In any case in which compensation payments for an injury have extended or will extend over 6 months or more after the date of the injury or in any case in which death benefits are payable, any party in interest may, in the discretion of the department or the division, be discharged from, or compelled to guarantee, future compensation payments by doing any of the following:
Depositing the present value of the total unpaid compensation upon a 5 percent interest discount basis with a credit union, savings bank, savings and loan association, bank, or trust company designated by the department or the division.
Purchasing an annuity, within the limitations provided by law, from an insurance company licensed in this state that is designated by the department.
Making payment in gross upon a 5 percent interest discount basis to be approved by the department or the division.
In cases in which the time for making payments or the amounts of payments cannot be definitely determined, furnishing a bond, or other security, satisfactory to the department or the division for the payment of compensation as may be due or become due. The acceptance of the bond, or other security, and the form and sufficiency of the bond or other security, shall be subject to the approval of the department or the division. If the employer or insurer is unable or fails to immediately procure the bond, the employer or insurer, in lieu of procuring the bond, shall deposit with a credit union, savings bank, savings and loan association, bank, or trust company designated by the department or the division the maximum amount that may reasonably become payable in those cases, to be determined by the department or the division at amounts consistent with the extent of the injuries and the law. The bonds and deposits may be reduced only to satisfy claims and may be withdrawn only after the claims which they are to guarantee are fully satisfied or liquidated under par. (a)
, or (c)
Any insured employer may, in the discretion of the department or the division, compel the insurer to discharge, or to guarantee payment of, the employer's liabilities in any case described in sub. (1m)
and by that discharge or guarantee release the employer from liability for compensation in that case, except that if for any reason a bond furnished or deposit made under sub. (1m) (d)
does not fully protect the beneficiary of the bond or deposit, the compensation insurer or insured employer, as the case may be, shall still be liable to that beneficiary.
If compensation is due for permanent disability following an injury or if death benefits are payable, payments shall be made to the employee or dependent on a monthly basis as provided in pars. (b)
Subject to par. (d)
, if the employer or the employer's insurer concedes liability for an injury that results in permanent disability and if the extent of the permanent disability can be determined based on a minimum permanent disability rating promulgated by the department by rule, compensation for permanent disability shall begin within 30 days after the end of the employee's healing period or the date on which compensation for temporary disability ends due to the employee's return to work, whichever is earlier.
Subject to par. (d)
, if the employer or the employer's insurer concedes liability for an injury that results in permanent disability, but the extent of the permanent disability cannot be determined without a medical report that provides the basis for a minimum permanent disability rating, compensation for permanent disability shall begin within 30 days after the employer or the employer's insurer receives a medical report that provides a basis for a permanent disability rating.
The department shall promulgate rules for determining when compensation for permanent disability shall begin in cases in which the employer or the employer's insurer concedes liability, but disputes the extent of permanent disability.
Payments for permanent disability, including payments based on minimum permanent disability ratings promulgated by the department by rule, shall continue on a monthly basis and shall accrue and be payable between intermittent periods of temporary disability so long as the employer or insurer knows the nature of the permanent disability.
The department or the division may direct an advance on a payment of unaccrued compensation for permanent disability or death benefits if the department or the division determines that the advance payment is in the best interest of the injured employee or the employee's dependents. In directing the advance, the department or the division shall give the employer or the employer's insurer an interest credit against its liability. The credit shall be computed at 5 percent. An injured employee or dependent may receive no more than 3 advance payments per calendar year.
No lump sum settlement shall be allowed in any case of permanent total disability upon an estimated life expectancy, except upon consent of all parties, after hearing and finding by the division that the interests of the injured employee will be conserved by the lump sum settlement.
The interest credit under sub. (6) [now sub. (6m)] was properly calculated on a per annum basis rather than a one-time simple interest basis. Hamm v. LIRC, 223 Wis. 2d 183
, 588 N.W.2d 358
(Ct. App. 1998), 98-0051
Forms and records; public access. 102.33(1)(1)
The department and the division shall print and furnish free to any employer or employee any blank forms that are necessary to facilitate efficient administration of this chapter. The department and the division shall keep any record books or records that are necessary for the proper and efficient administration of this chapter.
Except as provided in pars. (b)
, the records of the department, the division, and the commission, related to the administration of this chapter are subject to inspection and copying under s. 19.35 (1)
Except as provided in this paragraph and par. (d)
, a record maintained by the department, the division, or the commission that reveals the identity of an employee who claims worker's compensation benefits, the nature of the employee's claimed injury, the employee's past or present medical condition, the extent of the employee's disability, or the amount, type, or duration of benefits paid to the employee and a record maintained by the department that reveals any financial information provided to the department by a self-insured employer or by an applicant for exemption under s. 102.28 (2) (b)
are confidential and not open to public inspection or copying under s. 19.35 (1)
. The department, the division, or the commission may deny a request made under s. 19.35 (1)
or, subject to s. 102.17 (2m)
, refuse to honor a subpoena issued by an attorney of record in a civil or criminal action or special proceeding to inspect and copy a record that is confidential under this paragraph, unless one of the following applies:
The requester is the employee who is the subject of the record or an attorney or authorized agent of that employee. An attorney or authorized agent of an employee who is the subject of a record shall provide a written authorization for inspection and copying from the employee if requested by the department, the division, or the commission.
The record that is requested contains confidential information concerning a worker's compensation claim and the requester is an insurance carrier or employer that is a party to any worker's compensation claim involving the same employee or an attorney or authorized agent of that insurance carrier or employer, except that the department, the division, or the commission is not required to do a random search of its records and may require the requester to provide the approximate date of the injury and any other relevant information that would assist the department, the division, or the commission in finding the record requested. An attorney or authorized agent of an insurance carrier or employer that is a party to an employee's worker's compensation claim shall provide a written authorization for inspection and copying from the insurance carrier or employer if requested by the department, the division, or the commission.
The record that is requested contains financial information provided by a self-insured employer or by an applicant for exemption under s. 102.28 (2) (b)
and the requester is the self-insured employer or applicant for exemption or an attorney or authorized agent of the self-insured employer or applicant for exemption. An attorney or authorized agent of the self-insured employer or of the applicant for exemption shall provide a written authorization for inspection and copying from the self-insured employer or applicant for exemption if requested by the department.
A court of competent jurisdiction in this state orders the department, the division, or the commission to release the record.
The requester is the department of children and families or a county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5)
, the request is made under s. 49.22 (2m)
, and the request is limited to the name and address of the employee who is the subject of the record, the name and address of the employee's employer, and any financial information about that employee contained in the record.
The department of revenue requests the record for the purpose of locating a person, or the assets of a person, who has failed to file tax returns, who has underreported taxable income or who is a delinquent taxpayer; identifying fraudulent tax returns; or providing information for tax-related prosecutions.
A record maintained by the department, the division, or the commission that contains employer or insurer information obtained from the Wisconsin compensation rating bureau under s. 102.31 (8)
or 626.32 (1) (a)
is confidential and not open to public inspection or copying under s. 19.35 (1)
unless the Wisconsin compensation rating bureau authorizes public inspection or copying of that information.
“Government unit" has the meaning given in s. 108.02 (17)
and also includes a corresponding unit in the government of another state or a unit of the federal government.
“Nonprofit research organization" means an organization that is exempt from federal income tax under section 501
(a) of the Internal Revenue Code and whose mission is to engage in research.
The department, the division, or the commission may release information that is confidential under par. (b)
to a government unit, an institution of higher education, or a nonprofit research organization for purposes of research and may release information that is confidential under par. (c)
to those persons for that purpose if the Wisconsin compensation rating bureau authorizes that release. A government unit, institution of higher education, or nonprofit research organization may not permit inspection or disclosure of any information released to it under this subdivision that is confidential under par. (b)
unless the department, the division, or the commission authorizes that inspection or disclosure and may not permit inspection or disclosure of any information released to it under this subdivision that is confidential under par. (c)
unless the department, the division, or the commission, and the Wisconsin compensation rating bureau, authorize the inspection or disclosure. A government unit, institution of higher education, or nonprofit research organization that obtains any confidential information under this subdivision for purposes of research shall provide the results of that research free of charge to the person that released or authorized the release of that information.
Every employer and every insurance company that fails to keep the records or to make the reports required by this chapter or that knowingly falsifies such records or makes false reports shall pay a work injury supplemental benefit surcharge to the state of not less than $10 nor more than $100 for each offense. The department may waive or reduce a surcharge imposed under this subsection if the employer or insurance company that violated this subsection requests a waiver or reduction of the surcharge within 45 days after the date on which notice of the surcharge is mailed to the employer or insurance company and shows that the violation was due to mistake or an absence of information. A surcharge imposed under this subsection is due within 30 days after the date on which notice of the surcharge is mailed to the employer or insurance company. Interest shall accrue on amounts that are not paid when due at the rate of 1 percent per month. All surcharges and interest payments received under this subsection shall be deposited in the fund established under s. 102.65
Any employer, or duly authorized agent thereof, who, without reasonable cause, refuses to rehire an employee injured in the course of employment, or who, because of a claim or attempt to claim compensation benefits from such employer, discriminates or threatens to discriminate against an employee as to the employee's employment, shall forfeit to the state not less than $50 nor more than $500 for each offense. No action under this subsection may be commenced except upon request of the department.
Any employer who without reasonable cause refuses to rehire an employee who is injured in the course of employment, when suitable employment is available within the employee's physical and mental limitations, upon order of the department or the division, has exclusive liability to pay to the employee, in addition to other benefits, the wages lost during the period of such refusal, not exceeding one year's wages. In determining the availability of suitable employment the continuance in business of the employer shall be considered and any written rules promulgated by the employer with respect to seniority or the provisions of any collective bargaining agreement with respect to seniority shall govern.
An employer cannot satisfy sub. (3) by rehiring with an intent to fire at a later date. Dielectric Corporation v. LIRC, 111 Wis. 2d 270
, 330 N.W.2d 606
(Ct. App. 1983).
An employer has the burden to prove that rehiring was in good faith. West Allis School Dist. v. DILHR, 116 Wis. 2d 410
, 342 N.W.2d 415
A one-day absence from work due to an injury triggered the rehire provision under sub. (3). Link Industries, Inc. v. LIRC, 141 Wis. 2d 551
, 415 N.W.2d 574
(Ct. App. 1987).
For liability under sub. (3), the employee must show that he or she: 1) was an employee; 2) sustained a compensable injury;. 3) applied for rehire; 4) had the application for rehire refused due to the injury. Universal Foods Corporation v. LIRC, 161 Wis. 2d 1
, 467 N.W.2d 793
(Ct. App. 1991).
Sub. (3) does not bar an employee from seeking arbitration under a collective bargaining agreement to determine whether termination following an injury violated the agreement. Sub. (3) relates to harm other than worker injuries and is not subject to the exclusive remedy provision of s. 102.03 (2); the “exclusive liability" language in sub. (3) does not bar lawsuits but imposes a penalty on the employer for refusal to hire. County of LaCrosse v. WERC, 182 Wis. 2d 15
, 513 N.W.2d 708
A LIRC interpretation of sub. (3), that a violation requires an employee who is unable to return to a prior employment to express an interest in reemployment in a different capacity, was reasonable. Hill v. LIRC, 184 Wis. 2d 110
, 516 N.W.2d 441
(Ct. App. 1994).
If an employer shows that it refused to rehire an injured employee because the employee's position was eliminated to reduce costs and increase efficiency, reasonable cause has been shown under sub. (3). Ray Hutson Chevrolet, Inc. v. LIRC, 186 Wis. 2d 118
, 519 N.W.2d 649
(Ct. App. 1994).
An attendance policy that includes absences due to work-related injuries as part of the total of absences allowed before termination violates sub. (3). Great Northern Corp. v. LIRC, 189 Wis. 2d 313
, 525 N.W.2d 361
(Ct. App. 1994).
Sub. (3) does not contemplate requiring employers to either deviate from a facially reasonable and uniformly applied policy, or explain why it would be burdensome to do so, when a returning employee requests the deviation to accommodate a non-work and non-injury-related personal need. Sub. (3) does not contain “accommodation" requirements and does not require an employer to change its legitimate and long-standing safety policies in order to assist an employee in meeting personal obligations. DeBoer Transportation, Inc. v. Swenson, 2011 WI 64
, 335 Wis. 2d 599
, 804 N.W.2d 658
Neither sub. (2) nor case law authorizes employees who are terminated for filing worker's compensation claims to bring wrongful discharge claims against their employers. Brown v. Pick 'n Save Food Stores, 138 F. Supp. 2d 1133
Every employer of 3 or more persons and every employer who is subject to this chapter shall keep a record of all accidents causing death or disability of any employee while performing services growing out of and incidental to the employment. This record shall give the name, address, age, and wages of the deceased or injured employee, the time and causes of the accident, the nature and extent of the injury, and any other information the department may require by rule or general order. Reports based upon this record shall be furnished to the department at such times and in such manner as the department may require by rule or general order, in a format approved by the department.
History: 1975 c. 147
; 1985 a. 83
; 2001 a. 37
Records and reports of payments.
Every insurance company that transacts the business of compensation insurance, and every employer who is subject to this chapter, but whose liability is not insured, shall keep a record of all payments made under this chapter and of the time and manner of making the payments and shall furnish reports based upon these records and any other information to the department as the department may require by rule or general order, in a format approved by the department.
Rules and general orders; application of statutes.
The provisions of s. 103.005
relating to the adoption, publication, modification, and court review of rules or general orders of the department shall apply to all rules promulgated or general orders adopted under this chapter.
History: 1995 a. 27
; 2001 a. 37
Reports not evidence in actions.
Reports furnished to the department pursuant to ss. 102.37
shall not be admissible as evidence in any action or proceeding arising out of the death or accident reported.
Incidental compensation. 102.42(1)(1)
Treatment of employee.
The employer shall supply such medical, surgical, chiropractic, psychological, podiatric, dental, and hospital treatment, medicines, medical and surgical supplies, crutches, artificial members, appliances, and training in the use of artificial members and appliances, or, at the option of the employee, Christian Science treatment in lieu of medical treatment, medicines, and medical supplies, as may be reasonably required to cure and relieve from the effects of the injury, and to attain efficient use of artificial members and appliances, and in case of the employer's neglect or refusal seasonably to do so, or in emergency until it is practicable for the employee to give notice of injury, the employer shall be liable for the reasonable expense incurred by or on behalf of the employee in providing such treatment, medicines, supplies, and training. When the employer has knowledge of the injury and the necessity for treatment, the employer's failure to tender the necessary treatment, medicines, supplies, and training constitutes such neglect or refusal. The employer shall also be liable for reasonable expense incurred by the employee for necessary treatment to cure and relieve the employee from the effects of occupational disease prior to the time that the employee knew or should have known the nature of his or her disability and its relation to employment, and as to such treatment subs. (2)
shall not apply. The obligation to furnish such treatment and appliances shall continue as required to prevent further deterioration in the condition of the employee or to maintain the existing status of such condition whether or not healing is completed.
Liability for unnecessary treatment.
If an employee who has sustained a compensable injury undertakes in good faith invasive treatment that is generally medically acceptable, but that is unnecessary, the employer shall pay disability indemnity for all disability incurred as a result of that treatment. An employer is not liable for disability indemnity for any disability incurred as a result of any unnecessary treatment undertaken in good faith that is noninvasive or not medically acceptable. This subsection applies to all findings that an employee has sustained a compensable injury, whether the finding results from a hearing, the default of a party, or a compromise or stipulation confirmed by the department or the division.
When the employer has notice of an injury and its relationship to the employment, the employer shall offer to the injured employee his or her choice of any physician, chiropractor, psychologist, dentist, physician assistant, advanced practice nurse prescriber, or podiatrist licensed to practice and practicing in this state for treatment of the injury. By mutual agreement, the employee may have the choice of any qualified practitioner not licensed in this state. In case of emergency, the employer may arrange for treatment without tendering a choice. After the emergency has passed the employee shall be given his or her choice of attending practitioner at the earliest opportunity. The employee has the right to a 2nd choice of attending practitioner on notice to the employer or its insurance carrier. Any further choice shall be by mutual agreement. Partners and clinics are considered to be one practitioner. Treatment by a practitioner on referral from another practitioner is considered to be treatment by one practitioner.
The employer is liable for the expense of reasonable travel to obtain treatment at the same rate as is provided for state officers and employees under s. 20.916 (8)
. The employer is not liable for the expense of unreasonable travel to obtain treatment.
Practitioner choice unrestricted.
If the employer fails to tender treatment as provided in sub. (1)
or choice of an attending practitioner as provided in sub. (2)
, the employee's right to choose the attending practitioner is not restricted and the employer is liable for the reasonable and necessary expense thereof.
The liability of an employer for the cost of Christian Science treatment provided to an injured employee is limited to the usual and customary charge for that treatment.
Liability for repair and replacement of prosthetic devices is limited to the effects of normal wear and tear. Artificial members furnished at the end of the healing period for cosmetic purposes only need not be duplicated.
Treatment rejected by employee.
Unless the employee has elected Christian Science treatment in lieu of medical, surgical, dental, or hospital treatment, no compensation shall be payable for the death or disability of an employee, if the death is caused, or insofar as the disability may be aggravated, caused, or continued by an unreasonable refusal or neglect to submit to or follow any competent and reasonable medical, surgical, or dental treatment or, in the case of tuberculosis, by refusal or neglect to submit to or follow hospital or medical treatment when found by the department or the division to be necessary. The right to compensation accruing during a period of refusal or neglect to submit to or follow hospital or medical treatment when found by the department or the division to be necessary in the case of tuberculosis shall be barred, irrespective of whether disability was aggravated, caused, or continued by that refusal or neglect.
Award to state employee.
Whenever the department or the division makes an award on behalf of a state employee, the department or the division shall file duplicate copies of the award with the subunit of the department of administration responsible for risk management. Upon receipt of the copies of the award, the department of administration shall promptly issue a voucher in payment of the award from the proper appropriation under s. 20.865 (1) (fm)
, and shall transmit one copy of the voucher and the award to the officer, department, or agency by whom the affected employee is employed.
Rehabilitation; physical and vocational. 102.42(9)(a)
One of the primary purposes of this chapter is restoration of an injured employee to gainful employment. To this end, the department shall employ a specialist in physical, medical and vocational rehabilitation.
Such specialist shall study the problems of rehabilitation, both physical and vocational and shall refer suitable cases to the department for vocational evaluation and training. The specialist shall investigate and maintain a directory of such rehabilitation facilities, private and public, as are capable of rendering competent rehabilitation service to seriously injured employees.
The specialist shall review and evaluate reported injuries for potential cases in which seriously injured employees may be in need of physical and medical rehabilitation and may confer with the injured employee, employer, insurance carrier or attending practitioner regarding treatment and rehabilitation.
The requirement that medical treatment be supplied during the healing period, defined as prior to the time the condition becomes stationary, is not determined by reference to the percentage of disability, but by a determination that the injury has stabilized. Custodial care, as distinguished from nursing services, is not compensable. Mednicoff v. DILHR, 54 Wis. 2d 7
, 194 N.W.2d 670
In appropriate cases, the department may postpone a determination of permanent disability for a reasonable period until after a claimant completes a competent and reasonable course of physical therapy or vocational rehabilitation as an essential part of the treatment required for full recovery and minimization of damages. Transamerica Insurance Co. v. DILHR, 54 Wis. 2d 272
, 195 N.W.2d 656
An employee who wishes to consult a second doctor on the panel after the first says no further treatment is needed may do so without notice or consent. If the second doctor prescribes an operation that increases the amount of disability, the employer is liable. Spencer v. DILHR, 55 Wis. 2d 525
, 200 N.W.2d 611
Sub. (7) [now sub. (6)] relieves an employer of liability when the employee refuses treatment provided by the employer, as required under sub. (1). An employee is not required to seek treatment from someone other than the employer. Klein Industrial Salvage v. DILHR, 80 Wis. 2d 457
, 259 N.W.2d 124
Under ss. 102.42 (9) (a), 102.43 (5), and 102.61, the department may extend temporary disability, travel expense, and maintenance costs beyond 40 weeks if additional training is warranted. Beloit Corporation v. State, 152 Wis. 2d 579
, 449 N.W.2d 299
(Ct. App. 1989).
Sub. (1) requires an employer to pay medical expenses even after a final order has been issued. Lisney v. LIRC, 171 Wis. 2d 499
, 493 N.W.2d 14
Sub. (2) (a) does not require an employer to consent to out-of-state health care expenses that result from a referral by an in-state practitioner selected in accordance with the statute. UFE Inc. v. LIRC, 201 Wis. 2d 274
, 548 N.W.2d 57
The continuing obligation to compensate an employee for work related medical expenses under s. 102.42 does not allow agency review of compromise agreements after the one-year statute of limitations in s. 102.16 (1) has run if the employee incurs medical expenses after that time. Schenkoski v. LIRC, 203 Wis. 2d 109
, 552 N.W.2d 120
(Ct. App. 1996), 96-0051
Under sub. (2), an employee can seek reimbursement for expenses related to 2 practitioners regardless of whether they are the first 2 practitioners whom the employee has seen. Hermax Carpet Marts v. LIRC, 220 Wis. 2d 611
, 583 N.W.2d 662
(Ct. App. 1998), 97-1119
Section 102.01 (2) (g) sets the date of injury of an occupational disease and s. 102.01 (1) provides that medical expenses incurred before an employee knows of the work-related injury are compensable. Read together, medical expenses in occupational disease cases are not compensable until the date of injury, but once the date is established all expenses associated with the disease, even if incurred before the date of injury, are compensable. United Wisconsin Insurance Co. v. LIRC, 229 Wis. 2d 416
, 600 N.W.2d 186
(Ct. App. 1999), 97-3776
creates an exception to the general rule that compensation is permitted only if medical expenses are reasonably required and necessary. As long as a claimant engages in unnecessary and unreasonable treatment in good faith, the employer is responsible for payment. Honthaners Restaurants, Inc. v. LIRC, 2000 WI App 273
, 240 Wis. 2d 234
, 621 N.W.2d 660
An employee is not eligible for benefits under sub. (1m) if the disability-causing treatment was directed at treating something other than the employee's compensable injury. Because the claimant's surgery treated her preexisting condition, not her compensable injury, her claim was disallowed. Flug v. LIRC, 2017 WI 72
, 376 Wis. 2d 571
, 898 N.W.2d 91
Continuing Payments for Medical Expenses in Worker's Compensation Proceedings. Carnell & Woog. Wis. Law. Nov. 1993.
Prescription and nonprescription drug treatment.