General requirements for sewage treatment facilities.
Grit removal facilities.
Rotating biological contactors.
General conditions required for all land disposal systems.
Conditions required for specific types of land disposal systems.
Sludge handling, storage and disposal.
Requirements for certified or registered laboratory.
Ch. NR 110 History
History: Chapter NR 110 as it existed on November 30, 1974 was repealed and a new chapter NR 110 was created effective December 1, 1974.
This chapter is applicable to all new or modified sewerage systems, excluding only industrial waste treatment facilities. This chapter also applies to sewerage systems employing land disposal of sewage effluent, except those systems defined as plumbing within the purview of s. 145.01 (10) (a) 2.
NR 110.01 Note
The authority to enact these rules is contained in ch. 281
, Stats. Pursuant to s. 299.97
, Stats., any person who violates this chapter shall forfeit not less than $10 nor more than $5,000 for each violation. Each day of continued violation is a separate offense.
NR 110.01 History
Cr. Register, November, 1974, No. 227
, eff. 12-1-74; correction was made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, May, 2001, No. 545
; correction made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register July 2010 No. 655
, eff. 8-1-10.
For purposes of this chapter:
"Approved areawide waste treatment management plan" means a plan or element thereof developed pursuant to Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 as amended by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 (33 USC 1251
et seq.) and approved by the state of Wisconsin.
"Approval" means the written approval of the department for any project requiring approval pursuant to s. 281.41
, Stats., and s. NR 108.03
"ASTM" means standards developed by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
NR 110.03 Note
Note: Copies of ASTM standards referenced in this chapter are available for inspection at the office of the department of natural resources, the secretary of state's office, and the legislative reference bureau, and may be obtained for personal use from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
"AWWA" means the American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235.
NR 110.03 Note
Note: Copies of AWWA standards referenced in this chapter are available for inspection at the offices of the department of natural resources, the secretary of state's offices, and the legislative reference bureau, and may be obtained for personal use from the American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO 80235.
"Bedrock" means the rocks that underlie soil material or where weathered in-place consolidated material larger than 2 millimeters in size is greater than 50% by volume.
"Bypass or overflow" means the discharge of wastewater directly or indirectly to the waters of the state during dry or wet weather flow conditions caused by intentional or inadvertent diversion of all or a portion of the wastewater flow from a sewerage system.
"Bypass or overflow structure" means the physical structures, hydraulic control mechanisms, and piping which allow a bypass or overflow to occur.
"Controlled diversion" means the re-routing of untreated or partially treated wastewater around the entire sewage treatment facility, or treatment processes therein, which is recombined with the treated effluent prior to the effluent sampling location.
"Controlled diversion structure" means the physical structures, hydraulic control mechanisms, and piping which allow a controlled diversion to occur.
"Cost-effective analysis" means a systematic comparison of alternative means of meeting state water quality standards, effluent limitations or other treatment standards in order to identify the alternative which will minimize the total resources costs over the planning period. These resources costs include monetary costs and environmental as well as other non-monetary costs.
"Department" means the department of natural resources.
"Design flow" means the anticipated wastewater discharge rate to a sewerage system component, which is used to design the sewerage system component to provide compliance with WPDES permit limits and other performance objectives, during the most critical operating conditions anticipated within the design planning period. Specific design flow terms used in this chapter, include the following:
"Average daily base flow" means the average of the daily flow volumes anticipated to occur for a continuous 12-month period, less infiltration and inflow, and expressed as a daily average.
"Average design flow" means the average of the daily flow volumes anticipated to occur for a continuous 12-month period, expressed as a daily average.
"Maximum month design flow" means the largest volume of flow anticipated to occur during a continuous 30-day period, expressed as a daily average.
"Maximum week design flow" means the largest volume of flow anticipated to occur during a continuous 7-day period, expressed as a daily average.
"Maximum day design flow" means the largest volume of flow anticipated to occur during a one-day period, expressed as a daily average.
"Maximum hour design flow" means the largest volume of flow anticipated to occur during a one-hour period, expressed as a daily or hourly average.
"Peak instantaneous design flow" means the maximum anticipated instantaneous flow.
"Peak design flow" and "maximum design flow" mean the largest volume of flow anticipated to occur on an infrequent basis, expressed as a daily average. The "peak design flow" or "maximum design flow" may be equal to any one of the design flows defined in pars. (c)
"Design management zone" or "DMZ" means a 3-dimensional area, bounded by a set horizontal distance from the application or containment area, as specified in Table 4, ch. NR 140
, and by variable vertical distance which extends from the land surface downward through all saturated formations.
NR 110.03 Note
The size of the DMZ may be altered by the department based on the criteria in s. NR 140.22 (3)
"Dry land access" means a sewage treatment facility service road which has a minimum elevation of at least one foot above the regional flood elevation.
"High groundwater level" means the higher of either the elevation to which the soil is saturated as observed as a free water surface in an unlined hole or the elevation to which the soil has been seasonally or periodically saturated as indicated by soil color patterns throughout the soil profile.
"Highest anticipated groundwater elevation" means the sum of the calculated mounding effects of the disposal discharge and the seasonal high groundwater level.
"Excessive infiltration/inflow" means the quantities of infiltration/inflow which can be economically eliminated from a sewerage system by rehabilitation, as determined in a cost-effectiveness analysis that compares the cost of correcting the infiltration/inflow conditions to the total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow.
"Hydraulic application rate" means the average daily volume of effluent discharged to a designed acreage of the land application system during a calendar month or other period of time specified in a WPDES permit. The rate is calculated by dividing the total discharge volume for the month or period of time by the acreage of land and by the number of days in the month or period of time, usually expressed in units of gallons per acre per day. For overland flow systems, the hydraulic application rate is expressed as a flow rate per unit width of slope per day.
"Hydrogeologist" means a person who is a graduate of an accredited institution of higher education and who has successfully completed 30 semester hours or 45 quarter hours of course work in geology. At least 6 semester hours or 9 quarter hours of the geology course work must be in hydrogeology, geohydrology or groundwater geology. This person shall also have acquired through education and actual field experience the ability to direct the drilling of borings, and the installation and development of wells; describe and classify geology samples and evaluate and interpret geologic and hydrogeologic data in accordance with the requirements of chs. NR 110
Any nongovernmental, nonresidential user of a municipally owned sewerage system which discharges more than the equivalent of 25,000 gallons per day (gpd) of sanitary wastes and which is identified in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972, United States Office Management and Budget, as amended and supplemented as of October 1, 1978 under one of the following divisions:
Division A. Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing
Division B. Mining
Division D. Manufacturing
Division E. Transportation, Communications, Electric,
Gas, and Sanitary Services
Division I. Services.
In determining the amount of a user's discharge, domestic wastes or discharges from sanitary conveniences may be excluded.
After applying the sanitary waste exclusion in subd. 1.
, discharges in the above divisions that have a volume exceeding 25,000 gpd or the weight of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) or suspended solids (SS) equivalent to that weight found in 25,000 gpd of sanitary waste are considered industrial users. Sanitary wastes, for purposes of this calculation of equivalency, are the wastes discharged from residential users. The municipality shall, with the department's approval, define the strength of the residential waste discharges in terms of parameters including biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) per volume of flow as a minimum. Dischargers with a volume exceeding 25,000 gpd or the weight of BOD or SS equivalent to that weight found in 25,000 gpd of sanitary waste are considered as industrial users.
Any nongovernmental user of a municipally owned sewerage system which discharges wastewater to the sewerage system which contains toxic pollutants or poisonous solids, liquids, or gases in sufficient quantity either singly or by interaction with other wastes, to contaminate the sludge of any municipal system, or injure or interfere with any sewage treatment process, constitutes a hazard to humans or animals, creates a public nuisance, or creates any hazard in or has an adverse effect on the waters receiving any discharge from the treatment works;
"Infiltration" means water other than wastewater that enters a sewerage system (including sewer service connections) from the ground through such sources as defective pipes, pipe joints, connections, or manholes. Infiltration does not include, and is distinguished from, inflow.
"Inflow" means water other than wastewater that enters a sewerage system (including sewer service connections) from sources such as roof leaders, cellar drains, yard drains, area drains, foundation drains, drains from springs and swampy areas, manhole covers, cross connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers, catch basins, cooling towers, storm waters, surface runoff, street wash waters, or drainage. Inflow does not include, and is distinguished from, infiltration.
"Interceptor sewer" means a sewer whose primary purpose is to transport wastewaters from collector sewers to a treatment facility.
"Intermediate sludge storage" means the storage of sludge for a period of more than 24 hours and no more than 3 months.
"Lagoon" means those sewage treatment facilities where the wastewater or sludge containment structure is constructed primarily of earthen materials.
"Long-term sludge storage" means the storage of sludge for a period exceeding 3 months.
"Municipality" means any city, town, village, county, utility district, town sanitary district, public inland lake protection and rehabilitation district or metropolitan sewage district.
"NEC" means the NFPA 70 National Electrical Code. Copies of the National Electrical Code are available for inspection at the offices of the department of natural resources, the secretary of state's office, and the legislative reference bureau. Copies may be obtained for personal use from the National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471.
"Owner" means the state, county, town, town sanitary district, city, village, firm, company, institution, association, utility district, school district, metropolitan sewerage district, or individual owning or operating a sewerage system.
"Planning area" means that area under study as part of a facilities plan.
"Planning period" means the period over which sewerage system alternatives are evaluated for cost-effectiveness. The planning period begins with the initiation of the operation of the proposed facilities.
"Reviewable project" means any construction or installation project for which department approval is required, pursuant to s. 281.41
, Stats., including any new sewerage system; and, any improvements, extensions, or alterations of existing sewerage systems which may effect the quality or quantity of effluent or the location of any outfall.
"Sewage collection system" means the common sanitary sewers within a sewerage system which are primarily installed to receive wastewaters directly from facilities which convey wastewater from individual structures or from private property, and which include service connection "Y" fittings designed for connection with those facilities. The facilities which convey wastewater from individual structures, from private property to the public sanitary sewer, or its equivalent, are specifically excluded from the definition of "sewerage collection system"; except that pumping units and pressurized lines for individual structures or groups of structures may be included as part of a "sewage collection system" when such units are cost effective and are owned and maintained by the sewerage system owner.
"Sewage treatment facilities" means sewerage systems defined in sub. (30)
exclusive of interceptor sewers and sewage collection systems.
"Sewerage system" means all structures, conduits and pipes, by which sewage is collected, treated, and disposed of, except plumbing inside and in connection with buildings served, and service pipes, from building to street main.
"Sewer service area" means that area served or anticipated to be served by a sewage collection system.
"Sludge storage" means the retention of sludge at a treatment plant or at an approved off-site facility.
"Short-term sludge storage" means the storage of sludge for a period of no more than 24 hours.
"Staging period" means the period of time during which reserve capacity will be provided in the sewerage system for future domestic, commercial, and industrial flows.
"Water table observation well" means any groundwater monitoring well whose screen intersects the water, which is installed for the specific purpose of determining either the elevation of the water table or the physical, chemical, biological or radiological properties of groundwater at the water table, or both.
"WPDES permit" means the Wisconsin pollutant discharge elimination system permit issued by the department under ch. 283, Stats.
, for the discharge of pollutants.
NR 110.03 History
Cr. Register, November, 1974, No. 227
, eff. 12-1-74; r. and recr. Register, December, 1978, No. 276
, eff. 1-1-79; cr. (20), Register, August, 1981, No. 308
, eff. 9-1-81; renum. (3) to (20) to be (11), (12), (14) to (18), (21), (23), (25) to (32) and (34) and am. (29) and (34), cr. (4) to (10), (13), (19), (20), (22), (24) and (33), Register, February, 1983, No. 326
, eff. 3-1-83; cr. (6m), (12m), (13e), (13t), (14e), (14t), (18m), (19m), (31e), (31t) and (32m), am. (19), Register, November, 1990, No. 419
, eff. 12-1-90; corrections in (2), (27), and (34) were made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, May, 2001, No. 545
; corrections in (3), (4), (6), (22) and (33) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6., Stats., Register February 2010 No. 650
; CR 09-123
: r. (3), (5), (20), (24) and (33), r. and recr. (4) and (6), am. (9) and (22), cr. (12g) Register July 2010 No. 655
, eff. 8-1-10.
Alternative requirements. NR 110.04(1)
If the owner of a proposed reviewable project feels that compliance with the design requirements of this chapter is impracticable, the reasons therefor shall be fully communicated in writing to the department prior to the submission of final plans. This communication must set forth alternative requirements for which department approval is sought and all pertinent facts, data, reports and studies supporting the imposition of such alternative requirements.
If the department determines that compliance with the design requirements of this chapter would be impracticable in specific cases, it may approve alternative requirements which, in its opinion, are in substantial compliance with the requirements of this chapter.
NR 110.04 History
Cr. Register, November, 1974, No. 227
, eff. 12-1-74.
The purpose of this section is to insure that department approval of applications for sanitary sewer extensions are consistent with and enhance the policy of the state to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of its waters to protect public health, safeguard fish and aquatic life and scenic and ecological values and enhance the domestic, municipal, recreational, industrial, agricultural and other uses of water.
"Bypasses and overflows" means discharges of wastewater directly or indirectly to waters of the state during dry or wet weather flow conditions caused by the intentional or inadvertent diversion of all or a portion of the wastewater flow from a sewerage system.
"Category 1 bypasses and overflows" means those bypasses and overflows that occur more frequently or under less severe circumstances than category 2 bypasses and overflows within the meaning of par. (c)
"Category 2 bypasses and overflows" means those bypasses and overflows occurring under abnormal circumstances. They may include an inadvertent bypass or overflow resulting from unanticipated equipment damage or failure, or temporary power interruption; a bypass or overflow necessary to prevent loss of life or severe property damage; or a bypass or overflow of excessive storm drainage or runoff resulting from a precipitation event having a probable recurrence frequency of once in 5 years or lesser recurrence frequency. For the purposes of determining sewer extension eligibility in the case of combined sewer systems, the bypass or overflow frequency necessary to achieve compliance with the applicable requirements derived from an applicable state court-approved stipulation, order or judgment shall be used in lieu of the 5-year storm frequency when that frequency is less stringent than the 5-year storm frequency; and in all other cases the 5-year storm frequency is used. If there is no state court-approved stipulation, order or judgment applicable to a combined sewer system, then the bypass or overflow frequency necessary to achieve compliance with all applicable requirements of ch. 283, Stats.
, shall be used in lieu of the 5-year storm frequency when that frequency is less stringent than the 5-year storm frequency; and in all other cases, the 5-year storm frequency is used. When using the 5-year storm to define category 2 bypasses and overflows, other factors besides storm frequency shall be considered, including local storm patterns, snow melt and snow cover, soil types and soil conditions, and frost depth.