All new landfills and expansions of existing landfills shall be designed with a final cover system meeting the requirements in subs. (2)
unless it is established to the satisfaction of the department that portions of the final cover system are not needed based on the proposed waste types and the proposed design. The geomembrane component in sub. (5)
does not apply to landfills designed exclusively for the disposal of high volume industrial waste, or to other landfills which are not designed to accept municipal solid waste unless the landfill is composite lined.
Any phases of an existing landfill which have been designed and constructed with a composite liner shall be designed and constructed with a final cover system meeting the requirements in subs. (2)
, except that the requirement for the geomembrane layer in sub. (5)
does not apply to composite lined phases of existing landfills which have completed final cover placement by July 1, 1996.
Landfills which accept papermill sludges or other industrial solid wastes with high water contents and low strength may propose alternate final cover systems if the strength of the waste mass will not allow for the construction of the cover system required in this section.
(2) Grading layer.
A minimum 6 inch thick grading layer shall be designed over the final waste elevation of landfills proposing to accept municipal solid waste to attain the required slope and provide for a stable base for subsequent system components. Daily and intermediate cover may be used for this purpose.
(3) Support layer for low-strength wastes.
A support layer shall be designed for stabilization, reinforcement and removal of leachate and gas over the final waste elevations for landfills which accept industrial solid wastes with high water contents and low strength.
(4) Clay capping layer.
A minimum 2 foot thick clay cap shall be designed to provide a low hydraulic conductivity barrier to percolation. Clay used for this layer shall meet the specifications in s. NR 504.06 (2) (a)
. The clay capping layer shall be constructed according to s. NR 504.06 (2) (f)
. Final cover systems that are required to include a geomembrane layer may be designed with the following alternatives to the clay component of the composite capping layer:
The clay component of the capping layer may be replaced by a GCL overlying a minimum of 2 feet of soil barrier layer. This GCL layer and the soil barrier layer shall meet the following material and construction specifications:
The GCL shall consist of a layer of sodium bentonite clay encapsulated between 2 geotextiles.
The GCL shall be covered with a geomembrane the same day that it is unpacked and placed in position. The GCL may not be installed in standing water or during rain. The GCL shall be dry when installed and covered. A GCL exhibiting unconfined swelling shall be removed and replaced.
The GCL shall be installed in a relaxed condition and shall be free of tension or stress upon completion of the installation. The GCL may not be stretched to fit.
Adjoining panels of a GCL shall be laid with a minimum of 6 inches of overlap on the longitudinal seams and a minimum 20 inches of overlap on the panel end seams.
Irregular shapes, cuts or tears in the installed GCL shall be covered with a GCL patch that provides a minimum 12 inch overlap onto adjacent GCL surfaces.
A seal of loose bentonite granules shall be placed in seam overlaps at a minimum rate of one quarter pound per linear foot of seam for all panel end seams and longitudinal seams. The seal of loose bentonite may be deleted, with concurrence by the department, for longitudinal seams where the manufacturer has processed the overlap area to enhance sealing. The seal may not be deleted for any longitudinal seams that are transitions between construction phases.
Loose bentonite or bentonite amended soil shall be placed at all patches and penetrations.
GCL panels shall be certified needle-free through magnetic and metal detection tests.
The GCL shall be placed in direct contact with a soil barrier layer.
Vehicle traffic on the subgrade of the GCL and on the GCL shall be restricted to the minimum weight and number of machines needed to deploy the GCL and geomembrane. Vehicles shall be operated to minimize the formation of ruts and surface deformations and to prevent damage to the GCL and geomembrane. Deployment methods shall be selected to prevent any tearing or combing out of fibers of the GCL.
Soil cover placement over the geosynthetics shall be completed in the same construction season as the geosynthetic construction.
The soil barrier layer shall consist of fine-grained soil or a well graded sandy soil with fines, meeting the USCS soil types ML, CL, CH, SM, or SC or dual-symbol classifications of these soils, with at least 25% by weight passing the P200 sieve size. The upper one foot shall have a maximum particle size of 2 inches or less. The lower one foot shall have a maximum particle size of 4 inches or less.
The soil barrier layer shall be compacted in lift heights of no greater than 12 inches after compaction using footed compaction equipment with feet at least 6 inches long. Each lift shall be disked or otherwise mechanically processed prior to compaction to break up clods and allow for moisture content adjustment. Clod size shall be no greater than 4 inches.
A sufficient number of passes of the compaction equipment shall be made over each lift to ensure complete remolding of the soil. All compaction equipment utilized shall have a minimum static weight of 30,000 pounds. Compaction equipment with static weight that exceeds 15,000 pounds may be utilized where it utilizes vibration to achieve dynamic compaction that exceeds 30,000 pounds of compaction energy. Lighter equipment may be used in small areas where it is not possible to use full size equipment. Alternative procedures or equipment may be proposed for approval by the department.
All soil shall be compacted to 90% modified or 95% standard Proctor density or greater at a moisture content at or wet of optimum. As soil placement proceeds, the minimum density and moisture content targets shall be adjusted as necessary.
Each lift shall be keyed into clay or soil barrier layer soils in adjacent phases to form a continuous seal. This shall be accomplished by excavating steps with a minimum width of 2 feet along the edge of the existing phase and overlapping them with lifts being placed for the new phase. A minimum of 2 steps shall be included.
The surface of the top lift shall be graded or compacted to be smooth and firm and shall be inspected for removal of coarse gravel, cobbles and debris prior to placement of a GCL.
For industrial solid waste landfills that predominantly accept compressible wastes or wastes with high water contents and low strength, the clay layer may be replaced by a GCL overlying a minimum of a one foot sand layer. The gradation of the sand layer shall be a uniform sand selected to vent gas, drain leachate and provide hydration water to the GCL.
For industrial solid waste landfills that predominantly accept ash, the clay layer may be replaced by a GCL overlying a minimum of 2 feet of soil barrier layer. The soil barrier layer shall meet the requirements of par. (a) 13.
The upper foot of soil barrier layer shall also meet the requirements of par. (a) 12.
The lower foot shall be designed to provide a capillary break between the ash and the upper one foot of soil barrier layer.
The lower one foot of the clay layer may be replaced with a minimum of one foot of foundry green sand system sand with a bentonite content of greater than 6%, a liquid limit of greater than 20, a plasticity index of greater than 6, and a hydraulic conductivity of less than 1x10-7 cm/sec. The green sand system sand shall be compacted to 90% modified or 95% standard Proctor density or greater at a moisture content at or wet of optimum.
(5) Geomembrane layer.
A geomembrane layer shall be designed to provide a low hydraulic conductivity barrier to percolation. The design and construction of the geomembrane component of the final cover system shall meet the requirements of s. NR 504.06 (3) (c)
and the following:
The nominal geomembrane thickness shall be 40 mils or greater, with no thickness measurements falling below industry accepted manufacturing tolerances.
The geomembrane shall be installed in direct contact with the clay capping layer.
Penetrations of the geomembrane, such as gas extraction wells, shall be fitted with prefabricated collars of pipe and membrane or plate and welded at the same angles which the penetrations make with the final cover slope. Methods of fixing membrane boots to vertical pipes extending above the geomembrane shall allow for differential settlement of the waste with respect to the piping without damage to the membrane seal.
(6) Drainage and rooting zone layer.
A minimum 2.5 foot thick drainage and rooting zone layer shall be designed above the geomembrane layer or clay capping layer. This layer shall include a rooting zone to provide additional rooting depth for vegetation and to protect the geomembrane layer or the clay capping layer from freeze-thaw damage and other environmental effects. It shall also include a drainage layer to allow for the drainage of liquid infiltrating through the cap. Soils available on or near the proposed landfill property may be proposed for the rooting zone portion of this layer. This layer may not be densely compacted.
For all landfills, a drainage layer shall be designed immediately above the capping layer. The drainage layer shall consist of a minimum of one foot of sand with a minimum hydraulic conductivity of 1x10-3 cm/sec or a geosynthetic drain layer of equivalent or greater flow capacity. The design shall include an analysis which demonstrates whether the maximum head in the drain layer will be confined within the thickness of the drain. Drain calculations shall include infiltration rates based on saturated characteristics of the topsoil and rooting zone and a hydraulic gradient of one through the topsoil and rooting zone.
A perimeter drain pipe shall be placed at the low end of all final cover sideslopes. The drain pipe shall be surrounded by a minimum of 6 inches of gravel or sand with a minimum hydraulic conductivity of 1x10-2 cm/sec. The drain pipe shall be sloped to a series of outlets at spacings no further than every 200 feet. Modeling may be submitted to the department which supports the proposal of a different spacing.
A minimum of 6 inches of topsoil shall be designed over the cover layer to support the proposed vegetation. Fertilizer and lime shall be added in accordance with section 630, Wisconsin department of transportation standard specifications for road and bridge construction or other appropriate specifications in order to establish a thick vegetative growth.
The seed type and amount of fertilizer applied shall be proposed depending on the type and quality of topsoil and compatibility with both native vegetation and the final use. Unless otherwise approved by the department in writing, seed mixtures and sowing rates shall be those specified for right–of–ways according to section 630, 2003 edition of the Wisconsin department of transportation standard specifications for highway and structure construction and the 2004 supplemental specifications. Application rates for fertilizer and mulch shall also be specified.
NR 504.07 Note
The 2003 edition of the Wisconsin department of transportation standard specifications for highway and structure construction and any annual supplemental specifications are available at http://www.dot.wisconsin.gov/business/engrserv/procedures.htm
or can be obtained from the department of natural resources, bureau of waste management, 101 S. Webster Street, P.O. Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707-7921, (608) 266-2111, firstname.lastname@example.org
. Copies are also available for inspection at the offices of the legislative reference bureau and the secretary of state.
(9) Final use.
The proposed final use shall be compatible with the final cover system. The following activities are prohibited at solid waste disposal landfills which are no longer in operation unless specifically approved by the department in writing.
Use of the waste disposal area for agricultural purposes.
Establishment or construction of any buildings over the waste disposal area.
NR 504.07 History
Cr. Register, January, 1988, No. 385
, eff. 2-6-88; am. (1) (a), (b), (2), cr. (1) (c), (d), (5), (6) (a), (b), r. and recr. (3), (4), r. (5) (a) to (c), renum. (5) to (8) to be (6) to (9) and am. (6) (intro.), (7), (9) (intro.), (a), (b), Register, June, 1996, No. 486
, eff. 7-1-96; CR 04-077
: am. (6) (a) Register November 2005 No. 599
, eff. 12-1-05; CR 05-020
: r. and recr. (4), am. (8) Register January 2006 No. 601
, eff. 2-1-06.
This section applies to all soil borrow sources developed for the purpose of constructing, operating or closing landfills. Written approval from the department shall be obtained prior to initiating soil borrow activities at any borrow source subject to these requirements.
The following activities are exempt from the requirements of this section:
Excavation of soils from construction projects off of the landfill property, provided the soils will be used for purposes other than a compacted clay liner or capping layer, soil barrier layer, leachate collection layer or final cover drain layer.
Soil borrow sources which are exclusively within the proposed or approved limits of filling for a landfill or areas where soils are obtained from excavation projects developed primarily for purposes other than construction, operation or closure of a landfill are not subject to the requirements of subs. (3)
and (4) (b)
(3) Initial site inspection.
An initial site inspection shall be conducted in accordance with s. NR 509.04
for each proposed soil borrow source.
Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include a description of total acreage, ownership, location by quarter – quarter section and by parcel corner using a coordinate system and datum acceptable to the department, present land uses, transportation routes, any access restrictions and travel distance to and from the landfill.
Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include site–specific surface water drainage patterns and significant hydrologic features such as surface waters, springs, drainage divides and wetlands; areas of special natural resource interest; and historical or archaeological areas within and adjacent to the proposed limits of excavation.
(5) Field and laboratory investigations for clay borrow sources and soil barrier layer sources.
Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include field and laboratory investigations to define the physical characteristics of any clay borrow source or soil barrier layer source designated to be used for a liner or final cover for the landfill. An alternative geotechnical investigation program may be used if it is approved by the department in writing prior to performing the field and laboratory investigations. An alternative geotechnical investigation program may be submitted in cases where previous information exists regarding the proposed soil borrow source. Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include justification for any reduction in sampling or testing frequency required by this section or by an approved alternative geotechnical investigation.
A minimum of 10 test pits or borings for the first 5 or less acres and one test pit or boring for each additional 3 or less acres shall be excavated or drilled on a uniform grid pattern across each proposed borrow source to document the depth, lateral extent and uniformity of the clay or soil barrier layer. The department recommends using test pits as the method of borrow source investigation. Logs identifying the geologic origin, testing results, USCS classification and a visual description of each major soil unit encountered shall be included with the submittals for soil borrow sources.
A minimum of 2 representative samples from each test pit or boring shall be analyzed by a soils laboratory for Atterberg limits and grain size distribution to the 0.002 millimeter particle size using mechanical and hydrometer methods. Each sample shall be classified according to the USCS.
A minimum of one representative sample from each major soil unit shall be tested for the relationship of water content to dry density using either the modified or standard Proctor method. For uniform clay deposits or uniform soil barrier layer source deposits, no fewer than 3 samples shall be tested. Each Proctor curve shall be developed with a minimum of 5 points. If the line of optimums method is anticipated to be used in construction, both the standard and modified Proctor curves shall be developed for each representative sample.
A minimum of one laboratory hydraulic conductivity test shall be conducted on each sample used to develop the Proctor curves. The samples tested shall be at or above the optimum moisture content. This requirement does not apply if the soil borrow source is contiguous with a previously approved borrow source for clay or soil barrier layer soils and all field observations and laboratory test results support an interpretation that the soil borrow source occupies the same soil horizon and has the same genesis as the previously approved borrow source. Support for such a conclusion shall be provided in the submittals for soil borrow sources.
Stockpiling of soils obtained from clay borrow sources and soil barrier layer sources for landfill liner or final cover construction shall be conducted in an organized manner that minimizes mixing of dissimilar soil types. Soils shall be segregated into stockpiles based on similar USCS soil type, soil gradation, Atterberg limits and compaction specifications. Soils from differing sources may not be commingled unless soil properties are similar.
(7) Data presentation for all clay borrow sources and soil barrier layer sources.
Submittals for soil borrow sources for clay and soil barrier layers shall include all of the following:
The calculated volume of soil needed and the volume of acceptable soil available.
Property boundaries and any test pit or boring locations, shown on a topographic map with a scale of 1 inch = 500 feet and provided in a digital format acceptable to the department. The mapped area shall extend a minimum of 500 feet beyond the proposed borrow source.
A description of the methods to be used for separating the acceptable soil from any unacceptable soil.
A proposal for maintaining drainage and sedimentation control.
(8) Data presentation for other borrow sources.
Submittals for soil borrow sources other than those used for clay and soil barrier layers shall include all of the following:
Property boundaries shown on a topographic map with a scale of 1 inch = 500 feet and provided in a digital format acceptable to the department. The mapped area shall extend a minimum of 500 feet beyond the proposed borrow source.
A proposal for maintaining drainage and sedimentation control.
(9) Stormwater management.
Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include a stormwater management plan that complies with the requirements of s. NR 504.09 (1) (a)
, unless the borrow source is subject to other permits with equivalent authority and requirements, such as a stormwater discharge permit or non-metallic mining reclamation permit.
(10) Reclamation of borrow sites.
Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include a reclamation plan detailing the actions to be taken to achieve successful reclamation of the borrow source.
Reclamation plans for borrow sources on the property where the landfill is located shall specify a post-mining land use that is integrated with the existing and proposed drainage, surface water discharge requirements, grades and final use of the landfill. The reclamation plan shall be prepared consistent with the applicable standards in ss. NR 135.06
Soil borrow areas that are not on the landfill property are subject to the provisions of ch. NR 135
and, if required, shall submit a reclamation plan and obtain a nonmetallic mining reclamation permit from the appropriate regulatory authority.
Clay borrow sources and soil barrier layer sources proposed for a liner or final cover that have less than a 5 foot but greater than 2 foot uniform thickness may be approved if the applicant demonstrates an excavation methodology and a documentation procedure to ensure that all soil used meets soil index properties required by this chapter.
Submittals for soil borrow sources shall include a description of any necessary measures to be taken to comply with wetlands protection requirements, runoff and sediment controls and surface water discharge permit requirements and to minimize effects on areas of special natural resource interest and historical or archaeological areas within and adjacent to the proposed limits of excavation.
NR 504.075 Note
It may be necessary to obtain federal, state or local permits prior to excavating soil from a borrow source near surface waters or wetlands. For example, s. 30.19 (1g) (c)
, Stats., requires a permit for grading or removing top soil from the bank of any navigable stream, lake or body of navigable water where the area exposed by such grading or removal will exceed 10,000 square feet. It is the responsibility of the applicant or property owner to obtain any federal, state or local permits that are required and to provide reference to those other permit applications in the submittals for soil borrow sources.
NR 504.075 History
History: CR 05-020
: cr. Register January 2006 No. 601
, eff. 2-1-06.
Minimum design and construction criteria for landfill gas extraction systems. NR 504.08(1)
All landfills accepting wastes with the potential to generate gas shall be designed to prevent the migration of explosive gases generated by the waste fill.
(2) Active gas extraction and treatment.
In order to efficiently collect and combust hazardous air contaminants, all landfills which accept municipal solid waste shall be designed with an active gas recovery system. All gas recovery systems shall include the following design features, unless otherwise approved by the department:
Vertical gas extraction wells shall be proposed throughout the entire landfill with a maximum radius of influence of 150 feet per well and lesser radii proposed for wells located near the perimeter of the landfill. The radii of influence of adjacent wells shall overlap. Alternate well spacings may be proposed if site specific data is obtained through performance of pump tests.
All vertical gas extraction wells shall extend to 10 feet above the leachate collection system and shall be placed in 36 inch diameter boreholes. An exemption may be proposed to allow for placement of gas extraction wells closer to the leachate collection system.
The pipe in the borehole shall be a minimum 6 inch diameter, Schedule 80 polyvinylchloride or an approved alternate.
The lower 2/3 to 3/4 of the pipe in the borehole shall be slotted or perforated pipe.
The backfill around the slotted or perforated pipe in the borehole shall be one to one and 1/2 inch washed stone. The top 10 feet of the borehole shall be sealed.
Each gas extraction well shall have a flow control valve and sampling access port.
The gas header system shall be looped to allow alternative flow paths for the gas.
The minimum slope on the header pipe shall be 2% for pipes over the waste mass.