Hydraulic fracturing or hydrofracturing of an aquifer by injecting potable chlorinated water into a crystalline bedrock formation well under high pressures great enough to separate the aquifer along bedding planes, joints and fractures is allowed. Clean washed inert, nontoxic material such as sand may be added to the water for the purpose of holding the joints and fractures open after the pressure is reduced. Hydrofracturing may only be performed under the supervision of a well driller. The upper packer may not extend up into the bottom of the well casing pipe nor higher than 40-feet below the ground surface. Hydrofracturing in limestone or dolomite formations may be undertaken only with prior department notification. The well driller shall submit a report on a well construction report form to the department of the results of the hydrofracturing within 30 days following completion.
(3) Well pump test.
The well driller or well constructor shall conduct a pump test using the well driller's, the well constructor's or the well owner's pump for each new or reconstructed well to determine the stable yield in gallons per minute, and the water level drawdown. A pump test may be conducted using air-rotary equipment. For flowing wells, the flow rate may be measured using an orifice plate with manometer or equivalent. The static water level and drawdown shall be measured in a stilling pipe when the flow is not adequate for user needs.
NR 812.22 Note
Note: A stable pumping water level may not be possible in wells completed in crystalline bedrock.
(4) Well disinfection and batch chlorination.
Wells shall be thoroughly disinfected following completion of construction or reconstruction using a chlorine solution such as a sodium or calcium hypochlorite solution. Chlorine compounds having special additives shall not be used.
The disinfectant shall be dispersed throughout the entire water column in the well. The disinfectant shall also be brought into contact with the inside of the well casing pipe above the static water level.
The disinfectant shall remain in the well for at least 2 hours except for emergency situations, when water is needed without delay. A contact time of at least 30 minutes shall be provided for emergency situations.
A chlorine solution with a minimum of 100 mg/l of chlorine shall be used to disinfect wells and well drilling equipment.
For batch chlorination, the entire water system shall be thoroughly disinfected with a chlorine solution having a concentration of at least 500 mg/1 prepared according to Table B. The volume of chlorine solution shall be equal to or greater than the volume of water standing in the well. The chlorine solution shall be brought into contact with the entire inside of the well casing pipe by continuous circulation from the water system. A contact time of at least 12 hours shall be provided for the disinfectant.
Wells shall be thoroughly flushed after disinfection. Flushing and disinfection procedures may be performed simultaneously except for batch chlorination procedures when they shall be done separately.
The well driller or his or her agent or the well constructor of a driven point well shall collect a water sample using the well driller's, well constructor's or well owner's pump, air-lift equipment or with a bailer from any new or newly reconstructed, redeveloped or reconditioned potable well. If the well driller uses the well owner as an agent to collect the water sample, the well driller shall provide the owner with an appropriate sample bottle and laboratory form. A sample shall also be collected following any repair work that involves entry of the well for the purpose of installing, replacing or repairing equipment located within the well. The sample shall be collected for coliform bacteriological analysis within 30 days following completion of the well or following completion of rehabilitation or repair. The well is completed when all operations that require the use of drilling, driving or annular space sealing equipment have been completed. If the well driller or well constructor is also the pump installer, the water sample may be collected following completion, disinfection and flushing of the pump installation. A well driller or well constructor does not have to be licensed as a pump installer to install a test pump for well development and sampling.
The water sample shall be submitted to the Wisconsin state laboratory of hygiene or to a laboratory certified by the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection under ch. ATCP 77
to do coliform bacteriological examination of water providing the laboratory has an agreement with the department for sending water sample reports to the department within 30 days after completion of the analysis. The department recommends that the sample also be analyzed for nitrate. The certified laboratory shall send a copy of each water sample analysis report to the department on a form prescribed by the department.
The well driller, well constructor or pump installer shall provide the well owner or the owner's agent with a copy of the laboratory bacteriological analysis report within 10 days of the well driller's, well constructor's or pump installer's receipt of the laboratory bacteriological analysis report.
The well driller who contracted to construct the well, the well driller who actually constructed the well, or the well constructor shall submit an original well construction report to the department and to the owner within 30 days following the day the well was completed or reconstructed. A well construction report shall be submitted for any well deepening. A well is completed when all operations that require the use of drilling, driving or annular space sealing equipment have been completed. A well construction report is not required for well screen replacement if the screen is set to a depth not exceeding 5 feet above or below the original screen depth setting. A well construction report is also not required for blasting or hydrofracturing when done within 30 days after original completion of the well construction. Such work shall be reported on the original well construction report or on a copy of the original report. An accurate and complete well construction report shall be submitted on a form prescribed by the department to:
NR 812.22 Note
Note: The department's address is P.O. Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707
Well construction reports returned to the well driller or well constructor for completion or when compliance with the construction requirements of this chapter is questionable shall be resubmitted to the department within 15 days of receipt. The original well construction report shall be resubmitted. Dry drillholes or unsuccessful wells drilled in conjunction with well construction and not immediately abandoned shall be reported on a well construction report and on a well abandonment report form. The well driller or well constructor shall ensure proper abandonment according to s. NR 812.26
, of any drillhole constructed by the well driller or well constructor that is not intended to provide water.
(8) Well conditioning reports.
The well driller, well constructor or project supervisor shall, within 30 days following any well blasting, hydrofracturing or chemical treatment operation conducted under an approval, submit a report to the department detailing the methods used and results achieved.
NR 812.22 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (2) (b) 1., (4) (a) and (b), (5), (6) (a) and (7) (a) (intro.), cr. (4) (e), Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94; correction in (2) (c) 1. made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, September, 1996, No. 489
; correction in (2) (c) 1. made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, May, 2000, No. 533
; correction in (6) (b) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register July 2010 No. 655
; correction in (2) (c) 1., (6) (b) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 6., 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
Driven point (sand point) wells.
Driven point wells are typically constructed in sandy soil areas with a high water table. Groundwater in these areas is very susceptible to contamination. Driven point wells shall be constructed to meet the following requirements:
The well shall be located on the highest point on the premises consistent with the general layout and surroundings, if reasonably possible, as specified in s. NR 812.08 (1) (b)
and as far removed as possible from all potential contamination sources, but at least as far as the minimum separating distances required in s. NR 812.08
Well casing pipe used for driven point wells shall meet the requirements of s. NR 812.17
The well drive pipe shall extend 12 inches above the established ground surface, pump house or building floor, or above any concrete or asphalt platform surrounding the well at or above the established ground surface. In a floodfringe, the top of the well drive pipe shall terminate at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation. Driven point wells may not be constructed in a floodway.
The diameter of the driven point well shall be selected and the expected depth considered so that the pump installation will meet the requirements of this chapter. For static water levels deeper than the lift of a shallow well pump, approximately 20 feet, a well drive pipe diameter sufficient to accommodate the packer-jet assembly in the well shall be selected to allow pumping with a deep well pump. When the requirements of sub. (5)
are met and when the use of a shallow well pump is possible the minimum diameter of the driven point well is 1-¼ inches.
The well drive pipe, not including the screen, of a driven point well shall extend to a depth of 25 feet or to a depth 10 feet below the static water level in the well, whichever is greater.
Driven point wells, when protected against freezing, may be installed with a protective outer sleeve below frost depth as shown in figure 18a. When installed in this manner, the top of the annular space between the well and the protective sleeve shall be sealed watertight with a sanitary well seal.
When a well drive pipe is removed to replace a well screen, the replacement is new well construction and shall meet all the requirements of this chapter.
Screen selection for driven point wells is optional, except that screens having any lead content may not be used.
Starter drillholes not exceeding 10 feet deep may be constructed to facilitate driving the pipe. If a starter drillhole is constructed the annular space shall be sealed according to the percussion drilling methods specified in s. NR 812.13 (2)
following completion. An attempt shall be made to remove any temporary outer casing. If possible, the temporary outer casing shall be removed.
NR 812.23 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (4) and (6), Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94.
Dug type well design and construction.
Because dug wells often pose a safety hazard and a threat to groundwater quality, the department discourages their construction. Dug wells may not be constructed without written approval. When approved, they shall be constructed to meet the following requirements:
(1) Curbing wall.
The curbing wall of a dug well shall be concrete or steel and watertight to a depth of at least 2 feet below the vertical zone of contamination, but not less than 25 feet below the established ground surface. The curbing wall through the intake area shall be of adequate strength to withstand any external pressure to which it may be subjected and shall be seated firmly enough to prevent settling.
(a) Concrete curbing wall.
The curbing wall shall be circular and at least 6 inches thick with concrete placed so as to be free from voids. The concrete mixture shall conform to provisions of s. NR 812.20 (1)
. The curbing wall shall be reinforced vertically and horizontally with 3/8-inch rods on 12-inch centers. Rods shall lap 12 inches and be staggered, but the lap may not occur at construction joints. The curbing wall should be poured in one operation. There may not be a construction joint within 10 feet of the ground surface. Construction joints shall be left rough and shall be washed and brushed with neat cement grout before pouring of concrete is continued, if possible.
- See PDF for diagram
Figure 18a. Hand pump installation protected from frost with outer casing and drainback mechanism.
(b) Steel curbing wall.
A steel curbing wall shall have a thickness of at least 1/4 inch thick and assembled with welded joints.
(c) Curbing wall installation.
The curbing wall shall be constructed at the surface and carried down by excavating from the interior. If wood forms are used on the exterior of a concrete curbing wall, they shall be removed before the curbing is lowered. Exterior wood forms may not be used below the ground surface. Metal forms may be left in place.
(d) Annular opening.
The opening between the face of the excavation and the curbing wall through the vertical zone of contamination shall be filled with clean clay slurry.
(e) Upper terminal.
The curbing wall shall extend at least 12 inches above the established ground surface. The ground shall be graded up around the curbing wall to a height of at least 6 inches above the ground surface so surface water will flow away from the well.
(2) Dug well cover.
The cover of the well curbing shall be made of reinforced watertight concrete at least 5 inches thick and of a diameter large enough to overlap the curbing wall by at least 2 inches. A drip groove shall be provided within one inch of the outer edge of the underside of the cover. The cover shall be free from joints. A pump installation access sleeve comprising a section of steel well casing pipe conforming to s. NR 812.17 (2)
shall be installed in the cover at the time of pouring the concrete to fabricate the cover and shall terminate at least 12 inches above the top of the cover. The top of the cover shall be sloped to drain away from the access sleeve. A manhole, if installed, shall be provided with a 4-inch high metal curb which shall be equipped with an overlapping metal cover, the sides of which extend downward at least 1-1/2 inches. A tight joint shall be provided between the top of the curbing and the cover using a nontoxic plastic sealing compound. The manhole cover shall be locked or bolted in place to prevent entrance of water and to be safe from vandalism and accidents.
(3) Equipment location.
All pump piping, including the pump discharge or suction pipe, shall extend watertight through an access sleeve in the dug well cover.
NR 812.24 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91.
The unprotected nature of springs subjects them to wide fluctuations in water quality. The department discourages their use as a source of potable water.
Springs vary from the standpoint of sources, locations, surrounding land uses and elevation. Each spring considered for use as a source of potable water shall be evaluated by the department prior to use as a potable source. Development of a spring as a source of potable water will be approved only after a department evaluation and approval. The placement or driving of a casing pipe into an undeveloped spring in a location easily accessible to the public regardless of the intended use of the spring water is prohibited.
Water supplies using springs as a source of water shall meet the following requirements:
The area surrounding the spring to a distance of at least 100 feet laterally and 50 feet downgrade and the area immediately upslope from the spring to a point beyond the crest of the slope or to a distance of at least 200 feet upslope from the spring, may not be used for any activity, including human habitation, which may contaminate the spring.
The spring outlet shall be at least 2 feet above the regional flood water level.
The spring water shall flow from an underground source having enough overburden so that a horizontal plane extending back into the slope of the hill 100 feet will be at least 25 feet below the ground surface.
The spring shall meet the distance separation requirements from potential contamination sources as specified in s. NR 812.08
The spring outlet shall be completely protected against the entrance of surface water runoff, insects, rodents and contaminants.
As depicted in figure 19, a poured concrete box structure reinforced with 3/8 inch bars each way shall be constructed to house the spring outlet. This spring box shall meet the following minimum construction requirements:
Five-inch thick walls and roof with no cracks or holes, except for the overflow pipe in the wall and the access openings in the roof,
A 20-inch diameter round, or a 20-inch square access opening in the roof with a 4-inch thick concrete curbing wall that extends 8 inches above the roof,
An overlapping, tight-fitting, shoebox-type cover with 4-inch high skirted sides, constructed from welded sheet steel, to cover the access opening,
A 4-inch diameter or larger steel pipe sleeve, comprising a section of well casing pipe conforming to s. NR 812.17 (2)
extending through the roof to a point at least 12 inches above the roof for the passage of the pump suction and discharge pipe or a service pipe from a pressure tank. The steel pipe sleeve shall be provided with a one-piece top plate sanitary well seal, and
An overflow pipe with a screened outlet that terminates at least 2 pipe diameters above the maximum water level at its discharge point.
Buried discharge pipe from the spring, from a pump or any service pipes from a pressure tank shall be maintained under positive gauge pressure at all times.
When the pump, pressure tank, or both, are installed above the spring outlet box, an insulated housing shall be provided for frost protection.
The spring shall be capable of producing water that is continuously free from coliform bacterial contamination and free of contaminants in excess of the drinking water standards in s. NR 812.06
NR 812.25 History
Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421
, eff. 2-1-91; am. (1) and (2) (a) 1., Register, September, 1994, No. 465
, eff. 10-1-94.
Well and drillhole abandonment. NR 812.26(1)(1)
The permanent abandonment of unused or contaminated wells or drillholes and noncomplying water systems is an important step in the protection of the local groundwater quality. Wells, especially those with structural defects, may act as conduits for the vertical movement of contamination from or near the ground surface to the groundwater or from one aquifer to another.
The owner shall permanently abandon a well or a drillhole under any of the following conditions unless the department approves the continued use of the well or drillhole:
The well water is contaminated with biological agents, bacteriological, viral or parasitic, and 3 attempts at batch chlorination fail to eliminate the problem,
The well or drillhole construction or well location does not comply with the minimum standards of this chapter, or
The well or drillhole has been taken out of service or has not been used for 3 or more years and is not needed by the owner in the immediate future as a source of water for human consumption, sanitary purposes, commercial use or for stock watering. As an alternative, the owner may temporarily abandon the well according to sub. (4)
The department may require the owner to abandon a well or drillhole under the following conditions:
The well water is contaminated with a substance in exceedence of the drinking water standards specified in s. NR 812.06
The well was not constructed by the well owner or by a licensed well driller, or
A well driller or well constructor shall abandon a well or drillhole, which he or she constructed or reconstructed, under the following conditions except when the department approves the continued use of the well or drillhole:
The well construction or well location does not comply with the minimum standards of this chapter at the time the well was constructed, or
The drillhole is an unsuccessful attempt to construct or reconstruct a well.
The department may require any person who has abandoned a well not in compliance with this section to return and take corrective action so that the well is abandoned by him or her in a complying manner.
(3) Requirements for wells removed from service.
Any well or drillhole removed from service shall be properly abandoned according to the criteria and procedures in this section except as exempted by s. NR 123.23 (3) (c)
or by the department. Any well or drillhole removed from service shall be properly abandoned prior to any demolition or construction work on the property. A well driller or well constructor who removes a well from service shall inform the well owner that the department requires that any well removed from service be permanently abandoned according to the requirements of this section. A well driller or well constructor shall report any well he or she removes from service on the well construction report for any replacement well he or she constructs on the property.
(4) Temporary abandonment requirements.
Any well to be temporarily abandoned shall meet the minimum requirements of this chapter and shall be able to produce a bacteriological safe water sample if the well is potable. When a well is temporarily abandoned, the owner shall notify the department. To temporarily abandon a well, the top of the well casing pipe shall be sealed with a watertight cap threaded onto the top of the well casing pipe or drive pipe or with a steel plate welded watertight to the top of the well casing pipe. If the pump or well seal is watertight, the pump may be left in place.
(5) Well or drillhole casing pipe.
The well casing pipe or drillhole casing pipe shall be left in place when a well or drillhole is permanently abandoned, except under par. (a)
and only if the well or drillhole is sealed as the well casing pipe is pulled; and if any concrete or neat cement grout that settles in the drillhole is replaced.
The well casing pipe may be removed from a dry drillhole and reinstalled in a well on the same property within 30 days of original drillhole construction,
The well casing pipe may be removed from a well or drillhole as part of reconstruction ordered or requested by the department. The well casing pipe may only be reinstalled on the same property if the reconstruction takes place within 120 days of the original construction,
The well casing pipe may be removed from a dewatering well or a drillhole. Such well casing pipe may only be reused for dewatering wells.
The well casing pipe may be removed from a recently constructed well or drillhole and reused if the well casing pipe is inspected and approved for reuse by a department representative.