114.27 History History: 1987 a. 225; 1991 a. 269.
114.31 114.31 Powers and duties of the secretary of transportation.
114.31(1)(1)General. The secretary shall have general supervision of aeronautics in the state and promote and foster a sound development of aviation in this state, promote aviation education and training programs, assist in the development of aviation and aviation facilities, safeguard the interests of those engaged in all phases of aviation, formulate and recommend and promote reasonable regulations in the interests of safety, and coordinate state aviation activities with those of other states, the federal government, and the Wisconsin Aerospace Authority. The secretary shall have all powers that are necessary to carry out the policies of the department of transportation, including the right to require that statements made to the secretary be under oath. The secretary is especially charged with the duty of informing himself or herself regarding all federal laws that affect aeronautics and astronautics in this state, all regulations pursuant to such laws, and all pending legislation providing for a national airport system, in order that the secretary may recommend to the governor and the legislature such measures as will best enable this state to derive the maximum benefits from such legislation if and when it shall become effective. It shall be the duty of all other state boards, commissions, departments and institutions, especially the appropriate educational institutions and the Wisconsin Aerospace Authority, to cooperate with the secretary.
114.31(2) (2)Studies, investigations, airport development plan. The secretary shall conduct studies and investigations with reference to the most effective development and operation of airports and all other aeronautical facilities, and issue reports of the findings of these studies and investigations. The secretary shall prepare and may modify in recognition of changing conditions an airport development plan.
114.31(3) (3)Aviation education and training.
114.31(3)(a)(a) In cooperation with the appropriate educational institutions of the state, and jointly with them, the secretary shall formulate programs of aviation education and training, and disseminate information regarding such programs.
114.31(3)(b) (b) From the appropriation under s. 20.395 (2) (ds), the department shall administer an aviation career education program to provide training and apprenticeship opportunities associated with aviation careers for socially and economically disadvantaged youth.
114.31(4) (4)Cooperation with federal aeronautical or astronautical agency. The secretary shall cooperate with and assist the federal government, the political subdivisions of this state, and others engaged in aeronautics or astronautics or the promotion of aeronautics or astronautics, and shall seek to coordinate the aeronautical or astronautical activities of these bodies. To this end, the secretary is empowered to confer with or to hold joint hearings with any federal aeronautical or astronautical agency in connection with any matter arising under this chapter, relating to the sound development of aeronautics or astronautics, and to take advantage of the cooperation, services, records and facilities of such federal agencies, as fully as may be practicable, in the administration of said sections. The secretary shall furnish to the federal agencies cooperation, and the services, records and facilities of the department, insofar as may be practicable.
114.31(5) (5)Air marking system. The secretary shall cooperate with the federal government in any air marking system and weather information.
114.31(5m) (5m)Promotion of air services. In recognition of the importance of effective scheduled air service in the southeastern region of the state and the impact of that service on statewide economic development, the secretary shall, in cooperation with the appropriate airport governing bodies, promote expanded and improved air services, help provide information on available air services for potential users, develop efficient ground access to air services, monitor changes in air services and charges to passengers, and develop other programs as he or she considers advisable for the overall improvement of air services for residents of this state.
114.31(6) (6)Technical services to municipalities. The secretary may, insofar as is reasonably possible, offer the engineering or other technical service of the department, to any municipality desiring them in connection with the construction, maintenance or operation or proposed construction, maintenance or operation of an airport. The secretary may assess reasonable costs for services including services performed while acting as agent for a municipality. Such assessment shall include properly allocated administrative costs. Municipalities are authorized to cooperate with the secretary in the development of aeronautics and aeronautical facilities in this state. The Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation and all agencies are authorized and directed to make available such facilities and services, and to cooperate as far as possible to promote the best interests of aeronautics of the state.
114.31(7) (7)State aid. The secretary shall establish, by rule, such conditions as he or she deems necessary to the grant of state aid.
114.31(8) (8)Priorities.
114.31(8)(a) (a) On July 1 of each even-numbered year the governing body of each county, city, village or town that contemplates an airport development project in the next 6 years for which it proposes to request state or federal aid shall notify the secretary of such intention and submit such information as the secretary requires.
114.31(8)(b) (b) The secretary shall establish priorities for the projects proposed under s. 114.33 (2) in relation to the overall airport development plan taking into account such factors as industrial, commercial, recreational and resources development and transportation needs.
114.31(8)(c) (c) As part of the secretary's budget report, the secretary shall submit a tentative priority list of projects that the secretary recommends for state aid in the following biennium.
114.31(9) (9)Maps. With respect to aeronautical maps distributed by the secretary pursuant to this section, the secretary shall ensure that such maps printed on and after July 20, 1985, do not display the picture of the secretary.
114.31 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. Trans 55, Wis. adm. code.
114.315 114.315 Review. Orders of the secretary of transportation shall be subject to review in the manner provided in ch. 227.
114.316 114.316 Use of department airplanes for transportation. Acting upon its own discretion, the department may, either in the interest of furthering aeronautics or for other reasons, use airplanes owned or rented by it to transport persons and property of state institutions, departments or officials. In such instance the department may make charges therefor to such institutions or departments.
114.316 History History: 1971 c. 125; 1977 c. 29 s. 1654 (5).
114.32 114.32 Federal aid for airports.
114.32(1)(1)Secretary may accept. The secretary may cooperate with the government of the United States, and any agency or department thereof in the acquisition, construction, improvement, maintenance and operation of airports and other air navigation facilities in this state, and comply with the laws of the United States and any regulations made thereunder for the expenditure of federal moneys upon such airports and other air navigation facilities, and may enter into any contracts necessary to accomplish such purpose. The secretary may accept, receive and receipt for federal moneys and other moneys, either public or private, for and in behalf of this state or any municipality thereof, for training and education programs, for the acquisition, construction, improvement, maintenance and operation of airports and other aeronautical facilities, whether such work is to be done by the state or by such municipalities, or jointly, aided by grants of aid from the United States, upon such terms and conditions as are or may be prescribed by laws of the United States and any rules or regulations made thereunder, and the secretary may act as agent of any municipality of this state or the owner of any public-use airport upon the request of such municipality or the owner of the public-use airport, in accepting, receiving and receipting for such moneys in its behalf for airports, and in contracting for the acquisition, improvement, maintenance or operation of airports financed either in whole or in part by federal moneys, and the governing body of any such municipality or the owner of the public-use airport may designate the secretary as its agent for such purposes and enter into an agreement with the secretary prescribing the terms and conditions of such agency in accordance with federal laws, rules and regulations and with this chapter. Such moneys as are paid over by the U.S. government shall be retained by the state or paid over to said municipalities or to the owners of the public-use airports under such terms and conditions as may be imposed by the U.S. government in making such grants.
114.32(3) (3)Contracts. All contracts for the acquisition, construction, improvement, maintenance and operation of airports and other aeronautical facilities, made by the secretary of transportation either as the agent of this state or as the agent of any municipality or as the agent of the owner of a public-use airport, shall be made pursuant to the laws of this state governing the making of like contracts; provided, however, that where the acquisition, construction, improvement, maintenance and operation of any airport or landing strip and other aeronautical facilities is financed or partially financed with federal moneys, the secretary of transportation, as agent of the state or of any municipality thereof or of the owner of a public-use airport, may let contracts in the manner prescribed by the federal authorities, acting under the laws of the United States, and any rules or regulations made thereunder, notwithstanding any other state law to the contrary.
114.32(4) (4)Disposition of federal funds. All moneys accepted for disbursement by the secretary of transportation pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the state treasury, and, unless otherwise prescribed by the authority from which the money is received, kept in separate funds, designated according to the purpose for which the moneys were made available, and held by the state in trust for such purposes. All such moneys are appropriated for the purposes for which the same were made available to be expended in accordance with federal laws and regulations and with this chapter. The secretary of transportation, whether acting for this state or as the agent of any of its municipalities or as the agent of the owner of a public-use airport, or when requested by the U.S. government or any agency or department thereof, may disburse such moneys for the designated purposes, but this shall not preclude any other authorized method of disbursement.
114.32(5) (5)Local projects and funds; secretary's functions. No county, city, village or town, whether acting singly or jointly with a county, city, village or town, shall submit to a federal aeronautical agency or department any project application requesting federal assistance, for any airport improvement, aeronautical facility or planning study, unless the project and the project application have been first approved by the secretary. No such county, city, village or town shall directly accept, receive, receipt for or disburse any funds granted by the United States for the project, but it shall designate the secretary as its agent and in its behalf to accept, receive, receipt for and disburse such funds. It shall enter into an agreement with the secretary prescribing the terms and conditions of the secretary's functions under such agency in accordance with federal laws, rules and regulations and applicable laws of this state.
114.32 History History: 1971 c. 192; 1981 c. 390 s. 252; 1983 a. 159; 1993 a. 492.
114.32 Annotation The secretary of transportation possesses the requisite implied authority to enter into contracts with the federal government to secure federal funds to enable the department to undertake airport system planning. 60 Atty. Gen. 68. See also 60 Atty. Gen. 225.
114.33 114.33 Initiation of airport project; sponsorship; land acquisition.
114.33(1)(1)Any county, city, village or town, either singly or jointly with one or more counties, cities, villages or towns, or any owner of a public-use airport desiring to sponsor an airport development project to be constructed with federal aid and state aid or with the state aid alone as provided by this chapter, may initiate such project in the manner provided by this section. The department may initiate and sponsor an airport project in the same manner as a local governing body. If the department initiates and sponsors an airport project, it shall hold a hearing in the area affected by the project. Notice of the hearing shall be given as provided in sub. (2). The department may install, operate and maintain air navigation facilities with or without federal aid and may enter into agreements with sponsors to share the maintenance and operation costs of such facilities.
114.33(2) (2)Such initiation shall be by a petition filed with the secretary by the governing body or bodies of the counties, cities, villages or towns or by the governing body of a public-use airport not owned by a county, city, village or town desiring to sponsor the project, or if the project is initiated and sponsored by the department by a statement by the secretary setting forth among other things that the airport project is necessary and the reason therefor; the class of the airport that it is desired to develop, the location of the project in general, and the proposed site tentatively selected; the character, extent and kind of improvement desired under the project, evidence, in the form of a transcript, that the project has received a public hearing in the area affected before adoption by the petitioners, and any other statements that the petitioners or the department may desire to make. At least 10 days' notice of the public hearing shall be given by publication of a class 1 notice, under ch. 985, in the area affected.
114.33(3) (3)If the project has been sponsored by a local governing body or bodies or by the governing body of a public-use airport not owned by a county, city, village or town, the secretary shall make a finding within a reasonable time after receipt of the petition. If such finding is generally favorable to the development petitioned for, the secretary shall submit the finding to the governor for approval and no finding favoring an airport development project shall be effective unless the governor's approval is endorsed thereon in writing. If the finding is approved by the governor the secretary shall notify the petitioners to that effect by filing a copy of the finding, which shall include among other things the location of the approved site, the character and extent of the improvements deemed necessary, and an approximate estimate of the costs and the amount to be paid by the sponsor. The finding shall constitute approval of the airport site so specified as a portion of the state airport system. On receipt of the finding the sponsors shall take action at their next meeting toward providing their share of the cost and shall promptly notify the secretary. The sponsors may proceed in accordance with the finding to acquire the site and to make master development plans and project plans, and shall be entitled to receive credit therefor as provided by federal law and by this chapter. On completion and approval of the plans a revised estimate of the project costs shall be made for the purposes of the project application.
114.33(3m) (3m)If the project is initiated and sponsored by the department, the secretary shall submit the statement prepared under sub. (2) to the governor for approval as provided in sub. (3). After approval by the governor, the department may proceed with the project as provided in sub. (3).
114.33(4) (4)All projects for the development of airports with federal aid shall be in compliance with federal laws. All plans and other arrangements for development of projects with state aid alone shall be subject to the approval of the secretary.
114.33(5) (5)In the case of projects to be carried out by contract, force account, or by a county highway committee in a manner similar to the applicable provisions of s. 84.06 (3), the sponsor's share of the cost of a project shall be deposited in the state treasury promptly on the request of the secretary, to be held in trust for the purposes of the project. The secretary need not request the entire share at any one time. The secretary may suspend or discontinue proceedings or construction relative to any project at any time if any sponsor fails to pay the amount properly required of it as its contribution to the project. In the case of projects or parts of projects authorized by the secretary to be performed by force account methods, the secretary may permit the sponsor to retain the sponsor's share of the cost of authorized project work provided the sponsor is to do the work. In such case the sponsor will be periodically reimbursed for the state or federal share, or both, on the basis of audited costs incurred by the sponsor.
114.33(6) (6)
114.33(6)(a)(a) For the purposes of carrying out this section and ss. 114.35 and 114.37, the secretary may acquire by gift, devise, purchase or condemnation any lands for establishing, protecting, laying out, enlarging, extending, constructing, reconstructing, improving and maintaining airports, or interests in lands in and about airports. After completion of the improvements, subject to any prior action under s. 13.48 (14) (am) or 16.848 (1), the secretary may convey as provided in this subsection lands that were acquired under this subsection, but were not necessary for the airport improvements. The conveyances may be made with reservations concerning the future use and occupation of those lands so as to protect the airports and improvements and their environs and to preserve the view, appearance, light, air and usefulness of the airports.
114.33(6)(b) (b) Whenever the secretary considers it necessary to acquire any lands or interests in lands for any of the purposes described in par. (a), the secretary shall so order and in the order, or on a map or plat, show the lands and interests required. The secretary shall file a copy of the order and map with the county clerk of each county in which the lands or interests are required or, in lieu of filing a copy of the order and map, may file or record a plat in accordance with s. 84.095. For the purposes of this section the secretary may acquire private or public lands or interests therein. When so provided in the secretary's order, the land shall be acquired in fee simple. Unless the secretary elects to proceed under sub. (3), the secretary shall attempt to obtain easements or title in fee simple by conveyance of the lands or interests required at a price, including any damages, considered reasonable by the secretary. The instrument of conveyance shall name the state as grantee and shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds. The purchase or acquisition of lands or interests in lands under this section is excepted and exempt from s. 20.914 (1).
114.33(6)(c) (c) The secretary may purchase or accept donations of remnants of tracts or parcels of land existing at the time or after the secretary has acquired portions of tracts or parcels, by purchase or condemnation for airport purposes, where in the judgment of the secretary the acquisition of the tracts or parcels would assist in making whole the landowner, a part of whose lands have been taken for airport purposes and would serve to minimize the overall cost of the taking by the public.
114.33(7) (7)If any of the needed lands or interests in lands cannot be purchased expeditiously for a price deemed reasonable by the secretary, the secretary may acquire those lands or interests as provided in s. 32.05.
114.33(8) (8)
114.33(8)(a)(a) The secretary, upon the petition of a sponsoring municipality, may provide that all or certain parts of the required land or interests in land may be acquired by the municipality named by the secretary. When so provided, the municipality and the secretary shall appraise and set the maximum price, including damages, considered reasonable for the lands or interests to be so acquired. The municipality shall endeavor to obtain easements or title in fee simple by conveyance of the lands or interests required, as directed in the secretary's order. The instrument of conveyance shall name the municipality or municipalities as grantee and shall be subject to approval by the secretary, and shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds and filed with the secretary. If the needed lands or interests in lands cannot be purchased expeditiously within the appraised price, the municipality may acquire them by condemnation, as provided in s. 32.05.
114.33(8)(b) (b) Any property of whatever nature acquired in the name of a city, village or town pursuant to this section or any predecessor shall be conveyed to the state without charge by the city, village or town when so ordered by the secretary.
114.33(8)(c) (c) The municipality when so ordered by the secretary shall sell at public or private sale, subject to the conditions and terms authorized by the secretary, any and all buildings, structures, or parts thereof, and any other fixtures or personalty acquired in the name of the municipality under this section or any predecessor. The proceeds from the sale shall be deposited with the state in the appropriate airport fund and the expense incurred in connection with the sale shall be paid from that fund.
114.33(9) (9)The cost of the lands and interests acquired and damages allowed pursuant to this section, incidental expenses and the customary per diem and expenses of the municipality incurred in performing duties pursuant to this section, shall be paid out of the available airport improvement funds.
114.33(10) (10)Subject to the approval of the governor under this subsection and subject to any prior action under s. 13.48 (14) (am) or 16.848 (1), the secretary may sell at public or private sale property of whatever nature owned by the state and under the jurisdiction of the secretary when the secretary determines that the property is no longer necessary for the state's use for airport purposes and, if real property, the real property is not the subject of a petition under s. 16.310. The secretary shall present to the governor a full and complete report of the property to be sold, the reason for the sale, and the minimum price for which the property should be sold, together with an application for the governor's approval of the sale. The governor shall investigate the proposed sale as he or she deems necessary and approve or disapprove the application. Upon approval and receipt of the full purchase price, the secretary shall by appropriate deed or other instrument transfer the property to the purchaser. The funds derived from the sale shall be deposited in the appropriate airport fund, and the expense incurred by the secretary in connection with the sale shall be paid from that fund.
114.33(11) (11)Subject to the approval of the governor, the secretary may convey lands or interests in lands acquired under this section and improvements installed on those lands to municipalities named in the secretary's order. The conveyance of the lands or interests in lands and improvements shall restrict the use of the premises by the municipality to the uses for which they were acquired, except that the lands or interests in lands declared by the secretary to be excess may be conveyed without restrictions as to use.
114.33(12) (12)Lands held by any department, board, commission, other agency of the state, or the Wisconsin Aerospace Authority may, with the approval of the governor, be conveyed to the secretary in the manner prescribed by statute and, if none is prescribed, then by a conveyance authorized by appropriate resolution of the controlling department, board or commission of the agency concerned or by the Wisconsin Aerospace Authority.
114.33(13) (13)Subsections (6) to (12) do not apply to lands or interests in lands associated with projects for public-use airports which are not owned by a county, city, village or town.
114.33 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. Trans 54, Wis. adm. code.
114.34 114.34 State and sponsor's share of cost.
114.34(1)(1)The costs of airport improvement projects involving federal aid, in excess of the federal government's share, shall be borne by the sponsor and the state, except that the state shall pay not more than one-half of the excess costs, nor more than $1,250,000 for the cost of a building project or building improvement project and no part of the cost of hangars. The secretary, upon agreement with the sponsor, may advance up to 10 percent of the amount of any federal aid grant agreement for the payment of project costs of a federal aid project from unallocated state airport funds, subject to reimbursement upon final liquidation and settlement of the project with the sponsor and federal government.
114.34(2) (2)The costs of projects not involving federal aid shall be borne by the sponsor and the state. The state shall pay not more than 80 percent of the costs, which may include the cost of the land, the cost of lands or interest in lands deemed necessary for the protection of the aerial approaches, the cost of formulating the project application and preparing the plans and specifications, and the cost of construction and of all facilities deemed necessary for the operation of the airport. The state shall not contribute more than $1,250,000 for the cost of a building project or building improvement project and no part of the cost of hangars.
114.34(3) (3)The percentage of the costs borne by the state shall be determined by the department on the basis of the relative importance of the specific project to the state airport development program as a whole.
114.35 114.35 Federal aid; state and local funds.
114.35(1)(1)It is declared to be the policy of the state to promote the development of an airport system in this state and to promote the development of joint airports in this state and in adjoining states which mutually benefit citizens of this state and those of adjoining states. The secretary may use the funds provided by the state to assist sponsors in matching the federal aid that may become available to the state or available for specific projects or joint projects within this state or in an adjoining state.
114.35(2) (2)The secretary may also use the funds provided by the state independent of the availability of federal funds to aid sponsors in the development of approved projects on the state system or joint projects; for air marking and air navigation facilities; and for the purposes of 1991 Wisconsin Act 269, section 9155 (1x).
114.37 114.37 Advance land acquisition loan program for airport projects.
114.37(1)(1)Purpose. The purpose of this section is to promote the state's interest in preserving and improving a safe and efficient air transportation system by means of a program to provide loans for advance land acquisition for airport projects planned under s. 114.33.
114.37(2) (2)Administration. The department shall administer an advance land acquisition loan program to assist a county, city, village, town or an owner of a public-use airport in acquiring land necessary for airport projects under s. 114.33. The department shall have all powers necessary and convenient to implement this section, including the following powers:
114.37(2)(a) (a) To specify conditions of eligibility for loans under this section. Such conditions shall include the requirement that the land to be acquired must be part of a planned airport improvement project or a land acquisition project that is essential to future airport development or to the safety of aircraft using the airport.
114.37(2)(b) (b) To receive applications for loans under this section and to prescribe the form, nature and extent of the information which shall be contained in applications.
114.37(2)(c) (c) To establish standards for the approval of loans under this section. No loan may be made for an amount greater than 80 percent of the department's assessment of the value of the property.
114.37(2)(d) (d) To enter into loan agreements with applicants to ensure the proper use and prompt repayment of loans under this section. The loan agreement shall include the requirements that the loan be repaid within a period not to exceed 5 years and that the proceeds of any state or federal land acquisition funding received under s. 114.33 be fully pledged to repayment of the loan. The department may not make a loan for more than 80 percent of the estimated land acquisition costs, including the costs of any necessary project plans and environmental studies. The loan agreement shall require that the department be designated to act as the loan recipient's agent in the acquisition of the land. Title to the land acquired shall be held by the loan recipient, but the department may retain a security interest in the land until the loan is repaid. The loan agreement shall require the payment of interest and reasonable costs incurred by the department.
114.37(2)(e) (e) To acquire lands under s. 114.33 (6) and (7) as the designated agent of a loan recipient.
114.37(2)(f) (f) To audit and inspect the records of loan recipients.
114.37(3) (3)Funds. The department may make loans under this section from the appropriation under s. 20.395 (2) (dv). The total outstanding balance of loans under this subsection may not exceed $6,500,000.
114.37(4) (4)Rules. The department may adopt rules as necessary to implement this section.
114.37 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. Trans 54, Wis. adm. code.
114.375 114.375 Advance land acquisition loan program for spaceport projects.
114.375(1)(1)Purpose. The purpose of this section is to promote the state's interest in aerospace programs by providing loans for advance land acquisition for spaceport projects.
114.375(2) (2)Administration. The department shall administer an advance land acquisition loan program to assist a county, city, village, town, or an owner of a spaceport in acquiring land necessary for spaceport projects. The department shall have all powers necessary and convenient to implement this section, including the following powers:
114.375(2)(a) (a) To specify conditions of eligibility for loans under this section. Such conditions shall include the requirement that the land to be acquired must be part of a planned spaceport improvement project or a land acquisition project that is essential to future spaceport development or to the safety of spacecraft using the spaceport.
114.375(2)(b) (b) To receive applications for loans under this section and to prescribe the form, nature, and extent of the information which shall be contained in applications.
114.375(2)(c) (c) To establish standards for the approval of loans under this section. No loan may be made for an amount greater than 80 percent of the department's assessment of the value of the property.
114.375(2)(d) (d) To enter into loan agreements with applicants to ensure the proper use and prompt repayment of loans under this section. The loan agreement shall include the requirements that the loan be repaid within a period not to exceed 10 years and that the proceeds of any state or federal land acquisition funding received be fully pledged to repayment of the loan. The department may not make a loan for more than 80 percent of the estimated land acquisition costs, including the costs of any necessary project plans and environmental studies. The loan agreement shall require that the department be designated to act as the loan recipient's agent in the acquisition of the land. Title to the land acquired shall be held by the loan recipient, but the department may retain a security interest in the land until the loan is repaid. The loan agreement shall require the payment of interest and reasonable costs incurred by the department.
114.375(2)(e) (e) To acquire lands as the designated agent of a loan recipient.
114.375(2)(f) (f) To audit and inspect the records of loan recipients.
114.375(3) (3)Funds. The department may make loans under this section from the appropriation under s. 20.395 (2) (mv). The total outstanding balance of loans under this subsection may not exceed $10,000,000.
114.375(4) (4)Rules. The department may adopt rules as necessary to implement this section.
114.375 History History: 2005 a. 335.
114.40 114.40 Disclosure of insurance coverage for renter pilots.
114.40(1)(1)Definition. In this section, “rental agent" means a person who, on a regular basis and in the ordinary course of business, rents or leases an aircraft to another person.
114.40(2) (2)Required disclosures. Except as provided in sub. (2m), before entering into an agreement to rent or lease an aircraft to another person, the rental agent shall deliver to the person who seeks to rent or lease the aircraft a written notice of insurance coverage which contains all of the following information and is in substantially the following form:
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 50 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on December 6, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after December 6, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 12-6-19)