does not mean it is "authorized by law" within meaning of sub. (1) (a). State v. Devitt, 82 Wis. 2d 262
, 262 N.W.2d 73
The reference to the statute of limitations in sub. (1) (b) does not make it an element of the offense. The statute of limitations is an affirmative defense and is subject to tolling under s. 939.74. State v. Slaughter, 200 Wis. 2d 190
, 546 N.W.2d 490
(Ct. App. 1996), 95-0141
What is to be "authorized or required" under sub. (1) (b) is the oath itself, not the matter respecting which the oath is taken. State v. Slaughter, 200 Wis. 2d 190
, 546 N.W.2d 490
(Ct. App. 1996), 95-0141
INTERFERENCE WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT
Refusing to aid officer. 946.40(1)
Whoever, without reasonable excuse, refuses or fails, upon command, to aid any person known by the person to be a peace officer is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.
This section does not apply if under the circumstances the officer was not authorized to command such assistance.
History: 1977 c. 173
Under s. 343.305, hospital personnel must administer a blood alcohol test and report the results at the request of an officer, subject to the penalty under 946.40. 68 Atty. Gen. 209.
In certain circumstances a peace officer may command medical staff at a hospital or clinic to gather evidence from a sexual assault victim. 72 Atty. Gen. 107
Resisting or obstructing officer. 946.41(1)
Whoever knowingly resists or obstructs an officer while such officer is doing any act in an official capacity and with lawful authority, is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
"Obstructs" includes without limitation knowingly giving false information to the officer or knowingly placing physical evidence with intent to mislead the officer in the performance of his or her duty including the service of any summons or civil process.
"Officer" means a peace officer or other public officer or public employee having the authority by virtue of the officer's or employee's office or employment to take another into custody.
Whoever violates sub. (1)
under all of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class H felony:
The violator gives false information or places physical evidence with intent to mislead an officer.
At a criminal trial, the trier of fact considers the false information or physical evidence.
The trial results in the conviction of an innocent person.
Whoever by violating this section hinders, delays or prevents an officer from properly serving or executing any summons or civil process, is civilly liable to the person injured for any actual loss caused thereby and to the officer or the officer's superior for any damages adjudged against either of them by reason thereof.
The state must prove that the accused knew that the officer was acting in an official capacity and knew that the officer was acting with lawful authority when the accused allegedly resisted or obstructed the officer. State v. Lossman, 118 Wis. 2d 526
, 348 N.W.2d 159
Knowingly providing false information with intent to mislead is obstruction as a matter of law. State v. Caldwell, 154 Wis. 2d 683
, 454 N.W.2d 13
(Ct. App. 1990).
No law allows officers to arrest for obstruction on a person's refusal to give his or her name. Mere silence is insufficient to constitute obstruction. Henes v. Morrissey, 194 Wis. 2d 339
, 533 N.W.2d 802
There is no exculpatory denial exception under this section. The statute criminalizes all false statements knowingly made and with intent to mislead the police. The state should have sound reasons for believing that a defendant knowingly made false statements with intent to mislead the police and not out of a good-faith attempt to defend against accusations of a crime. The latter can never include the former. State v. Reed, 2005 WI 53, 280 Wis. 2d 68
, 695 N.W.2d 315
Failure to comply with officer's attempt to take person into custody. 946.415(2)
Whoever intentionally does all of the following is guilty of a Class I felony:
Refuses to comply with an officer's lawful attempt to take him or her into custody.
Retreats or remains in a building or place and, through action or threat, attempts to prevent the officer from taking him or her into custody.
While acting under pars. (a)
, remains or becomes armed with a dangerous weapon or threatens to use a dangerous weapon regardless of whether he or she has a dangerous weapon.
History: 1995 a. 93
; 2001 a. 109
This section delineates one crime: a suspect's armed, physical refusal to be taken into custody. It can be committed by action or threat, which are alternative ways of threatening an officer to avoid being taken into custody. A jury instruction requiring unanimity on which occurred is not required. State v. Koeppen, 2000 WI App 121, 237 Wis. 2d 418
, 614 N.W.2d 530
"Custody" includes without limitation all of the following:
Actual custody of an institution, including a juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p)
, a secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g)
, a juvenile detention facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10r)
, a Type 2 residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (19r)
, a facility used for the detention of persons detained under s. 980.04 (1)
, a facility specified in s. 980.065
, or a juvenile portion of a county jail.
Actual custody or authorized physical control of a correctional officer.
Actual custody or authorized physical control of a probationer, parolee, or person on extended supervision by the department of corrections.
Constructive custody of persons placed on supervised release under ch. 980
Constructive custody of prisoners and juveniles subject to an order under s. 48.366
, 938.34 (4d)
, or (4m)
, or 938.357 (4)
or (5) (e)
temporarily outside the institution whether for the purpose of work, school, medical care, a leave granted under s. 303.068
, a temporary leave or furlough granted to a juvenile, or otherwise.
Custody of the sheriff of the county to which the prisoner was transferred after conviction.
"Custody" does not include the constructive custody of a probationer, parolee, or person on extended supervision by the department of corrections or a probation, extended supervision, or parole agent or the constructive custody of a person who has been released to aftercare supervision under ch. 938
"Escape" means to leave in any manner without lawful permission or authority.
"Legal arrest" includes without limitation an arrest pursuant to process fair on its face notwithstanding insubstantial irregularities and also includes taking a juvenile into custody under s. 938.19
A person in custody who intentionally escapes from custody under any of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor:
Pursuant to a legal arrest for or lawfully charged with or convicted of a violation of a statutory traffic regulation, a statutory offense for which the penalty is a forfeiture or a municipal ordinance.
Lawfully taken into custody under s. 938.19
for a violation of or lawfully alleged or adjudged under ch. 938
to have violated a statutory traffic regulation, a statutory provision for which the penalty is a forfeiture or a municipal ordinance.
Pursuant to a civil arrest or body execution.
A person who is in the custody of a probation, parole, or extended supervision agent, or a correctional officer, based on an allegation or a finding that the person violated the rules or conditions of probation, parole, or extended supervision and who intentionally escapes from custody is guilty of a Class H felony.
A person in custody who intentionally escapes from custody under any of the following circumstances is guilty of a Class H felony:
Pursuant to a legal arrest for, lawfully charged with or convicted of or sentenced for a crime.
Lawfully taken into custody under s. 938.19
for or lawfully alleged or adjudged under ch. 938
to be delinquent on the basis of a violation of a criminal law.