At each doorway leading from a non-processing area to a processing area in which exposed dairy products are processed, a dairy plant operator shall provide a sanitizing footbath, disposable footwear, dedicated footwear, or other facilities to ensure that footwear worn in the processing area is clean and sanitary.
Lighting in every area of a dairy plant shall be fully adequate for the purpose for which the area is used. Except as provided under par. (b)
, there shall be at least 5 foot candles (54 lux) of illumination, measured at 30 inches above the floor, in every part of a dairy plant.
Except as provided under par. (c)
, there shall be at least 30 foot candles (323 lux) of illumination at every place where dairy products are processed and at every place where equipment or utensils are cleaned and sanitized.
There shall be at least 50 foot-candles (538 lux) of illumination on every surface where dairy products are graded or examined for condition and quality, and on every surface where multi-use packages are inspected before being reused.
Light bulbs, fluorescent light tubes, skylights, and other overhead glass fixtures shall be shielded to prevent broken glass from falling into dairy products or onto dairy product contact surfaces.
Every room in a dairy plant shall be adequately ventilated and adequately controlled for temperature and humidity to keep the room reasonably free of fumes, odors, mildew, and excessive condensation.
Ventilation systems, including exhaust fans, intake fans, and ventilation ducts, shall be kept clean and in good repair and shall be screened or louvered to prevent contamination of dairy products, ingredients, equipment, utensils, or packaging materials by dust, insects, or other contaminants. Intake fans shall be equipped with filters that are readily removable for cleaning and replacement. Air intake filters shall be capable of removing at least 85% of particulate matter that is 5 microns or larger in size.
Ventilation systems in a dairy plant shall be positioned so that exhaust air does not contaminate exposed dairy products, clean dairy product packages, or clean equipment or utensils.
Dairy plant rooms shall be large enough so that activities conducted in those rooms can be conducted in a safe and sanitary manner.
Within a dairy plant, all of the following areas shall be located in separate rooms:
Areas used to clean and sanitize bulk milk tankers or bulk transport containers. Bulk milk tankers and bulk transport containers may be cleaned and sanitized in the same room where they are unloaded.
Areas used to clean or sanitize dairy product packages or containers.
Areas used to store or fabricate dairy product packages. Packaging materials required for each day's processing operations may be kept in a processing area on that day.
Areas used to store dairy product ingredients, other than raw milk. Ingredients required for each day's processing operations may be kept in the processing area on that day.
Areas used to receive, handle, or store returned packaged dairy products.
Areas used for boiler, heating plant, utility, or maintenance equipment.
Areas, if any, used as living quarters. Processing or storage rooms that are constructed after the effective date of this chapter, and share one or more walls with adjacent living or sleeping quarters, shall have a separate entrance and shall not provide direct access to the living or sleeping quarters.
In dairy plants constructed or licensed after December 1, 1994, raw milk shall be unloaded in a fully enclosed intake room.
Notwithstanding par. (b)
, a dairy plant operator may store, cool, separate, and clarify raw milk in an area that the operator uses to unload bulk milk shipments if all the following apply:
Containers used to store, cool, separate, and clarify the raw milk are filtered or vented to a separate room to protect the milk from airborne contamination in the unloading area. If containers are vented to a separate room, that room shall comply with processing area sanitation standards under this chapter.
Notwithstanding par. (d)
, a dairy plant operator may not store, cool, separate, or clarify raw milk in a room used to unload bulk milk shipments if any of the following apply:
The dairy plant is a grade A dairy plant constructed or licensed after July 1, 1980.
The storage, cooling, separating, or clarifying operations were initiated after December 1, 1994.
Rooms, other than rooms adjacent to sleeping or living quarters, are considered separate, for purposes of this subsection, if they are fully separated by permanent floor-to-ceiling partitions and if doorways between the rooms are equipped with solid, tight-fitting, self-closing doors. Rooms adjacent to sleeping or living quarters must comply with sub. (11)
Water used in dairy plant operations, or as an ingredient in dairy products, shall be obtained from a source that complies with applicable provisions of ch. NR 811
. All water obtained for use in a dairy plant shall comply with the microbiological standards in ch. NR 809
. Water shall be available in consistently adequate quantity for all dairy plant operations, including processing, cleaning, handwashing, and drinking. The division may grant a conditional waiver for elevated levels of non-microbial contaminants as defined in ch. NR 809
in processing water or ingredient water.
If a dairy plant uses water from a privately owned water system, the dairy plant operator or, in the case of a grade A dairy plant, the division shall, at least once every 6 months, and after a repair or alteration to the water system, collect and analyze a sample of the water for compliance with the microbiological standards under s. NR 809.30
. If a dairy plant produces grade A and grade B products, a division representative shall collect and analyze the water samples. If the water supply is from more than one well, each well shall be sampled and tested. Each sample shall be taken upstream from any pressure tank or other water treatment equipment. Microbiological analyses shall be conducted in a laboratory certified under ch. ATCP 77
At the division's request, a dairy plant operator who receives water from a municipal source shall provide the division with documentation showing that the water complies with the microbiological standards under s. NR 809.30
Recirculated water may be used in a cooler or heat exchanger that may come in contact with any dairy product if it is all of the following:
Tested by the dairy plant operator at least semiannually or, in the case of a grade A dairy plant, by the department at least semiannually.
If a recirculating water system becomes contaminated, that system may not be used until it is properly treated and retested to ensure that the contamination has been eliminated. The freezing point depressants used in recirculating water systems shall be food or pharmaceutical grade, non-toxic propylene glycol, and shall not contain coliform bacteria as determined by sampling and analysis which the dairy plant operator has done at least semi-annually.
A dairy plant operator may use only potable water, or reclaimed water in compliance with sub. (9) (c)
, to produce culinary steam. In boilers used to produce culinary steam, boiler water additives shall comply with 21 CFR. 173.310
All of the following requirements apply to water that is transported to a dairy plant in a container or tank, for use in dairy plant operations:
The container or tank shall be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized before being filled.
The container or tank shall be sealed, and the water shall be protected from contamination during transit.
A food-contact appropriate, cleaned and sanitized pump, hose, and fittings shall be used to transfer water from the container or tank to a storage tank at the dairy plant, so that the water is not contaminated during transfer.
If a grade A dairy plant uses water to flush pasteurized milk or milk products from milk processing systems, that water shall be of a microbiological quality equivalent to that of pasteurized milk.
A dairy plant operator may use water reclaimed from heat exchanger processes or from the condensation of milk or dairy products if all the following apply:
The water is reclaimed from a heat exchanger process or by means of evaporation, reverse osmosis, or ultrafiltration.
Except as provided in par. (c)
, reclaimed water may not be used for any purpose requiring potable water unless all the following apply:
The department pre-inspects and pre-approves the reclamation system.
The reclaimed water contains less than 1 coliform bacterium per 100 ml. of water.
The organic content of the water is less than 12 mg. per liter as measured by the chemical oxygen demand or permanganate-consumed test, or the water has a standard turbidity of less than 5 units. The dairy plant operator shall use an automatic fail-safe monitoring device to identify, and automatically divert to a waste water system, any water reclaimed from the condensation of dairy products if that water fails to meet this standard.
The reclaimed water is of satisfactory organoleptic quality. The dairy plant operator shall sample and organoleptically test reclaimed water at weekly intervals.
Any chemicals used to suppress bacterial growth, tastes, or odors in the reclaimed water are registered for that use with the U.S. environmental protection agency. The dairy plant operator who uses any chemical to suppress bacterial growth, tastes, or odors shall comply with the chemical label instructions. An added chemical may not contain any substance that may contaminate dairy products or limit the use of reclaimed water. An automatic proportioning device shall add the chemicals to the water before the water enters the storage tank. The dairy plant operator shall test reclaimed water at least daily to verify that each added chemical is present at an approved level.
The reclaimed water is stored in a properly constructed tank. The tank shall be constructed of a material that can be easily cleaned and sanitized and will not contaminate the water.
The dairy plant operator or, in the case of a grade A dairy plant, the division tests the reclaimed water for compliance with microbiological and organic content standards at least semi-annually. The operator shall test the reclaimed water for 14 working days after the department approves the reclamation system under subd. 1.
, and for at least 7 working days after any repairs or alterations to the system.
There are no cross-connections between reclaimed water lines and any public or private water system.
Reclaimed water from membrane processing of unpasteurized milk or unpasteurized dairy products shall be heat-treated for a time and at a temperature providing at least the same lethality against microorganisms as milk pasteurization.
Reclaimed water may be used for the limited purposes of producing culinary steam, pre-rinsing food contact surfaces of equipment or utensils, or preparing cleaning solutions if all the following apply:
The reclaimed water is used only on the day that it is reclaimed, except that reclaimed water may be stored for later use if it is automatically maintained at a temperature of not less than 145°
C.), or is chemically treated to suppress bacterial propagation. Chemical treatments shall comply with par. (b) 6.
Distribution lines and hose stations used to distribute the reclaimed water are clearly identified as “limited-use reclaimed water."
The dairy plant operator posts clear instructions for the use of the reclaimed water. The operator shall post the instructions so that they will be seen by persons using the reclaimed water, and the instructions shall be written in such a way that they will be understood by the persons using the reclaimed water. The instructions shall disclose the limited purposes for which the reclaimed water may be used.
Water lines distributing the reclaimed water are not permanently connected to dairy product vessels. If a water line is temporarily connected to a dairy product vessel, there shall be an atmospheric break and automatic controls to prevent the reclaimed water from contacting dairy products.
Reclaimed water that does not qualify for use, under par. (b)
, may only be used as boiler feedwater.
(10) Plumbing system; disposal of sewage and liquid waste. ATCP 65.24(10)(a)(a)
All dairy plant plumbing, plumbing fixtures, and equipment shall comply with state and local plumbing codes and shall be designed, installed, and maintained to prevent backflow, backsiphonage, and cross-connections.
Sewage and liquid waste from a dairy plant shall be removed in a sanitary manner, in compliance with applicable state and local regulations.
ATCP 65.24 Note
Plumbing and plumbing fixtures must comply with applicable rules of the Wisconsin department of safety and professional services under chs. SPS 382
If equipment or utensils in a dairy plant are cleaned or sanitized manually, the dairy plant shall be equipped with wash and rinse sinks that are suitable for all manual cleaning and sanitizing operations. Sinks shall be conveniently located and adequate in number, and shall comply with all of the following requirements:
Every sink shall be constructed of stainless steel or one or more other materials approved by the division.
Every sink shall have at least 2 compartments. If a dairy plant is also engaged in food processing as defined under s. 97.29 (2) (b)
, Stats., every sink installed in a food processing area after December 1, 1994 shall have at least 3 compartments for washing, rinsing, and sanitizing equipment and utensils unless the dairy plant operator uses an alternative method for sanitizing equipment and utensils that the division has approved in writing.
Every sink compartment shall be large enough so that the largest item cleaned or sanitized in the sink can be halfway immersed in the sink. Every sink compartment shall be served by hot and cold running water and shall be cleaned prior to each use.
Sinks used to clean and sanitize equipment and utensils may not be used as handwashing sinks.
Brushes and other cleaning tools used to clean equipment and utensils shall be cleaned after each use and sanitized prior to their next use. Single-service disposable towels, if used to clean equipment or utensils, shall be discarded after a single use.
If a mechanical system is used to clean or sanitize equipment or utensils, the mechanical system shall be designed, installed, and maintained so that it is fully effective for the purpose used.
A dairy plant shall be equipped with conveniently located hose connections to facilitate cleaning operations in the dairy plant. When hoses are not in use, they shall be neatly stored off the floor on racks or reels.
Toilet rooms shall be conveniently located, but shall not open directly into any room where milk or dairy products are processed. Every toilet room shall be completely enclosed and shall have a tight-fitting, solid, self-closing door. The door shall be kept closed except when in use or when the toilet room is being cleaned or repaired.
Toilet rooms and fixtures shall be kept clean, sanitary, and in good repair. A supply of toilet tissue shall be provided at each toilet at all times.
Every toilet room shall be equipped with hand-washing facilities with hot and cold running water, soap, and single-service towels or air hand-drying equipment. Common towels are prohibited. Easily cleanable, covered receptacles shall be provided for waste materials.