SPS 375.07 SPS 375.07 Fire retardant roof covering. A roof covering is considered fire retardant if made of 3 thicknesses of roofing felt with tar and gravel or asphalt or if made of tin, corrugated iron, galvanized iron, or other approved fire-resistive material.
SPS 375.07 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.08 SPS 375.08 Fire-resistive enclosure or partition. A fire-resistive enclosure or partition shall be of 4-hour, 3-hour, 2-hour, or one-hour construction as may be required by this code under occupancy requirements and as described in s. Ind 51.05, 1956.
SPS 375.08 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 4. and 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474.
SPS 375.09 SPS 375.09 Fire-resistive door. A fire-resistive door shall consist of a wooden core not less than 11/2 inches thick encased with metal using locked seam joints, or shall be entirely of metal and of a design approved by the department. The door frame shall be of metal or shall be metal covered. The door shall close automatically in case of fire.
SPS 375.09 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.10 SPS 375.10 Fire-resistive window. A fire-resistive window shall have a metal frame, metal sash and wired glass, of a design approved by the department. No pane shall be less than 1/4 inch thick nor of greater area than 720 square inches. The window shall be fixed or shall close automatically in case of fire.
SPS 375.10 Note Note: It will be the policy of the department to approve, subject to the provisions of this order, any window bearing the inspection manifest of the Underwriters' Laboratories for the situation of the installation.
SPS 375.10 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.11 SPS 375.11 One-hour fire-resistive ceiling. A one-hour fire-resistive ceiling shall be constructed of not less than 15/8 inch joists, spaced not more than 16 inches center to center, protected on the under side by metal or wire lath and 3/ 4 inch of gypsum or Portland cement plaster or by 3/8 inch perforated gypsum lath and 1/2 inch of gypsum plaster, the joints of the lath to be reinforced with 3 inch wide strips of metal lath. Other materials and methods of construction having an equivalent fire-resistive rating may be used if approved by the department, as specified under s. Ind 50.12, 1956.
SPS 375.11 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 4. and 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474.
SPS 375.12 SPS 375.12 Horizontal exit.
SPS 375.12(1)(1) A horizontal exit is either:
SPS 375.12(1)(a) (a) An opening through a fire-resistive wall or partition, (s. SPS 375.08) which separates 2 buildings or 2 divisions of a building; every such opening shall be protected by a fire-resistive door on each side of the wall; or,
SPS 375.12(1)(b) (b) An exterior balcony or bridge which connects 2 buildings or 2 divisions of a building. Every such balcony or bridge, including its railings, its supporting brackets or beams, and the exits thereto, shall be constructed the same as specified for fire escapes, (ss. SPS 375.14 to 375.22); but a bridge may be built of wood if it is enclosed by walls and a roof and if it is separated from each building by a fire-resistive door. The floor shall not have a slope of more than one foot in 5.
SPS 375.12(2) (2) If a horizontal exit takes the place of an "A" type standard fire escape, it shall be at least 2 feet 4 inches wide; if it takes the place of a "B" type standard fire escape, it shall be at least 3 feet 4 inches wide.
SPS 375.12(3) (3) The floor on each side of a horizontal exit shall contain at least one stairway and all passageways leading thereto shall be kept clear and unobstructed at all times.
SPS 375.12 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (1) (a), (b) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.13 SPS 375.13 Fire escapes; location. Every fire escape shall be so located as to lead directly to a street, alley, or open court connected with the street. Every fire escape shall be placed against a blank wall if possible.
SPS 375.13 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.14 SPS 375.14 Exits to fire escapes. Every fire escape shall be accessible from a public passageway or shall be directly accessible from each occupied room. Each exit to a "B" type fire escape shall be a standard exit door (s. SPS 375.24) at least 3 feet 4 inches in width, and the door sill shall be flush with the floor inside. Each exit to an "A" type fire escape shall be a standard exit door at least 2 feet 6 inches in width and the door sill shall be not more than 8 inches above the inside floor level, unless a stair leads from the floor to the sill, or windows may be used in place of such door if approved by the department.
SPS 375.14 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; correction made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.15 SPS 375.15 Material and strength.
SPS 375.15(1) (1) No other material than wrought iron or soft or medium steel shall be used for any part of a fire escape except for weights, separators, and ornaments.
SPS 375.15(2) (2) No bar material less than 1/4 inch thick shall be used in the construction of any fire escape, except for separators, ornaments, structural shapes over 3 inches and rigidly built up treads and platforms of approved design. All bolts and rivets, except for ornamental work, shall be not less than 38 inch in diameter.
SPS 375.15(3) (3) Each part of every fire escape (except counterweights for balanced stairways) shall be designed and constructed to carry a live load of 100 pounds per square foot of horizontal area over the entire fire escape. The minimum sections and sizes specified below shall be increased whenever necessary so that under full load the unit stresses will not exceed 34 of the allowable unit stresses specified in s. Ind 53.24, 1956.
SPS 375.15 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; correction made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474.
SPS 375.16 SPS 375.16 Platforms.
SPS 375.16(1)(1) Each platform of an "A" type fire escape shall be at least 28 inches wide; each platform of a "B" type fire escape shall be at least 3 feet 4 inches wide. Such widths shall be the clear distance between stringers, measuring at the narrowest point. Each platform shall extend at least 4 inches beyond the jambs of exit openings. The above minimum widths and lengths shall be increased wherever necessary, so that no exit door or window will, when open, block any part of the required width of the fire escape.
SPS 375.16(2) (2) Every platform shall consist of either:
SPS 375.16(2)(a) (a) Flat bars on edge, not less than 1 × 1/ 4 inch; but not less than 1 1/4 × 1/4 inch where bolts and separators are used; bars shall be not more than 1 1/4 inches center to center.
SPS 375.16(2)(b) (b) 1/2 inch or 5/8 inch square bars with sharp edge up, more than 1 1/2 inches center to center.
SPS 375.16(2)(c) (c) 5/8 inch round bars, not more than 1 1/2 inches center to center.
SPS 375.16(3) (3) Platform and treads may be solid if covered by a roof.
SPS 375.16(4) (4) The platform frame shall consist of not less than 2 × 38 inch flat bars on edge or equivalent, provided the brackets are not more than 4 feet apart. If brackets are more than 4 feet apart, the frame shall be correspondingly stronger and stiffer. Every platform wider than 30 inches, if made of square or round bars, shall have a third frame bar through the center; if made of flat bars, the platform shall have separators and bolts through the center. Frame bars shall not project more than 14 inch above platform bars, except around the outside of platform.
SPS 375.16(5) (5) There shall be a platform at each story above the first and intermediate platforms if floors are more than 18 feet apart vertically.
SPS 375.16(6) (6) Platforms shall not be more than 8 inches below the door sill, or not more than 18 inches below the sill of exit windows; see s. SPS 375.14.
SPS 375.16 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; correction made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (6) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.17 SPS 375.17 Brackets.
SPS 375.17(1)(1) Brackets for a 28 inch or 30 inch platform, when spaced not more than 4 feet apart, shall be made of not less than 7/8 inch square bars or 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 inch angles; such bars or angles shall be larger if the platform is wider or if the brackets are farther apart. Each bracket shall be fastened at the top, to the wall, by a through bolt (at least 7/8 inch diameter), nut, and washer (at least 4 inch diameter). The slope of the lower bracket bar shall be not less then 30º with the horizontal. The lower bar shall have a washer or shoulder to give sufficient bearing against the wall.
SPS 375.17 Note Note: In applying the requirements of the building code to the design of a bracket, the lower bracket bar must be designed according to the column formula. According to this formula (for example), brackets made of 1 inch square wrought iron, 4 feet apart, carrying a 3 feet 4 inches platform, are just within the limit of stiffness. If the brackets were over 4 feet apart, a heavier bar or an angle would have to be used.
SPS 375.17(2) (2) The strength of the wall to which brackets are to be attached shall be carefully considered in determining the spacing, shape, and inside connection of brackets, so that under full load the wall will not be unduly strained.
SPS 375.17 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.18 SPS 375.18 Stairways.
SPS 375.18(1)(1) Each stairway of an "A" type fire escape shall be at least 24 inches wide between stringers; such stairway shall have a uniform rise of not more than 8 inches, and a uniform run of not less than 8 inches.
SPS 375.18(2) (2) Each stairway of a "B" type fire escape shall be at least 3 feet 4 inches wide between stringers; such stairway shall have a uniform rise of not more than 8 inches, and a uniform run of not less than 9 inches.
SPS 375.18 Note Note: The rise is the vertical distance from the extreme edge of any step to the corresponding extreme edge of the next step. The run is the horizontal distance between the same points.
SPS 375.18(3) (3) Stairway stringers shall consist of either:
SPS 375.18(3)(a) (a) A 5 inch channel or larger.
SPS 375.18(3)(b) (b) Two angles 2 × 2 × 1/ 4 inch or larger
SPS 375.18(3)(c) (c) Two flat bars 2 × 3/8 inch or larger.
SPS 375.18(3)(d) (d) One flat bar 6 × 1/4 inch or larger.
SPS 375.18(4) (4) If 2 angles or 2 flat bars are used, they shall be properly tied together by lattice bars, vertical as well as horizontal. If flat bars are used, every stairway of more than 10 risers shall have lateral bracing. The connection of stringers to platform, at top and bottom, shall be at least equal in strength to the stringers and shall safely carry the full live and dead loads. If stringers are carried by intermediate brackets, the stringers shall have a horizontal bearing on the brackets and shall be properly and securely connected thereto.
SPS 375.18(5) (5) Treads shall consist of either flat or square bars, (not round), of the size and spacing specified for platforms. An "A" tread shall consist of at least 6 square bars or 7 flat bars. A "B" tread shall consist of at least 7 square bars or 8 flat bars. A "B" tread made of flat bars shall have separators and bolt through the center. A "B" tread made of square bars shall be trussed. Treads and platforms may be solid if covered by a roof.
SPS 375.18 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.19 SPS 375.19 Balanced stairway.
SPS 375.19(1)(1) All "B" type fire escapes, and all fire escapes on schools, theaters, and assembly halls, either shall reach to the ground or shall have a balanced stairway reaching to the ground. "A" type fire escapes which are not on schools, theaters, or assembly halls, may terminate on a platform at least 3 feet long, located not more than 10 feet above the ground.
SPS 375.19(2) (2) Every balanced stairway shall conform to the requirements for other stairways except that the stringers and the top rail may be lighter if they are properly trussed. The counterbalancing device shall be attached to both sides of the stairway equally, or a special attachment shall be used to prevent warping or twisting. The counterbalancing device shall operate gradually and easily as the live load is applied.
SPS 375.19 Note Note: The use of cables and sheaves will be permitted only under exceptional conditions, as rust is almost sure to interfere with their proper operation. In such cases the sheaves shall turn on a brass pin or in brass bearings and shall be protected from the weather at the top and on all sides.
SPS 375.19(3) (3) Treads for "A" type balanced stairways may be made as follows: two 11/4× 11/4 × 1/4 inch angles at front and back; two 1 1/4× 1/4 inch bars between, lying flatwise; one inch space between bars. Treads for"B" type balanced stairways may be made as follows: two 11/2 × 1 1/2 × 1/4 inch angles at front and back; two 11/2 × 1/4 inch bars between, lying flatwise; one inch space between bars. All such treads shall be strongly fastened together with cross bars not more than 14 inches apart.
SPS 375.19 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.20 SPS 375.20 Railings.
SPS 375.20(1)(1) Railings shall be provided on all open sides of platforms and stairways, and on both sides of balanced stairways. Either a railing or a handrail fastened to wall shall be provided on each side of all "B" type fire escape stairways. Railings shall be at least 3 feet high, measuring vertically from floor of platform or from nose of step.
SPS 375.20(2) (2) Every railing shall have posts, not more than 5 feet apart, made of not less than 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 inch angles or tees, or 11/ 4 inch pipe; top rail not less than 11/4 × 11/4 × 1/4 inch angle or equivalent; center rail not less than 11/4 × 5/16 flat bar or equivalent. All connections shall be such as to make the railing stiff; 2 bolts (3/8 inch or larger) shall be used at the foot of each post wherever possible, or at least 1/2 inch bolt shall be used. Railings shall be continuous. No projections on the inside of the railing shall be permitted. Where a railing returns to the wall, it shall be fastened thereto with a through bolt (at least 5/8 inch diameter), nut, and washer; or (in reinforced concrete) with an approved insert; or the railing shall be made equally secure with a diagonal brace extending at least 3 feet horizontally and 3 feet vertically.
SPS 375.20(3) (3) All outside railings which are more than 60 feet above grade shall be at least 6 feet high, measuring vertically from floor or platform or from nose of step. Such railings shall be of special design approved by the department, having not less than 4 longitudinal rails, and vertical lattice bars not more than 8 inches apart, and proper stiffening braces or brackets.
SPS 375.20 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.21 SPS 375.21 Ladder to roof.
SPS 375.21(1)(1) Every fire escape which extends higher than the second floor shall be provided with a ladder leading from the upper platform to the roof, unless the fire escape stairway leads to the roof. The ladder shall have stringers of not less than 11/4 inch pipe, or not less than 2 × 3/8 inch flat bars, at least 17 inches apart in the clear. The rungs shall be not less than 1/2 inch square or 5/8 inch round bars, 14 inches center to center. The stringers shall be securely tied together at intervals no greater than every fifth rung.
SPS 375.21(2) (2) The stringers of each ladder shall extend not less than 4 feet above the roof coping and return to within 2 feet of the roof with the top rung of the ladder level with the top of the parapet wall.
SPS 375.21 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.22 SPS 375.22 Standpipe.
SPS 375.22(1)(1) A standpipe shall be attached to every fire escape on every building of more than 3 stories not having an automatic sprinkler system; except that buildings requiring more than one fire escape on any side thereof, shall be provided with at least one standpipe on each side.
SPS 375.22(2) (2) Every standpipe shall extend from a point within 5 feet of the ground to a point 3 feet above the roof or cornice, and shall be securely fastened to and accessible from each platform. The standpipe shall be made of not less than 3 inch wrought iron pipe, with 21/2 inch outlet hose valve at each floor and at roof, and a double Siamese valve at the base of the pipe. All connections shall conform to the size and patterns used by the local fire department, and the entire standpipe shall conform to all requirements of such department.
SPS 375.22 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.23 SPS 375.23 Other types of fire escape. Sliding or chute fire escapes may be used, upon the approval of the department, in place of "A" type or "B" type fire escapes. Every sliding fire escape shall be provided with a ladder constructed as in s. SPS 375.21, extending from 5 feet above grade, to 4 feet above the roof coping.
SPS 375.23 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; correction made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.24 SPS 375.24 Standard exit doors.
SPS 375.24(1)(1) Every door which serves as a required exit from a public passageway, stairway or building, or which forms a horizontal exit, shall be a standard exit door. See also ss. SPS 376.06, 377.06, 378.04, 379.07.
SPS 375.24(2) (2) Every standard exit door shall swing outward or toward the natural means of egress (except as below and as in s. SPS 379.07). It shall be so hung that, when open, it will not block any part of the required width of any other doorway, passageway, stairway, or fire escape. No revolving door (unless collapsible) and no sliding door, (except where it opens onto a stairway enclosure, or serves as a horizontal exit) shall be considered as a standard exit door. Where revolving doors are used, they shall be of a type and make approved by the department.
SPS 375.24(3) (3) A standard exit door shall have such fastenings or hardware that it can be opened from the inside without using a key, by pushing against a single bar or plate, or turning a single knob or handle; it shall not be locked, barred, or bolted at any time while the building is occupied.
SPS 375.24 Note Note: For theaters, schools, large factories and hotels, etc., the "panic bolt" which operates by pressure against a bar or plate is recommended.
SPS 375.24(4) (4) An approved type, illuminated, transparent exit sign shall be provided and operated over all exit doors in accordance with ss. SPS 376.06, 377.14 and 379.08. Exit lights shall be installed as required by the Wisconsin state electrical code.
SPS 375.24 History History: 1-2-56; renum. and am., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74; corrections made under s. 13.93 (2m) (b) 7., Stats., Register, June, 1995, No. 474; correction in (1), (2), (4) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 7., Stats., Register December 2011 No. 672.
SPS 375.25 SPS 375.25 Location and maintenance of exits. Every required exit (including stairways, fire escapes, horizontal exits, and doors) shall lead to a street, alley or open court connected with a street. All such exits, and all passageways leading to and from the same, shall be kept in good repair and unobstructed at all times.
SPS 375.25 History History: 1-2-56; renum., Register, September, 1974, No. 225, eff. 10-1-74.
SPS 375.26 SPS 375.26 First aid standpipes.
SPS 375.26(1) (1) For the number and location of first aid standpipes required in buildings of various classes, see ss. SPS 376.09, 378.07.
SPS 375.26(2) (2) Standpipes shall be sufficient in number so that any part of every floor area can be reached within 20 feet by a nozzle attached to not more than 75 feet of hose connected to a standpipe.
SPS 375.26(3) (3) No required standpipe shall be less than 2 inches in diameter, and not less than 21/2 inches in diameter for buildings 5 stories or more in height. An approved 11/2 inch hose valve shall be located in each story, not more than 5 feet above the floor level; valves of the gate type shall be equipped with a suitable open drip connection. An approved pressure-reducing device shall be installed at hose valves where pressure would otherwise be over 50 pounds.
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