NR 720.07 NR 720.07General requirements when establishing soil cleanup standards applicable to a site or facility.
NR 720.07(1)(1)General.
NR 720.07(1)(a)(a) Responsible parties shall use information from the sources listed in s. NR 720.05 (1) to determine the residual contaminant levels or performance standards for each exposure or migration pathway of concern for each soil contaminant of concern at a site or facility in accordance with this chapter.
NR 720.07(1)(b) (b) In addition to meeting the requirements of par. (c), responsible parties shall establish the soil cleanup standard for each soil contaminant of concern at the site or facility as one of the following:
NR 720.07(1)(b)1. 1. The residual contaminant level of each contaminant in soil which is the lowest concentration from among the following as applicable: the ceiling limit concentration, the soil saturation concentration if the contaminant is a volatile, a land use specific direct contact level, a groundwater quality protective level, a concentration calculated for a pathway of concern set forth in s. NR 720.13 all of which are determined in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.
NR 720.07 Note Note: For a single contaminant, a numeric land use specific residual contaminant level is determined based on aggregate exposure through incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of soil vapors and particulates, and dermal contact with soil. When more than one contaminant is present, the residual contaminant level is determined based on cumulative exposure and may have to be adjusted downward so that the cumulative risk does not exceed an excess cancer risk of 1-in-100,000 or a hazard index of 1 for non-carcinogens.
NR 720.07(1)(b)2. 2. A performance standard determined in accordance with s. NR 720.08.
NR 720.07(1)(c) (c) In addition to meeting the requirements of par. (b), a soil cleanup standard developed under this chapter shall comply with all the following requirements:
NR 720.07(1)(c)1. 1. Residual soil contamination at the site or facility may not adversely affect surface water.
NR 720.07(1)(c)2. 2. Residual soil contamination at the site or facility may not adversely affect a sensitive environment.
NR 720.07(1)(c)3. 3. Residual soil contamination at the site or facility may not concentrate through plant uptake and adversely affect the food chain.
NR 720.07(1)(c)4. 4. Residual soil contamination at the site or facility may not result in vapor concentrations reaching a substance's lower explosive limit.
NR 720.07(2) (2)Compliance with soil cleanup standards.
NR 720.07(2)(a)(a) Contaminant concentrations in soil samples shall be determined using a department-approved and appropriate analytical method and reported on a dry weight basis. An appropriate analytical method shall have limits of detection or limits of quantitation, or both, at or below soil cleanup standards where possible. Responsible parties shall report the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation with sample results. The department may require that supporting documentation for the reported limit of detection and limit of quantitation be submitted
NR 720.07(2)(b) (b) Unless an alternative approach for determining standards exceedances is approved by the department, if a soil contaminant concentration in a sample exceeds the soil cleanup standard at or above the limit of quantitation for that soil contaminant, the soil cleanup standard shall be considered to have been exceeded.
NR 720.07 Note Note: When evaluating the direct contact pathways, it may be possible to average measured soil sample concentrations to determine whether the calculated residual contaminant level has been exceeded or not. If averaging of soil concentrations is being considered, the department recommends seeking department approval of the proposed sampling plan and analysis methodology as soon as possible, but prior to submitting a case closure request in order to avoid delays and other potential problems.
NR 720.07 Note Note: Averaging soil concentrations is not appropriate as the sole method for addressing sites with areas of significant soil contamination.
NR 720.07(2)(c) (c) If a soil cleanup standard for a soil contaminant is between the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation, the soil cleanup standard shall be considered to be exceeded if the soil contaminant concentration is reported at or above the limit of quantitation.
NR 720.07(2)(d) (d) The following applies when a soil cleanup standard for a soil contaminant is below the limit of detection:
NR 720.07(2)(d)1. 1. If a soil contaminant is not detected in a sample, the soil cleanup standard shall not be considered to have been exceeded.
NR 720.07(2)(d)2. 2. If a soil contaminant is reported above the limit of detection but below the limit of quantitation, the responsible party may accept the results and the soil cleanup standard shall be considered to have been exceeded, or the responsible party may choose to have the soil sample reanalyzed by the use of an appropriate analytical method. If the soil contaminant is confirmed to be present between the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation, the soil cleanup standard shall be considered to have been exceeded. If the soil contaminant is not detected upon reanalysis of the soil sample, the soil cleanup standard shall not be considered to have been exceeded.
NR 720.07(3) (3)Background. If the background concentration for a substance in soil at a site or facility is higher than the residual contaminant level for that substance determined using the procedures in this section, the background concentration in soil may be used as the residual contaminant level for that substance. The background concentration for a substance in soil shall be determined using a department-approved and appropriate method.
NR 720.07 Note Note: Naturally occurring background concentrations of arsenic in soil, for example, may be higher than the calculated residual contaminant level for arsenic. In such instances, the naturally occurring background concentration could be used as the soil cleanup level.
NR 720.07 History History: Cr. Register, March, 1995, No. 471, eff. 4-1-95; CR 12-023: am. (title), (1) (a) to (c), cr. (1) (c) 4., am. (2) (b), (d) 2., cr. (3) Register October 2013 No. 694, eff. 11-1-13.
NR 720.08 NR 720.08Procedures for establishing soil performance standards.
NR 720.08(1)(1)General. If a responsible party selects this option, performance standards shall be established and maintained so that the residual contaminants in the soil do not pose a threat to public health, safety, or welfare or the environment.
NR 720.08 Note Note: Guidance document RR-528 indicates that it may not be necessary to determine numeric residual contaminant levels for contaminants as long as all contaminant pathways for all contaminants of concern are addressed by the remedial action, the extent of contamination is fully defined, the remedy remains in place, is maintained as appropriate and remains effective. For example, if a cover is placed that addresses all pathways for the contaminated soil, then it isn't necessary to determine the numeric residual contaminant levels for as long as the cover adequately addresses the pathway and remains protective. It may be necessary to determine residual contaminant levels in the future if the remedy is changed or replaced.
NR 720.08(2) (2)Protection of groundwater. Acceptable performance standard options to address the soil to groundwater pathway may include any of, or any combination of, the following:
NR 720.08(2)(a) (a) Placement of a permanent engineering control such as a cap or cover to limit infiltration and thereby minimizing the leaching of soil contaminants to groundwater that is constructed and maintained until the threat to groundwater no longer exists.
NR 720.08(2)(b) (b) Use of natural attenuation to contain and remediate the contaminants present.
NR 720.08(2)(c) (c) Operation of a system in compliance with ch. NR 724 until the lowest concentration that is practicable is achieved.
NR 720.08 Note Note: As explained in more detail in guidance document RR-528, if there is no threat to groundwater from soil contamination, a soil remedy is not necessary. The lack of groundwater contamination may not always be sufficient to establish there is not threat to the groundwater pathway. An analysis to determine whether sufficient time has passed for the soil contamination to have reached the locations where groundwater is being monitored may be necessary. The factors that may need to be considered include: the age of the contaminant release, type of contaminants, geologic setting, depth to groundwater, and the proximity of the monitoring wells to the source of contamination.
NR 720.08(3) (3)Protection from direct contact. Acceptable performance standard options to address the direct contact pathway may include either of, or a combination of, the following:
NR 720.08(3)(a) (a) Placement of a permanent engineering control such as a cap or cover that is constructed and maintained until the direct contact threat no longer exists.
NR 720.08(3)(b) (b) Operation of a system in compliance with ch. NR 724 until the lowest concentration that is practicable is achieved.
NR 720.08 History History: CR 12-023: cr. Register October 2013 No. 694, eff. 11-1-13.
NR 720.10 NR 720.10Procedures for determining residual contaminant levels based on protection of groundwater.
NR 720.10(1)(1)General. If a responsible party selects this option, residual contaminant levels for soil based on protection of groundwater shall be developed using the enforcement standards established in ch. NR 140 or using procedures consistent with the methodology in ss. 160.13 and 160.15, Stats., and the criteria in s. NR 722.09 (2) (b) 2. when there is no enforcement standard as the target concentrations in groundwater. If the department of health has not developed a recommended enforcement standard and a federal maximum contaminant level exists, that value may be used for calculating a soil residual contaminant level.
NR 720.10 Note Note: In developing a residual contaminant level, any relevant information may be considered, including public welfare concerns for groundwater, such as taste and odor, and drinking water health advisory levels.
NR 720.10(2) (2)Methods. Responsible parties shall use one or more of the methods listed in this section based on scientifically valid procedures that are subject to department review and approval and site-specific geological, physical and chemical conditions to establish residual contaminant levels:
NR 720.10(2)(a) (a) A contaminant transport and fate model.
NR 720.10(2)(b) (b) Leaching tests appropriate for the site or facility in both application and extent.
NR 720.10(2)(c) (c) Any other appropriate method approved by the department for that specific site or facility, or other appropriate method suggested in department guidance.
NR 720.10 Note Note: Guidance document RR-890 provides detailed instructions on one method the department considers scientifically valid for purposes of calculating site specific residual contaminant levels that are protective of groundwater quality. A table of residual contaminant levels that are calculated using the standard default exposure assumptions can be found at: http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Brownfields/professionals.html#tabx2.
NR 720.10 History History: CR 12-023: cr. Register October 2013 No. 694, eff. 11-1-13.
NR 720.12 NR 720.12Procedures for determining residual contaminant levels based on protection of human health from direct contact with contaminated soil.
NR 720.12(1)(1)General. If a responsible party selects this option, residual contaminant levels for soil based on protection of human health from direct contact shall be developed using the following criteria:
NR 720.12(1)(a) (a) For individual compounds using an excess cancer risk of 1x10-6 and a hazard quotient for non-carcinogens of one; and
NR 720.12(1)(b) (b) The cumulative excess cancer risk will not exceed 1x10-5 and the hazard index for non-carcinogens will not exceed one for the site or facility.
NR 720.12(1)(c) (c) Risks for carcinogens and hazard quotients for non-carcinogens are presumed to be additive within each category, unless there is specific information that demonstrates that an alternative approach is more appropriate.
NR 720.12(1)(d) (d) If toxicological values for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic end points exist for a substance, both shall be evaluated and the method that generates the lowest residual contaminant level shall be used for the site or facility.
NR 720.12(2) (2)Methods and procedures. Responsible parties shall determine a residual contaminant level to protect public health from direct contact with soil contamination using scientifically valid procedures and toxicological values approved by the department and the default exposure assumptions identified in sub. (3) or alternative assumptions specifically approved by the department in writing.
NR 720.12 Note Note: The department will generally consider toxicological values in the following order: U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); U.S. EPA's Provisional Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTV); Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); California EPA (Cal EPA); U.S. EPA's Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST); other pertinent toxicological information.
NR 720.12(3) (3)Default exposure assumptions.
NR 720.12(3)(a)(a) Non-carcinogens. When the contaminant is not a carcinogen, the following default exposure assumptions shall be used:
NR 720.12(3)(a)1. 1. When the land use of a site or facility is classified as non-industrial, in accordance with s. NR 720.05 (5), all of the following shall apply:
NR 720.12(3)(a)1.a. a. Incidental ingestion of soil shall be assumed to occur at the rate of 200 mg of soil per day for a 15 kg child for 350 days each year.
NR 720.12(3)(a)1.b. b. Dermal absorption of soil shall be determined assuming a child's daily exposed skin surface area of 2,800 cm2 with a skin-soil adherence factor of 0.2 mg/cm2 and a contaminant specific dermal absorption fraction.
NR 720.12(3)(a)1.c. c. Inhalation of outdoor soil vapors shall be assumed to occur for each volatile contaminant at a 24-hour daily exposure rate determined by the volatile's soil-to-air volatilization factor, and inhalation of particulate matter shall be determined assuming a particulate emission factor of 1.43 x109 m3/kg.
NR 720.12(3)(a)1.d. d. An averaging period for exposure shall equal the default exposure duration of 6 years.
NR 720.12(3)(a)2. 2. When the land use of a site or facility is classified as industrial, in accordance with s. NR 720.05 (5), all of the following shall apply:
NR 720.12(3)(a)2.a. a. Incidental ingestion of soil shall be assumed to occur at the rate of 100 mg of soil per day for a 70 kg adult worker for 250 days each year.
NR 720.12(3)(a)2.b. b. Dermal absorption of soil shall be determined assuming an adult outdoor worker's daily exposed skin surface of 3,300 cm2 with a skin-soil adherence factor of 0.2 mg/cm2 and a contaminant specific dermal absorption fraction.
NR 720.12(3)(a)2.c. c. Inhalation of outdoor soil vapors shall be assumed to occur for each volatile contaminant at an 8-hour daily exposure rate determined by the volatile contaminant's soil-to-air volatilization factor, and inhalation of particulate matter shall be determined assuming a particulate emission factor of 1.43 x109 m3/kg.
NR 720.12(3)(a)2.d. d. An averaging period of exposure shall equal the default exposure duration of 25 years.
NR 720.12(3)(b) (b) Carcinogens. When the contaminant is a carcinogen, the following default exposure assumptions shall be used:
NR 720.12(3)(b)1. 1. When the land use of a site or facility is classified as non-industrial, in accordance with s. NR 720.05 (5), all of the following shall apply:
NR 720.12(3)(b)1.a. a. Incidental ingestion of soil shall be assumed to occur at the rate of 200 mg of soil per day for 350 days each year for 6 years for a 15 kg child and the rate of 100 mg per day for 350 days each year for 24 years for a 70 kg adult.
NR 720.12(3)(b)1.b. b. Dermal absorption of soil shall be determined assuming a child's daily exposed skin surface area of 2,800 cm2 with a skin-soil adherence factor of 0.2 mg/cm2, and an adult's daily exposed skin-surface area of 5,700 cm2 with a skin-soil adherence factor of 0.07 mg/cm2 and a contaminant specific dermal absorption fraction.
NR 720.12(3)(b)1.c. c. Inhalation of outdoor soil vapors shall be assumed to occur for each volatile contaminant at a 24-hour daily exposure rate determined by the volatile contaminant's soil-to-air volatilization factor, and inhalation of particulate matter shall be determined assuming a particulate emission factor of 1.43 x109 m3/kg. For mutagenic contaminants, age segmented exposure durations shall be assumed when age adjusted cancer slope factors are available.
NR 720.12(3)(b)1.d. d. An averaging period of 30 years of exposure consisting of 6 child years and 24 adult years shall be assumed during a 70 year lifetime.
NR 720.12(3)(b)2. 2. When the land use of a site or facility is classified as industrial, in accordance with s. NR 720.05 (5), all of the following shall apply:
NR 720.12(3)(b)2.a. a. Incidental ingestion of soil shall be assumed to occur at the rate of 100 mg of soil per day for 250 days each year for a 70 kg adult worker.
NR 720.12(3)(b)2.b. b. Dermal absorption of soil shall be determined assuming an adult outdoor worker's daily exposed skin surface of 3,300 cm2 with a skin-soil adherence factor of 0.2 mg/cm2 and a contaminant specific dermal absorption fraction.
NR 720.12(3)(b)2.c. c. Inhalation of outdoor soil vapors shall be assumed to occur for each volatile contaminant at an 8-hour daily exposure rate determined by the volatile contaminant's soil-to-air volatilization factor, and inhalation of particulate matter shall be determined assuming a particulate emission factor of 1.43 x109 m3/kg.
NR 720.12(3)(b)2.d. d. An averaging period of 25 years of exposure shall be assumed during a 70 year lifetime.
NR 720.12 Note Note: EPA's regional screening level user's guide provides a table containing contaminant specific dermal absorption factors and soil to air volatilization factors. The document can be found at: http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/risk/human/rb-concentration_table/usersguide.htm.
NR 720.12 Note Note: Department approval of alternative exposure assumptions for a site or facility may be based on consultation with the department of health services. If EPA makes changes to the default exposure assumptions, the department would generally use the revised values.
NR 720.12 Note Note: Guidance document RR-890 provides detailed instructions on one method the department considers scientifically valid for purposes of calculating site specific residual contaminant levels that are protective of the direct contact pathway. A table of residual contaminant levels that are calculated using the standard default exposure assumptions can be found at: http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Brownfields/professionals.html#tabx2.
NR 720.12(4) (4)Soil parameter values. Unless otherwise approved, when determining site specific residual contaminant levels, all the following soil parameter values shall be used:
NR 720.12(4)(a) (a) For direct contact:
NR 720.12(4)(a)1. 1. A dry soil bulk density of 1.5 gm/cm3.
NR 720.12(4)(a)2. 2. An air filled soil porosity of 0.28.
NR 720.12(4)(a)3. 3. A total soil porosity of 0.43.
NR 720.12(4)(a)4. 4. A water filled porosity of 0.15.
NR 720.12(4)(a)5. 5. A soil particle density of 2.65 gm/cm3.
NR 720.12(4)(a)6. 6. A soil organic carbon content of 0.006.
NR 720.12(4)(b) (b) For soil to groundwater:
NR 720.12(4)(b)1. 1. A dry soil bulk density of 1.5 gm/cm3.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.