102.28(2)(bm)2. 2. Notwithstanding the absence of an order of exemption from the duty to insure under par. (a), the state or a local governmental unit that elects to self-insure as provided in subd. 1. is exempt from that duty. Notwithstanding that exemption, if the state or a local governmental unit that elects to self-insure as provided in subd. 1. desires partial insurance or divided insurance, the state or local governmental unit shall obtain the consent of the department under s. 102.31 (1) (b) to the issuance of a contract providing such insurance.
102.28(2)(bm)3.a.a. A local governmental unit that elects to self-insure its liability for the payment of compensation under this chapter shall notify the department of that election in writing before commencing to self-insure that liability and shall notify the department of its intent to continue to self-insure that liability every 3 years after that initial notice. A local government unit that wishes to withdraw that election shall notify the department of that withdrawal not less than 30 days before the effective date of that withdrawal.
102.28(2)(bm)3.b. b. A notice under subd. 3. a. shall be accompanied by a resolution adopted by the governing body of the local governmental unit and signed by the elected or appointed chief executive of the local governmental unit stating that the governing body intends and agrees to self-insure the liability of the local governmental unit for the payment of compensation under this chapter and that the local government unit agrees to report faithfully all compensable injuries and to comply with this chapter and all rules of the department.
102.28(2)(bm)4. 4. An election to self-insure under subd. 1. is subject to revocation under par. (c) 2. Once such an election is revoked, the employer whose election is revoked may not elect to self-insure its liability for the payment of compensation under this chapter unless at least 3 calendar years have elapsed since the revocation and the department finds that the employer's financial condition is adequate to pay its employees' claims for compensation, that the employer has not received an excessive number of claims for compensation, and that the employer has faithfully discharged its obligations under this chapter and the rules of the department.
102.28(2)(c) (c) Revocation of exemption or election.
102.28(2)(c)1.1. The department, after seeking the advice of the self-insurers council, may revoke an exemption granted to an employer under par. (b), upon giving the employer 10 days' written notice, if the department finds that the employer's financial condition is inadequate to pay its employees' claims for compensation, that the employer has received an excessive number of claims for compensation, or that the employer has failed to discharge faithfully its obligations according to the agreement contained in the application for exemption.
102.28(2)(c)2. 2. The department may revoke an election made by an employer under par. (bm), upon giving the employer 10 days' written notice, if the department finds that the employer's financial condition is inadequate to pay its employees' claims for compensation, that the employer has received an excessive number of claims for compensation, or that the employer has failed to discharge faithfully its obligations under this chapter and the rules of the department.
102.28(2)(c)3. 3. Within 10 days after receipt of a notice of revocation under subd. 1. or 2., the employer may request in writing a review of the revocation by the secretary or the secretary's designee and the secretary or the secretary's designee shall review the revocation within 30 days after receipt of the request for review. If the employer is aggrieved by the determination of the secretary or the secretary's designee, the employer may, within 10 days after receipt of notice of that determination, request a hearing under s. 102.17. If the secretary or the secretary's designee determines that the employer's exemption or election should be revoked, the employer shall obtain insurance coverage as required under par. (a) immediately upon receipt of notice of that determination and, notwithstanding the pendency of proceedings under ss. 102.17 to 102.25, shall keep that coverage in force until another exemption under par. (b) is granted or another election under par. (bm) is made.
102.28(2)(d) (d) Effect of insuring with unauthorized insurer. If an employer that is exempted under par. (b) or (bm) from the duty to insure under par. (a) enters into any agreement for excess insurance coverage with an insurer not authorized to do business in this state, the employer shall report that agreement to the department immediately. The placing of such coverage shall not by itself be grounds for revocation of the exemption.
102.28(2)(e) (e) Rules. The department shall promulgate rules to implement this subsection.
102.28(3) (3) Provision of alternative benefits.
102.28(3)(a) (a) An employer may file with the department an application for exemption from the duty to pay compensation under this chapter with respect to any employee who signs the waiver described in subd. 1. and the affidavit described in subd. 2. if an authorized representative of the religious sect to which the employee belongs signs the affidavit specified in subd. 3. and the agreement described in subd. 4. An application for exemption under this paragraph shall include all of the following:
102.28(3)(a)1. 1. A written waiver by the employee or, if the employee is a minor, by the employee and his or her parent or guardian of all compensation under this chapter other than the alternative benefits provided under par. (c).
102.28(3)(a)2. 2. An affidavit by the employee or, if the employee is a minor, by the employee and his or her parent or guardian stating that the employee is a member of a recognized religious sect and that, as a result of the employee's adherence to the established tenets or teachings of the religious sect, the employee is conscientiously opposed to accepting the benefits of any public or private insurance that makes payments in the event of death, disability, old age or retirement, or that makes payments toward the cost of or provides medical care, including any benefits provided under the federal social security act, 42 USC 301 to 1397f.
102.28(3)(a)3. 3. An affidavit by an authorized representative of the religious sect to which the employee belongs stating that the religious sect has a long-standing history of providing its members who become dependent on the support of the religious sect as a result of work-related injuries, and the dependents of those members, with a standard of living and medical treatment that are reasonable when compared to the general standard of living and medical treatment for members of the religious sect.
102.28(3)(a)4. 4. An agreement signed by an authorized representative of the religious sect to which the employee belongs to provide the financial and medical assistance described in subd. 3. to the employee and to the employee's dependents if the employee sustains an injury which, but for the waiver under subd. 1., the employer would be liable for under s. 102.03.
102.28(3)(b) (b) The department shall approve an application under par. (a) if the department determines that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
102.28(3)(b)1. 1. The employee has waived all compensation under this chapter other than the alternative benefits provided under par. (c).
102.28(3)(b)2. 2. The employee is a member of a religious sect whose established tenets or teachings oppose accepting the benefits of insurance as described in par. (a) 2. and that, as a result of adherence to those tenets or teachings, the employee conscientiously opposes accepting those benefits.
102.28(3)(b)3. 3. The religious sect to which the employee belongs has a long-established history of providing its members who become dependent on the religious sect as a result of work-related injuries, and the dependents of those members, with a standard of living and medical treatment that are reasonable when compared to the general standard of living and medical treatment for members of the religious sect. In determining whether the religious sect has a long-standing history of providing the financial and medical assistance described in this subdivision, the department shall presume that a 25-year history of providing that financial and medical assistance is long-standing for purposes of this subdivision.
102.28(3)(b)4. 4. The religious sect to which the employee belongs has agreed to provide the financial and medical assistance described in subd. 3. to the employee and to the dependents of the employee if the employee sustains an injury that, but for the waiver under par. (a) 1., the employer would be liable for under s. 102.03.
102.28(3)(c) (c) An employee who has signed a waiver under par. (a) 1. and an affidavit under par. (a) 2., who sustains an injury that, but for that waiver, the employer would be liable for under s. 102.03, who at the time of the injury was a member of a religious sect whose authorized representative has filed an affidavit under par. (a) 3. and an agreement under par. (a) 4., and who as a result of the injury becomes dependent on the religious sect for financial and medical assistance, or the employee's dependent, may request a hearing under s. 102.17 (1) to determine if the religious sect has provided the employee and his or her dependents with a standard of living and medical treatment that are reasonable when compared to the general standard of living and medical treatment for members of the religious sect. If, after hearing, the division determines that the religious sect has not provided that standard of living or medical treatment, or both, the division may order the religious sect to provide alternative benefits to that employee or his or her dependent, or both, in an amount that is reasonable under the circumstances, but not in excess of the benefits that the employee or dependent could have received under this chapter but for the waiver under par. (a) 1.
102.28(3)(d) (d) The department shall provide a form for the application for exemption of an employer under par. (a) (intro.), the waiver and affidavit of an employee under par. (a) 1. and 2., the affidavit of a religious sect under par. (a) 3. and the agreement of a religious sect under par. (a) 4. A properly completed form is prima facie evidence of satisfaction of the conditions under par. (b) as to the matter contained in the form.
102.28(4) (4) Closure order.
102.28(4)(a)(a) When the department discovers an uninsured employer, the department may order the employer to cease operations until the employer complies with sub. (2).
102.28(4)(b) (b) If the department believes that an employer may be an uninsured employer, the department shall notify the employer of the alleged violation of sub. (2) and the possibility of closure under this subsection. The employer may request and shall receive a hearing under s. 102.17 on the matter if the employer applies for a hearing within 10 days after the notice of the alleged violation is served.
102.28(4)(c) (c) After a hearing under par. (b), or without a hearing if one is not requested, the division may issue an order to an employer to cease operations on a finding that the employer is an uninsured employer. If no hearing is requested, the department may issue such an order.
102.28(4)(d) (d) The department of justice may bring an action in any court of competent jurisdiction for an injunction or other remedy to enforce an order to cease operations under par. (c).
102.28(5) (5) Employer's liability. If compensation is awarded under this chapter, against any employer who at the time of the accident has not complied with sub. (2), such employer shall not be entitled as to such award or any judgment entered thereon, to any of the exemptions of property from seizure and sale on execution allowed in ss. 815.18 to 815.21. If such employer is a corporation, the officers and directors thereof shall be individually and jointly and severally liable for any portion of any such judgment as is returned unsatisfied after execution against the corporation.
102.28(6) (6) Reports by employer. Every employer shall upon request of the department report to it the number of employees and the nature of their work and also the name of the insurance company with whom the employer has insured liability under this chapter and the number and date of expiration of such policy. Failure to furnish such report within 10 days from the making of a request by certified mail shall constitute presumptive evidence that the delinquent employer is violating sub. (2).
102.28(7) (7) Insolvent employers; assessments.
102.28(7)(a) (a) If an employer who is currently or was formerly exempted by written order of the department under sub. (2) (b) is unable to pay an award, judgment is rendered in accordance with s. 102.20 against that employer, and execution is levied and returned unsatisfied in whole or in part, payments for the employer's liability shall be made from the fund established under sub. (8). If a currently or formerly exempted employer files for bankruptcy and not less than 60 days after that filing the department has reason to believe that compensation payments due are not being paid, the department in its discretion may make payment for the employer's liability from the fund established under sub. (8). The secretary of administration shall proceed to recover those payments from the employer or the employer's receiver or trustee in bankruptcy, and may commence an action or proceeding or file a claim for those payments. The attorney general shall appear on behalf of the secretary of administration in any such action or proceeding. All moneys recovered in any such action or proceeding shall be paid into the fund established under sub. (8).
102.28(7)(b)1.1. Each employer exempted by written order of the department under sub. (2) (b) shall pay into the fund established by sub. (8) an initial assessment based on orders of the department as provided in subd. 2. An order of the department requiring exempt employers to pay into that fund shall provide for an amount that is sufficient to secure estimated payments of an insolvent exempt employer due for the period up to the date of the order and for one year following the date of the order and to pay the estimated cost of insurance carrier or insurance service organization services under par. (c). Payments ordered to be made to the fund shall be paid to the department within 30 days after the date of the order. If additional moneys are required, further assessments shall be made based on orders of the department as provided under subd. 2.
102.28(7)(b)2. 2. An initial or further assessment under subd. 1. shall be prorated on the basis of the gross payroll for this state of the exempt employer as reported to the department for the previous calendar year for unemployment insurance purposes under ch. 108 or, if an exempt employer is not covered under ch. 108, on the basis of the comparable gross payroll for the exempt employer as determined by the department. If payment of any assessment made under subd. 1. is not made within 30 days after the date of the order of the department, the attorney general may appear on behalf of the state to collect the assessment.
102.28(7)(bm) (bm) The department may not do any of the following:
102.28(7)(bm)1. 1. Require an employer that elects under sub. (2) (bm) to self-insure its liability for the payment of compensation under this chapter to pay into the fund established under sub. (8).
102.28(7)(bm)2. 2. Make any payments from the fund established under sub. (8) for the liability under this chapter of an employer that elects under sub. (2) (bm) to self-insure its liability for the payment of compensation under this chapter, whether currently or formerly exempt from the duty to insure under sub. (2) (a).
102.28(7)(c) (c) The department may retain an insurance carrier or insurance service organization to process, investigate and pay valid claims. The charge for such service shall be paid from the fund as provided under par. (b).
102.28(7)(d) (d) The department shall promulgate rules to implement this subsection.
102.28(8) (8) Self-insured employers liability fund. The moneys paid into the state treasury under sub. (7), together with all accrued interest, shall constitute a separate nonlapsible fund designated as the self-insured employers liability fund. Moneys in the fund may be expended only as provided in s. 20.445 (1) (s) and may not be used for an other purpose of the state.
102.28 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ss. DWD 80.40 and 80.60, Wis. adm. code.
102.28 Annotation The “insure payment" requirement of sub. (2) (a) requires an employer to provide coverage for every employee in all possible employment situations. Substantial compliance with sub. (2) (a) is not sufficient. This provision does not violate due process. State v. Koch, 195 Wis. 2d 801, 537 N.W.2d 39 (Ct. App. 1995), 94-1230.
102.29 102.29 Third party liability.
102.29(1)(1)
102.29(1)(a) (a) The making of a claim for compensation against an employer or compensation insurer for the injury or death of an employee shall not affect the right of the employee, the employee's personal representative, or other person entitled to bring action to make claim or maintain an action in tort against any other party for such injury or death, hereinafter referred to as a 3rd party; nor shall the making of a claim by any such person against a 3rd party for damages by reason of an injury to which ss. 102.03 to 102.66 are applicable, or the adjustment of any such claim, affect the right of the injured employee or the employee's dependents to recover compensation. An employer or compensation insurer that has paid or is obligated to pay a lawful claim under this chapter shall have the same right to make claim or maintain an action in tort against any other party for such injury or death. If the department pays or is obligated to pay a claim under s. 102.66 (1) or 102.81 (1), the department shall also have the right to maintain an action in tort against any other party for the employee's injury or death. However, each shall give to the other reasonable notice and opportunity to join in the making of such claim or the instituting of an action and to be represented by counsel.
102.29(1)(b) (b) If a party entitled to notice cannot be found, the department shall become the agent of that party for the giving of a notice as required in par. (a) and the notice, when given to the department, shall include an affidavit setting forth the facts, including the steps taken to locate that party. Each party shall have an equal voice in the prosecution of the claim, and any disputes arising shall be passed upon by the court before whom the case is pending, and if no action is pending, then by a court of record or by the department or the division. If notice is given as provided in par. (a), the liability of the tort-feasor shall be determined as to all parties having a right to make claim and, irrespective of whether or not all parties join in prosecuting the claim, the proceeds of the claim shall be divided as follows:
102.29(1)(b)1. 1. After deducting the reasonable cost of collection, one-third of the remainder shall in any event be paid to the injured employee or the employee's personal representative or other person entitled to bring action.
102.29(1)(b)2. 2. Out of the balance remaining after the deduction and payment specified in subd. 1., the employer, the insurance carrier, or, if applicable, the uninsured employers fund or the work injury supplemental benefit fund shall be reimbursed for all payments made by the employer, insurance carrier, or department, or which the employer, insurance carrier, or department may be obligated to make in the future, under this chapter, except that the employer, insurance carrier, or department shall not be reimbursed for any payments made or to be made under s. 102.18 (1) (b) 3. or (bp), 102.22, 102.35 (3), 102.57, or 102.60.
102.29(1)(b)3. 3. Any balance remaining after the reimbursement described in subd. 2. shall be paid to the employee or the employee's personal representative or other person entitled to bring action.
102.29(1)(c) (c) If both the employee or the employee's personal representative or other person entitled to bring action, and the employer, compensation insurer, or department, join in the pressing of said claim and are represented by counsel, the attorney fees allowed as a part of the costs of collection shall be, unless otherwise agreed upon, divided between the attorneys for those parties as directed by the court or by the department or the division.
102.29(1)(d) (d) A settlement of a 3rd-party claim shall be void unless the settlement and the distribution of the proceeds of the settlement are approved by the court before whom the action is pending or, if no action is pending, then by a court of record or by the department or the division.
102.29(2) (2)In the case of liability of the employer or insurer to make payment into the state treasury under s. 102.49 or 102.59, if the injury or death was due to the actionable act, neglect or default of a 3rd party, the employer or insurer shall have a right of action against the 3rd party to recover the sum so paid into the state treasury, which right may be enforced either by joining in the action mentioned in sub. (1), or by independent action. Contributory negligence of the employee because of whose injury or death such payment was made shall bar recovery if such negligence was greater than the negligence of the person against whom recovery is sought, and the recovery allowed the employer or insurer shall be diminished in proportion to the amount of negligence attributable to such injured or deceased employee. Any action brought under this subsection may, upon order of the court, be consolidated and tried together with any action brought under sub. (1).
102.29(3) (3)Nothing in this chapter shall prevent an employee from taking the compensation that the employee may be entitled to under this chapter and also maintaining a civil action against any physician, chiropractor, psychologist, dentist, physician assistant, advanced practice nurse prescriber, or podiatrist for malpractice.
102.29(4) (4)If the employer and the 3rd party are insured by the same insurer, or by the insurers who are under common control, the employer's insurer shall promptly notify the parties in interest and the department. If the employer has assumed the liability of the 3rd party, it shall give similar notice, in default of which any settlement with an injured employee or beneficiary is void. This subsection does not prevent the employer or compensation insurer from sharing in the proceeds of any 3rd-party claim or action, as set forth in sub. (1).
102.29(5) (5)An insurer subject to sub. (4) which fails to comply with the notice provision of that subsection and which fails to commence a 3rd-party action, within the 3 years allowed by s. 893.54, may not plead that s. 893.54 is a bar in any action commenced by the injured employee under this section against any such 3rd party subsequent to 3 years from the date of injury, but prior to 6 years from such date of injury. Any recovery in such an action is limited to the insured liability of the 3rd party. In any such action commenced by the injured employee subsequent to the 3-year period, the insurer of the employer shall forfeit all right to participate in such action as a complainant and to recover any payments made under this chapter.
102.29(6) (6)
102.29(6)(a)(a) In this subsection, “temporary help agency" means a temporary help agency that is primarily engaged in the business of placing its employees with or leasing its employees to another employer as provided in s. 102.01 (2) (f).
102.29(6)(b) (b) No employee of a temporary help agency who has the right to make a claim for compensation may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against any of the following:
102.29(6)(b)1. 1. Any employer that compensates the temporary help agency for the employee's services.
102.29(6)(b)2. 2. Any other temporary help agency that is compensated by that employer for another employee's services.
102.29(6)(b)3. 3. Any employee of that compensating employer or of that other temporary help agency, unless the employee who has the right to make a claim for compensation would have a right under s. 102.03 (2) to bring an action against the employee of the compensating employer or the employee of the other temporary help agency if the employees were coemployees.
102.29(6)(c) (c) No employee of an employer that compensates a temporary help agency for another employee's services who has the right to make a claim for compensation may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against any of the following:
102.29(6)(c)1. 1. The temporary help agency.
102.29(6)(c)2. 2. Any employee of the temporary help agency, unless the employee who has the right to make a claim for compensation would have a right under s. 102.03 (2) to bring an action against the employee of the temporary help agency if the employees were coemployees.
102.29(6m) (6m)
102.29(6m)(a)(a) No leased employee, as defined in s. 102.315 (1) (g), who has the right to make a claim for compensation may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against any of the following:
102.29(6m)(a)1. 1. The client, as defined in s. 102.315 (1) (b), that accepted the services of the leased employee.
102.29(6m)(a)2. 2. Any other employee leasing company, as defined in s. 102.315 (1) (f), that provides the services of another leased employee to the client.
102.29(6m)(a)3. 3. Any employee of the client or of that other employee leasing company, unless the leased employee who has the right to make a claim for compensation would have a right under s. 102.03 (2) to bring an action against the employee of the client or the leased employee of the other employee leasing company if the employees and leased employees were coemployees.
102.29(6m)(b) (b) No employee of a client who has the right to make a claim for compensation may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against any of the following:
102.29(6m)(b)1. 1. An employee leasing company that provides the services of a leased employee to the client.
102.29(6m)(b)2. 2. Any leased employee of the employee leasing company, unless the employee who has the right to make a claim for compensation would have a right under s. 102.03 (2) to bring an action against the leased employee if the employee and the leased employee were coemployees.
102.29(7) (7)No employee who is loaned by his or her employer to another employer and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the employer who accepted the loaned employee's services.
102.29(8) (8)No student of a public school, a private school, or an institution of higher education who is named under s. 102.077 as an employee of the school district, private school, or institution of higher education for purposes of this chapter and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the employer that provided the work training or work experience from which the claim arose.
102.29(8m) (8m)No participant in a community service job under s. 49.147 (4) or a transitional placement under s. 49.147 (5) who, under s. 49.147 (4) (c) or (5) (c), is provided worker's compensation coverage by a Wisconsin works agency, as defined under s. 49.001 (9), and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the employer who provided the community service job or transitional placement from which the claim arose.
102.29(8r) (8r)No participant in a food stamp employment and training program under s. 49.79 (9) who, under s. 49.79 (9) (a) 5., is provided worker's compensation coverage by the department of health services or by a Wisconsin Works agency, as defined in s. 49.001 (9), or other provider under contract with the department of health services or a county department under s. 46.215, 46.22, or 46.23 or tribal governing body to administer the food stamp employment and training program and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the employer who provided the employment and training from which the claim arose.
102.29(9) (9)No participant in a work experience component of a job opportunities and basic skills program who, under s. 49.193 (6) (a), 1997 stats., was considered to be an employee of the agency administering that program, or who, under s. 49.193 (6) (a), 1997 stats., was provided worker's compensation coverage by the person administering the work experience component, and who makes a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the employer who provided the work experience from which the claim arose. This subsection does not apply to injuries occurring after February 28, 1998.
102.29(10) (10)A practitioner who, under s. 257.03, is considered an employee of the state for purposes of worker's compensation coverage while providing services on behalf of a health care facility, the department of health services, or a local health department during a state of emergency and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may not make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the health care facility, department, or local health department that accepted those services.
102.29(11) (11)No security officer employed by the department of military affairs who is deputed under s. 59.26 (4m), who remains an employee of the state for purposes of worker's compensation coverage while conducting routine external security checks around military installations in this state, and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or bring an action in tort against the county in which the security officer is conducting routine external security checks or against the sheriff or undersheriff who deputed the security officer.
102.29(12) (12)No individual who is an employee of an entity described in s. 102.07 (20) for purposes of this chapter and who has the right to make a claim for compensation under this chapter may make a claim or maintain an action in tort against the person described in s. 102.07 (20) who received the services from which the claim arose.
102.29 Note NOTE: See cases annotated under s. 102.03 as to the right to bring a 3rd-party action against a coemployee.
102.29 Annotation In a 3rd-party action [now under s. 102.29], safe place liability [now under s. 101.11] cannot be imposed on officers or employees of the employer. Their liability must be based on common law negligence. Pitrowski v. Taylor, 55 Wis. 2d 615, 201 N.W.2d 52 (1972).
102.29 Annotation Members of a partnership are employers of the employees of the partnership. An employee cannot bring a 3rd-party action against a member of the employing partnership. Candler v. Hardware Dealers Mutual Insurance Co. 57 Wis. 2d 85, 203 N.W.2d 659 (1973).
102.29 Annotation Sub. (1) provides attorney fees are to be allowed as “costs of collection" and, unless otherwise agreed upon, are to be divided between the attorneys for both the employee and the compensation carrier pursuant to court direction. Diedrick v. Hartford Accident & Indemnity Co. 62 Wis. 2d 759, 216 N.W.2d 193 (1974).
102.29 Annotation The words “action commenced by the injured employee" in sub. (5) also encompass the bringing of wrongful death and survival actions. Ortman v. Jensen & Johnson, Inc. 66 Wis. 2d 508, 225 N.W.2d 635 (1975).
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 5 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on April 21, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after May 11, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 5-11-19)