History: 1991 a. 316
State officers may require searches, etc., without fees.
The secretary of state, treasurer and attorney general, respectively, are authorized to require searches in the respective offices of each other and in the offices of the clerk of the supreme court, of the court of appeals, of the circuit courts, of the registers of deeds for any papers, records or documents necessary to the discharge of the duties of their respective offices, and to require copies thereof and extracts therefrom without the payment of any fee or charge whatever.
History: 1977 c. 187
Declaration of policy.
In recognition of the fact that a representative government is dependent upon an informed electorate, it is declared to be the public policy of this state that all persons are entitled to the greatest possible information regarding the affairs of government and the official acts of those officers and employees who represent them. Further, providing persons with such information is declared to be an essential function of a representative government and an integral part of the routine duties of officers and employees whose responsibility it is to provide such information. To that end, ss. 19.32
shall be construed in every instance with a presumption of complete public access, consistent with the conduct of governmental business. The denial of public access generally is contrary to the public interest, and only in an exceptional case may access be denied.
History: 1981 c. 335
An agency cannot promulgate an administrative rule that creates an exception to the open records law. Chavala v. Bubolz, 204 Wis. 2d 82
, 552 N.W.2d 892
(Ct. App. 1996), 95-3120
Although the requester referred to the federal freedom information act, a letter that clearly described open records and had all the earmarkings of an open records request was in fact an open records request and triggered, at minimum, a duty to respond. ECO, Inc. v. City of Elkhorn, 2002 WI App 302, 259 Wis. 2d 276
, 655 N.W.2d 510
The public records law addresses the duty to disclose records; it does not address the duty to retain records. An agency's alleged failure to keep sought-after records may not be attacked under the public records law. Section 19.21 relates to records retention and is not a part of the public records law. Gehl v. Connors, 2007 WI App 238, 306 Wis. 2d 247
, 742 N.W.2d 530
The Wisconsin public records law. 67 MLR 65 (1983).
Municipal responsibility under the Wisconsin revised public records law. Maloney. WBB Jan. 1983.
The public records law and the Wisconsin department of revenue. Boykoff. WBB Dec. 1983.
The Wis. open records act: an update on issues. Trubek and Foley. WBB Aug. 1986.
Toward a More Open and Accountable Government: A Call For Optimal Disclosure Under the Wisconsin Open Records Law. Roang. 1994 WLR 719.
Wisconsin's Public-Records Law: Preserving the Presumption of Complete Public Access in the Age of Electronic Records. Holcomb & Isaac. 2008 WLR 515.
Getting the Best of Both Worlds: Open Government and Economic Development. Westerberg. Wis. Law. Feb. 2009.
"Authority" means any of the following having custody of a record: a state or local office, elected official, agency, board, commission, committee, council, department or public body corporate and politic created by constitution, law, ordinance, rule or order; a governmental or quasi-governmental corporation except for the Bradley center sports and entertainment corporation; a local exposition district under subch. II of ch. 229
; a long-term care district under s. 46.2895
; any court of law; the assembly or senate; a nonprofit corporation which receives more than 50% of its funds from a county or a municipality, as defined in s. 59.001 (3)
, and which provides services related to public health or safety to the county or municipality; or a formally constituted subunit of any of the foregoing.
"Committed person" means a person who is committed under ch. 51
and who is placed in an inpatient treatment facility, during the period that the person's placement in the inpatient treatment facility continues.
"Employee" means any individual who is employed by an authority, other than an individual holding local public office or a state public office, or any individual who is employed by an employer other than an authority.
"Incarcerated person" means a person who is incarcerated in a penal facility or who is placed on probation and given confinement under s. 973.09 (4)
as a condition of placement, during the period of confinement for which the person has been sentenced.
"Inpatient treatment facility" means any of the following:
A facility or unit for the institutional care of sexually violent persons specified under s. 980.065
The Milwaukee County mental health complex established under s. 51.08
"Local public office" has the meaning given in s. 19.42 (7w)
, and also includes any appointive office or position of a local governmental unit in which an individual serves as the head of a department, agency, or division of the local governmental unit, but does not include any office or position filled by a municipal employee, as defined in s. 111.70 (1) (i)
"Penal facility" means a state prison under s. 302.01
, county jail, county house of correction or other state, county or municipal correctional or detention facility.
"Person authorized by the individual" means the parent, guardian, as defined in s. 48.02 (8)
, or legal custodian, as defined in s. 48.02 (11)
, of a child, as defined in s. 48.02 (2)
, the guardian of an individual adjudicated incompetent in this state, the personal representative or spouse of an individual who is deceased, or any person authorized, in writing, by the individual to exercise the rights granted under this section.
"Personally identifiable information" has the meaning specified in s. 19.62 (5)
"Record" means any material on which written, drawn, printed, spoken, visual or electromagnetic information is recorded or preserved, regardless of physical form or characteristics, which has been created or is being kept by an authority. "Record" includes, but is not limited to, handwritten, typed or printed pages, maps, charts, photographs, films, recordings, tapes (including computer tapes), computer printouts and optical disks. "Record" does not include drafts, notes, preliminary computations and like materials prepared for the originator's personal use or prepared by the originator in the name of a person for whom the originator is working; materials which are purely the personal property of the custodian and have no relation to his or her office; materials to which access is limited by copyright, patent or bequest; and published materials in the possession of an authority other than a public library which are available for sale, or which are available for inspection at a public library.
"Record subject" means an individual about whom personally identifiable information is contained in a record.
"Requester" means any person who requests inspection or copies of a record, except a committed or incarcerated person, unless the person requests inspection or copies of a record that contains specific references to that person or his or her minor children for whom he or she has not been denied physical placement under ch. 767
, and the record is otherwise accessible to the person by law.
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 47
, which affects this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
A study commissioned by the corporation counsel and used in various ways was not a "draft" under sub. (2), although it was not in final form. A document prepared other than for the originator's personal use, although in preliminary form or marked "draft," is a record. Fox v. Bock, 149 Wis. 2d 403
, 438 N.W.2d 589
A settlement agreement containing a pledge of confidentiality and kept in the possession of a school district's attorney was a public record subject to public access. Journal/Sentinel v. Shorewood School Bd. 186 Wis. 2d 443
, 521 N.W.2d 165
(Ct. App. 1994).
Individuals confined as sexually violent persons under ch. 980 are not "incarcerated" under sub. (1c). Klein v. Wisconsin Resource Center, 218 Wis. 2d 487
, 582 N.W.2d 44
(Ct. App. 1998), 97-0679
A nonprofit corporation that receives 50% of its funds from a municipality or county is an authority under sub. (1) regardless of the source from which the municipality or county obtained those funds. Cavey v. Walrath, 229 Wis. 2d 105
, 598 N.W.2d 240
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-0072
A person aggrieved by a request made under the open records law has standing to raise a challenge that the requested materials are not records because they fall within the exception for copyrighted material under sub. (2). Under the facts of this case, the language of sub. (2), when viewed in light of the fair use exception to copyright infringement, applied so that the disputed materials were records within the statutory definition. Zellner v. Cedarburg School District, 2007 WI 53, 300 Wis. 2d 290
, 731 N.W.2d 240
"Record" in sub. (2) and s. 19.35 (5) does not include identical copies of otherwise available records. A copy that is not different in some meaningful way from an original, regardless of the form of the original, is an identical copy. If a copy differs in some significant way for purposes of responding to an open records request, then it is not truly an identical copy, but instead a different record. Stone v. Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin, 2007 WI App 223, 305 Wis. 2d 679
, 741 N.W.2d 774
A municipality's independent contractor assessor was not an authority under sub. (1) and was not a proper recipient of an open records request. In this case, only the municipalities themselves were the "authorities" for purposes of the open records law. Accordingly, only the municipalities were proper recipients of the relevant open records requests. WIREdata, Inc. v. Village of Sussex, 2008 WI 69, 310 Wis. 2d 397
, 751 N.W.2d 736
A corporation is quasi-governmental if, based on the totality of circumstances, it resembles a governmental corporation in function, effect, or status, requiring a case-by-case analysis. Here, a primary consideration was that the body was funded exclusively by public tax dollars or interest thereon. Additionally, its office was located in the municipal building, it was listed on the city Web site, the city provided it with clerical support and office supplies, all its assets revert to the city if it ceases to exist, its books are open for city inspection, the mayor and another city official are directors, and it had no clients other than the city. State v. Beaver Dam Area Development Corporation, 2008 WI 90, 312 Wis. 2d 84
, 752 N.W.2d 295
In determining whether a document is a record under sub. (2), the focus is on the content of the document. To be a record, the content of the document must have a connection to a government function. In this case, the contents of teachers' personal e-mails had no connection to a government function and therefore are not records under sub. (2). The contents of personal e-mails could, however, be records under the public records law under certain circumstances. Schill v. Wisconsin Rapids School District, 2010 WI 86, ___ Wis. 2d___, ___ N.W.2d ___, 08-0967
"Records" must have some relation to the functions of the agency. 72 Atty. Gen. 99
The treatment of drafts under the public records law is discussed. 77 Atty. Gen. 100
Applying Open Records Policy to Wisconsin District Attorneys: Can Charging Guidelines Promote Public Awareness? Mayer. 1996 WLR 295.
Legal custodians. 19.33(1)(1)
An elected official is the legal custodian of his or her records and the records of his or her office, but the official may designate an employee of his or her staff to act as the legal custodian.
The chairperson of a committee of elected officials, or the designee of the chairperson, is the legal custodian of the records of the committee.
The cochairpersons of a joint committee of elected officials, or the designee of the cochairpersons, are the legal custodians of the records of the joint committee.
Every authority not specified in subs. (1)
shall designate in writing one or more positions occupied by an officer or employee of the authority or the unit of government of which it is a part as a legal custodian to fulfill its duties under this subchapter. In the absence of a designation the authority's highest ranking officer and the chief administrative officer, if any, are the legal custodians for the authority. The legal custodian shall be vested by the authority with full legal power to render decisions and carry out the duties of the authority under this subchapter. Each authority shall provide the name of the legal custodian and a description of the nature of his or her duties under this subchapter to all employees of the authority entrusted with records subject to the legal custodian's supervision.
Notwithstanding sub. (4)
, if an authority specified in sub. (4)
or the members of such an authority are appointed by another authority, the appointing authority may designate a legal custodian for records of the authority or members of the authority appointed by the appointing authority, except that if such an authority is attached for administrative purposes to another authority, the authority performing administrative duties shall designate the legal custodian for the authority for whom administrative duties are performed.
The legal custodian of records maintained in a publicly owned or leased building or the authority appointing the legal custodian shall designate one or more deputies to act as legal custodian of such records in his or her absence or as otherwise required to respond to requests as provided in s. 19.35 (4)
. This subsection does not apply to members of the legislature or to members of any local governmental body.
The designation of a legal custodian does not affect the powers and duties of an authority under this subchapter.
No elected official of a legislative body has a duty to act as or designate a legal custodian under sub. (4)
for the records of any committee of the body unless the official is the highest ranking officer or chief administrative officer of the committee or is designated the legal custodian of the committee's records by rule or by law.
History: 1981 c. 335
The right to privacy law, s. 895.50, [now s. 995.50] does not affect the duties of a custodian of public records under s. 19.21, 1977 stats. 68 Atty. Gen. 68.
Procedural information. 19.34(1)
Each authority shall adopt, prominently display and make available for inspection and copying at its offices, for the guidance of the public, a notice containing a description of its organization and the established times and places at which, the legal custodian under s. 19.33
from whom, and the methods whereby, the public may obtain information and access to records in its custody, make requests for records, or obtain copies of records, and the costs thereof. The notice shall also separately identify each position of the authority that constitutes a local public office or a state public office. This subsection does not apply to members of the legislature or to members of any local governmental body.
Each authority which maintains regular office hours at the location where records in the custody of the authority are kept shall permit access to the records of the authority at all times during those office hours, unless otherwise specifically authorized by law.
Each authority which does not maintain regular office hours at the location where records in the custody of the authority are kept shall:
Permit access to its records upon at least 48 hours' written or oral notice of intent to inspect or copy a record; or
Establish a period of at least 2 consecutive hours per week during which access to the records of the authority is permitted. In such case, the authority may require 24 hours' advance written or oral notice of intent to inspect or copy a record.
An authority imposing a notice requirement under par. (b)
shall include a statement of the requirement in its notice under sub. (1)
, if the authority is required to adopt a notice under that subsection.
If a record of an authority is occasionally taken to a location other than the location where records of the authority are regularly kept, and the record may be inspected at the place at which records of the authority are regularly kept upon one business day's notice, the authority or legal custodian of the record need not provide access to the record at the occasional location.
History: 1981 c. 335
; 2003 a. 47
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 47
, which affects this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
In ss. 19.33
, when a time period is provided for performing an act, whether the period is expressed in hours or days, the whole of Saturday, Sunday, and any legal holiday, from midnight to midnight, shall be excluded in computing the period.
History: 2003 a. 47
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 47
, which creates this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
Access to records; fees. 19.35(1)(a)(a)
Except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to inspect any record. Substantive common law principles construing the right to inspect, copy or receive copies of records shall remain in effect. The exemptions to the requirement of a governmental body to meet in open session under s. 19.85
are indicative of public policy, but may be used as grounds for denying public access to a record only if the authority or legal custodian under s. 19.33
makes a specific demonstration that there is a need to restrict public access at the time that the request to inspect or copy the record is made.
In addition to any right under par. (a)
, any requester who is an individual or person authorized by the individual, has a right to inspect any record containing personally identifiable information pertaining to the individual that is maintained by an authority and to make or receive a copy of any such information. The right to inspect or copy a record under this paragraph does not apply to any of the following:
Any record containing personally identifiable information that is collected or maintained in connection with a complaint, investigation or other circumstances that may lead to an enforcement action, administrative proceeding, arbitration proceeding or court proceeding, or any such record that is collected or maintained in connection with such an action or proceeding.
Any record containing personally identifiable information that, if disclosed, would do any of the following:
Endanger the security, including the security of the population or staff, of any state prison under s. 302.01
, jail, as defined in s. 165.85 (2) (bg)
, juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p)
, secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g)
, mental health institute, as defined in s. 51.01 (12)
, center for the developmentally disabled, as defined in s. 51.01 (3)
, or facility, specified under s. 980.065
, for the institutional care of sexually violent persons.
Compromise the rehabilitation of a person in the custody of the department of corrections or detained in a jail or facility identified in subd. 2. c.
Any record that is part of a records series, as defined in s. 19.62 (7)
, that is not indexed, arranged or automated in a way that the record can be retrieved by the authority maintaining the records series by use of an individual's name, address or other identifier.
Except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to inspect a record and to make or receive a copy of a record. If a requester appears personally to request a copy of a record that permits photocopying, the authority having custody of the record may, at its option, permit the requester to photocopy the record or provide the requester with a copy substantially as readable as the original.
Except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to receive from an authority having custody of a record which is in the form of a comprehensible audio tape recording a copy of the tape recording substantially as audible as the original. The authority may instead provide a transcript of the recording to the requester if he or she requests.
Except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to receive from an authority having custody of a record which is in the form of a video tape recording a copy of the tape recording substantially as good as the original.
Except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to receive from an authority having custody of a record which is not in a readily comprehensible form a copy of the information contained in the record assembled and reduced to written form on paper.
If an authority receives a request to inspect or copy a record that is in handwritten form or a record that is in the form of a voice recording which the authority is required to withhold or from which the authority is required to delete information under s. 19.36 (8) (b)
because the handwriting or the recorded voice would identify an informant, the authority shall provide to the requester, upon his or her request, a transcript of the record or the information contained in the record if the record or information is otherwise subject to public inspection and copying under this subsection.
Notwithstanding par. (b)
and except as otherwise provided by law, any requester has a right to inspect any record not specified in pars. (c)
the form of which does not permit copying. If a requester requests permission to photograph the record, the authority having custody of the record may permit the requester to photograph the record. If a requester requests that a photograph of the record be provided, the authority shall provide a good quality photograph of the record.