Flashing shall be installed in accordance with this section to drain any water outward away from structural members, sheathing and insulation.
Open joints or weep holes shall be provided in the facing immediately above the flashing at a horizontal spacing not exceeding 2 feet.
Flashing that will be exposed to ultraviolet light shall consist of materials which are durable and permanently UV-resistant, such as sheet metal or heavy-gauge PVC.
SPS 321.26 Note
Note: Materials including house wrap, asphalt-impregnated building paper, plastic sheeting, peel-and-stick rubberized sheet material, and light-gauge PVC are not acceptable as meeting this requirement.
SPS 321.26(8)(b)1.1. `Lintels and chimneys.'
In exterior hollow masonry walls, flashing shall be installed at the backsides of chimneys and at the bottom of the cavity formed by openings such as lintels over doors and windows.
Flashing shall be installed at the bottom of veneer and shall extend over the top of the foundation and up at least 8 inches and be embedded in the backing course.
Rope or similar material used to form a weep hole shall be removed as soon as the mortar sets.
SPS 321.26 Note
See s. SPS 321.24 (3)
for further requirements relating to flashing for masonry.
SPS 321.26(9)(a)(a) Concentrated loads.
Beams, girders, trusses, joists and other members producing concentrated loads shall bear a minimum of 3 inches on one of the following:
1. `Concrete beam.'
The equivalent of a nominally reinforced 2,500 psi concrete beam 8 inches in height.
2. `Solid masonry.'
At least 8 inches in height of masonry composed of solid masonry units with all voids and joints completely filled with mortar.
3. `Metal plate.'
A metal plate of sufficient thickness and size to distribute the load to masonry units. For piers and columns, the bearing plate shall not exceed 60% of the cross-sectional area of the pier or column and the resultant reaction of all vertical and horizontal loads shall fall within the middle third of the member.
4. `Bond beam.'
The bond beam shall be the equivalent of not less than an 8-inch lintel (bond beam) block with 2 No. 4 bars embedded in high strength mortar fill or equivalent. The loads shall bear on the fill.
(b) Continuous loads.
Joists, trusses and beams other than wood, spaced 4 feet or less on center and 40 feet or less in length, slabs or other members causing continuous loads shall be transmitted to masonry with a minimum bearing of 3 inches upon solid masonry at least 2½
inches in height, or as indicated for concentrated loads.
(c) Stack bond walls.
Concentrated loads shall be distributed into masonry laid in stack bond by a concrete beam or bond beam as defined in par. (a)
. For masonry of solid units, 2 additional rows of a continuous tie assembly may be used instead of a concrete beam or bond beam.
(d) Support of wood floor members.
Where a wood structural member is buried in masonry for support, it shall be firecut or a self-releasing device shall be used. Where the end of a wood structural member is built into an exterior wall, a ½
-inch air space shall be provided at the sides, top and end of such member.
Unless designed through structural analysis, all masonry walls shall be bonded as follows:
(a) Single-wythe walls.
Masonry units in single-wythe walls shall be lapped at least 2 inches or one-third the height of the masonry unit, whichever is greater, or through the use of continuous tie assemblies spaced at 16-inch vertical intervals.
(b) Multi-wythe walls.
Adjacent wythes shall be bonded with continuous tie assemblies spaced at vertical intervals not exceeding 16 inches; or individual ties of at least 3/16
-inch diameter for each 4½
square feet of wall area, spaced at a maximum vertical distance of 18 inches and a maximum horizontal distance of 36 inches; or bonded with a full course of masonry headers every seventh course. The clear distance between bond courses shall not exceed 16 inches for solid masonry units and 24 inches for hollow masonry units. Hollow walls shall not be bonded with headers.
(11) Bolts and anchors.
The allowable shear on steel bolts and anchors shall not exceed the values given in Table 321.26.
- See PDF for table
Joints in masonry construction shall be constructed in accordance with ACI 530.1.
Chemical cleaning agents shall be prevented from harming the metal reinforcement of structural components and shall not be of a strength which will adversely affect the mortar.
SPS 321.26 History
Cr. Register, November, 1979, No. 287
, eff. 6-1-80; am. (3) and cr. Table 21.26-B1 Register, February, 1985, No. 350
, eff. 3-1-85; am. (9) (b), Register, January, 1989, No. 397
, eff. 2-1-89; am. (6) (b), Register, March, 1992, No. 435
, eff. 4-1-92; r. and recr. (2), am. (5) (c), (7) (a) 3., 4., (b), r. (14), Register, November, 1995, No. 479
, eff. 12-1-95; CR 02-077
: am. (7) (a) 4. Register May 2003 No. 569
, eff. 8-1-03; CR 08-043
: r. and recr. (1), (5) (a), (8) and (12), renum. (3) (intro.) and (a) to be (3) (a) and (b) and am. (3) (a), am. (4) (b) and (7) (a) 2., r. (5) (c), Tables 21.26-B and B1, cr. (7) (a) 5. to 7. and (c) Register March 2009 No. 639
, eff. 4-1-09; CR 09-104
: am. (8) (a) 3. Register December 2010 No. 660
, eff. 1-1-11; correction in (9) (c) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7.
, Stats., Register January 2011 No. 661
; correction in (3) (a), (6) (b), (7) (a) 6., (11) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7.
, Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672
Roof and roof-ceiling assemblies shall support all dead loads plus the minimum live loads under par. (c)
and s. SPS 321.02
Applicability of tables.
The joist and rafter tables in ch. SPS 325 Appendix A
are valid for roofs with a minimum slope of 3 in 12. Lesser slopes require engineering analysis or shall be provided with a ridge beam.
where a is the slope of the roof expressed in degrees.
SPS 321.27 Note
Note: A roof pitch of 7 in 12 is equal to 30°.
(2) Lateral restraint of walls.
Provisions shall be taken to absorb the horizontal thrust produced by a sloping roof through the use of wall ties, ceiling joists, beams at the ridge or at the wall or a system designed through structural analysis.
Roofs shall withstand a pressure of at least 20 pounds per square foot acting upward normal to the roof surface.
Roof overhangs, eaves, canopies and cornices shall withstand an upward wind pressure of at least 20 pounds per square foot applied to the entire exposed area.
Roof framing members spanning more than 6 feet measured from the outermost edge of the roof shall be permanently fastened to the top plate of load bearing walls using engineered clips, straps or hangers.
Roof framing members spanning 6 feet or less measured from the outermost edge of the roof shall be permanently fastened to the top plate of load bearing walls using toe-nailing or engineered clips, straps or hangers.
SPS 321.27 Note
For information on toe nailing, see the fastener schedule table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A
Rafters shall be notched to fit the exterior wall plate and fastened to the wall.
Collar ties shall be installed on the upper third of every third pair of abutting roof rafters or every 48 inches, whichever is less.
SPS 321.27 Note
Note: Collar ties are intended to provide stability to the roof at the ridge. Lateral restraint for the walls must be provided in accordance with sub. (2).
Where rafters meet to form a ridge, the rafters shall be attached to a ridge board.
The ridge board shall have a depth at least equal to the length of the cut end of the rafter abutting it.
Where all rafters are placed directly opposite each other or are offset at the ridge board by less than the thickness of the rafter, the ridge board shall have a nominal thickness of at least 1 inch.
Where one or more rafters are offset at the ridge board by more than the thickness of the rafter, the ridge board shall have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches.
Rafters shall be attached to ridge beams using engineered clips, straps or hangers or the connection shall be designed through structural analysis.
The required bearing for wood rafters shall be in accordance with the NDS adopted in Table 320.24-6m, except in no case shall the bearing be less than 1 1/2 inches on wood or metal or less than 3 inches on masonry or concrete.
Overhangs at gable end walls of more than 12 inches shall be provided with ladders which extend into the structure a distance no less than the length of the overhang.
The interior end of each ladder shall be attached to a rafter or truss with a hanger.
SPS 321.27 Note
Note: For the purposes of this section, a ladder is defined as a perpendicular projection extending beyond the face of the wall below.
Ceiling joists shall be nailed to exterior walls and to the ends of rafters.
Ends of ceiling joists shall be lapped at least 3 inches and be fastened either with 3-16d nails or in accordance with the floor joist requirements under s. SPS 321.22 (4) (a) 1. d.
SPS 321.27 Note
See the fastener table in the ch. SPS 325 Appendix A
for a nailing schedule for ceiling joists.
Where ceiling joists are placed at right angles to the rafters, the lookout joist or ties shall be fastened to the parallel ceiling joists or rafters using engineered clips, straps or hangers or the connection shall be designed through structural analysis.
Where no bearing is provided under valley rafters at the intersection of 2 roof areas, the valley rafters shall be doubled in thickness and shall be at least 2 inches deeper than the required common rafter to permit full bearing at the beveled end.
Where ridges are provided at different elevations, vertical support shall be provided for the interior end of the lower ridge board or ridge beam.
Where no bearing is provided under hip rafters, the hip rafters shall be of the same thickness as common rafters and shall be at least 2 inches deeper than required to permit full contact with the jack rafter.
Metal plate connected wood roof trusses shall be designed in accordance with TPI 1 and the NDS adopted under s. SPS 320.24
If connection is provided to stabilize a non-load bearing wall, a slotted expansion joint or clip shall be used.
Notching and boring of beams or girders is prohibited unless determined through structural analysis.
Notches located in the top or bottom of ceiling joists and rafters are prohibited from all of the following:
Where ceiling joists or rafters are notched at the ends, the notch may not exceed ¼
the depth of the member.
Bird mouth cuts may not exceed 1/3
the depth of the rafter unless the seat cut bears fully on the wall plate.
Holes bored within 2 inches of the top or bottom of ceiling joists or rafters may not be located in the middle 1/3
of the span of the member.