"Fissile material package" or Type AF package, Type BF package, Type B(U)F package, or Type B(M)F package means a fissile material packaging together with its fissile material contents.
"Fit factor" means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.
"Fit test" means the use of a protocol to qualitatively ir quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.
"Fluoroscopic air kerma display device" means a device, or subsystem, or component that provided the display of the air kerma rate and cumulative air kerma required by 21 CFR 1020.32
(k). It includes radiation detectors, if any, electronic and computer components, associated software, and display units.
"Fluoroscopic imaging assembly" means a subsystem in which x-ray photons produce a visible image. It includes the image receptor such as the image intensifier and spot-film device, electrical interlocks, if any, and structural material providing linkage between the image receptor and diagnostic source assembly.
"Fresh water aquifer" means, for the purposes of this chapter, a geologic formation that is capable of yielding fresh water to a well or spring.
"Gantry" means that part of a radiation therapy system supporting and allowing movements of the radiation head about a center of rotation.
"General purpose radiographic x-ray system" means any radiographic x-ray system, which, by design, is not limited to radiographic examination of specific anatomical regions.
"Gamma stereotactic radiosurgery" means the use of a device containing a radioactive material providing multiple point radiation therapy treatment to a specific tumor site.
"Generally applicable environmental radiation standards" means standards issued by the U.S. environmental protection agency under the authority of 42 USC 23
, that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.
"Gonad shield" means a protective barrier for the testes or ovaries.
"Graphite" means, for the purposes of 10 CFR 71.15
and 10 CFR 71.22
, graphite with a boron equivalent content less than 5 parts per million and density greater than 1.5 grams per cubic centimeter.
"Gray" or "Gy" means the SI unit of absorbed dose, air kerma and specific energy imparted equal to one joule per kilogram.
DHS 157.03 Note
Note: The special unit of absorbed dose is being replaced by the gray. 1 Gy equals 100 rad.
"Guide tube" means a flexible or rigid tube, for guiding the source assembly and the attached control cable from the exposure device to the exposure head. The guide tube may also include the connections necessary for attachment to the exposure device and to the exposure head.
"Half-value layer" or "HVL" means the thickness of specified material which attenuates an x-ray or gamma radiation beam such that the air kerma rate at a point within the radiation beam is reduced to one-half of the air kerma rate at the same point without the material present. In this definition, the contribution of all scattered radiation, other than any that might be present initially in the radiation beam concerned, is excluded.
"Hands-on experience" means experience in all of those areas considered to be directly involved in the radiography process.
DHS 157.03 Note
Note: "Hands-on experience" includes taking radiographs, calibration of survey instruments, operational and performance testing of survey instruments and devices, film development, posting of warning signs in radiation areas, transportation of radiography equipment, posting on a bulletin board of records and radiation area surveillance, as applicable.
"Healing arts" means a profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of human maladies, including the practice of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy chiropractic and podiatry.
"Healing arts screening" means the exposure of a human being to x-rays without prior examination disclosing a need for an x-ray procedure and prescription for such a study by a practitioner of the healing arts.
"Heat unit" means a unit of energy equal to 0.75 joule. It is approximately equal to the energy given by the product of the peak kilovoltage, milliampere and seconds, which is kVp x mA x time in seconds.
"Helmet" means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.
"High dose-rate remote afterloader" or "HDR" means a device that delivers a dose rate in excess of 12 gray (1200 rads) per hour.
"High radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from any source of radiation or 30 centimeters from any surface that the radiation penetrates.
"Hood" means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.
"Human use" means the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.
"Image intensifier" means a device, installed in its housing, which instantaneously converts an x-ray pattern into a corresponding light image of higher intensity.
"Image receptor support" means, for mammographic systems, that part of the system designed to support the image receptor during mammography.
"Image receptor" means any device, such as a fluorescent screen or radiographic film, which transforms incident x-ray photons either into a visible image or into another form that may be made into a visible image by further transformations.
"Independent certifying organization" means an independent organization that meets all of the criteria specified in 10 CFR 34
, Appendix A.
"Individual monitoring" means the assessment of any of the following:
Dose equivalent by the use of individual monitoring devices or by the use of survey data.
Committed effective dose equivalent by bioassay or by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed.
"Individual monitoring devices," mean devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent. Examples of individual monitoring devices are film badges, thermoluminescent dosimeters, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, pocket dosimeters, direct reading dosimeters and personal air sampling devices.
"Industrial radiography" means an examination of the structure of materials by the nondestructive method of utilizing ionizing radiation to make radiographic images.
"Inherent filtration" means the filtration of the useful beam provided by the permanently installed components of the tube housing assembly.
"Injection tool" means a device used for controlled subsurface injection of radioactive tracer material.
"Inspection" means an official examination or observation by the department including tests, surveys and monitoring to determine compliance with rules, regulations, orders, requirements and conditions of the department.
"Interlock" means a device preventing the start or continued operation of equipment unless certain predetermined conditions prevail.
"Internal dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.
"Ionizing radiation" means alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons and other particles capable of producing ions. "Ionizing radiation" does not include radiowaves or microwaves, visible, infrared or ultraviolet light.
"Irradiation" means the exposure of a living being or matter to ionizing radiation.
"Irradiator" means a facility that uses radioactive sealed sources for the irradiation of objects or materials and in which radiation dose rates exceeding 5 grays (500 rads) per hour exist at one meter from the sealed radioactive sources in air or water, as applicable for the irradiator type, but does not include irradiators in which both the sealed source and the area subject to irradiation are contained within a device and are not accessible to personnel.
"Irradiator operator" means an individual who has successfully completed the training and testing described in s. DHS 157.73 (12)
and is authorized by the terms of the license to operate the irradiator without a supervisor present.
"Irradiator operator supervisor" means an individual who meets the requirements for an irradiator operator and who physically oversees operation of the irradiator by an individual who is currently receiving training and testing described in s. DHS 157.73 (12)
"Isocenter" means the center of the sphere through which the useful beam axis passes while the gantry moves through its full range of motions.
"Kilovolt" or "kV" means the energy equal to that acquired by a photon with one electron charge in passing through a potential difference of 1,000 volts in a vacuum.
DHS 157.03 Note
Note: Current convention uses kV to designate photons and keV to designate electrons.
"Kilovolts peak" or "kVp" means the maximum value of the potential difference across an x-ray tube during an exposure.
"Land disposal facility" means the land, buildings and structures, and equipment used for the disposal of radioactive wastes.
"Last-image hold" or "LIH" means an image obtained either by retaining one or more fluoroscopic images, which may be temporally integrated, at the end of a fluoroscopic exposure or by initiating a separate and distinct radiographic exposure automatically and immediately in conjunction with termination of the fluoroscopic exposure.
"Lateral fluoroscope" means the x-ray tube and image receptor combination in a biplane system dedicated to the lateral projection. It consists of the lateral x-ray tube housing assembly and the lateral image receptor that are fixed in position relative to the table with the x-ray beam axis parallel to the plane of the table.
"Lay-barge radiography" means industrial radiography performed on any water vessel used for laying pipe.
"Lead equivalent" means the thickness of the material in question affording the same attenuation as lead.
"Leakage radiation" means radiation emanating from the diagnostic source assembly except for any of the following:
Radiation produced when the exposure switch or timer is not activated.
"Lens dose equivalent" or "LDE" means the external dose equivalent to the lens of the eye at a tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm2).
"Licensed or registered material" means radioactive material received, possessed, used, transferred or disposed of under a general or specific license or registration issued by the department.
"Licensed practitioner" means a chiropractor, dentist, physician, podiatrist, physician assistant, nurse practitioner or radiologist's assistant licensed in the state of Wisconsin.
"Licensing state" means any state approved by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., as having regulations equivalent to the Suggested State Regulations for Control of Radiation relating to NARM and an effective program for the regulatory control of NARM.
"Light field" means the area of the intersection of the light beam from the beam-limiting device and one of the set of planes parallel to and including the plane of the image receptor, whose perimeter is the locus of points at which the illumination is one-fourth of the maximum in the intersection.
"Logging tool" means a device used subsurface to perform well logging.
"Loose-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.
"Lost or missing licensed or registered source of radiation" means a licensed or registered source of radiation whose location is unknown. This definition includes licensed or registered material that has been shipped but has not reached its planned destination and whose location cannot be readily traced in the transportation system.
"Low dose-rate remote afterloader" or "LDR" means a device that delivers a dose rate of less than or equal to 2 gray (200 rads) per hour.
"Low specific activity" means radioactive material with limited specific activity which is nonfissile or is excepted under s. DHS 157.92 (2) (c)
, and which satisfies the descriptions and limits set forth in ss. DHS 157.03 (198)
. Shielding materials surrounding the low specific activity material may not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity of the package contents.
"Low specific activity - I" or "LSA-I material" means any of the following:
Uranium and thorium ores, concentrates of uranium and thorium ores, and other ores containing naturally occurring radioactive radionuclides which are not intended to be processed for the use of radionuclides.
Solid unirradiated natural uranium or depleted uranium or natural thorium or their solid or liquid compounds or mixtures.
Other radioactive material in which the radioactive material is distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times the value for exempt material activity concentration determined under Appendix A.
"Low specific activity - II" or "LSA-II material" means either of the following:
Water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 terabecquerel per liter (20.0 Ci/L).
Other material in which the radioactive material is distributed throughout, and the average specific activity does not exceed 10-4 A2/g for solids and gases and 10-5 A2/g for liquids.
"Low specific activity - III" or "LSA-III material" means solids, such as consolidated wastes or activated materials, excluding powders, that satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR 71.77
, and for which all of the following apply:
The radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a collection of solid objects, or is essentially uniformly distributed in a solid compact binding agent, for example, concrete, bitumen or ceramic.
The radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is intrinsically contained in a relatively insoluble material, so that, even under loss of packaging, the loss of radioactive material per package by leaching, when placed in water for 7 days, would not exceed 0.1 A2.
The estimated average specific activity of the solid does not exceed 2 x 10-3 A2/g.
"Low toxicity alpha emitters" means natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium; uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, thorium-228 or thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical or chemical concentrates or tailings; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days.
"Mammography" means radiography of the breast, but does not include radiography of the breast performed during invasive interventions for localization or biopsy procedures.
"Management" means the chief executive officer or other individual having the authority to manage, direct or administer the licensee's activities, or those persons' delegate or delegates.
"Manual brachytherapy" means a type of brachytherapy in which the radioactive sources are manually inserted either into the body cavities that are in close proximity to a tumor or directly into the tumor volume.
DHS 157.03 Note
Note: Examples of radioactive sources are seeds and ribbons.
"Maximum line current" means the root-mean-square current in the supply line of an x-ray machine operating at its maximum rating.