Enters an information processing system outside the control of the sender or of a person that sent the electronic record on behalf of the sender or enters a region of the information processing system designated or used by the recipient which is under the control of the recipient.
Unless otherwise agreed between a sender and the recipient, an electronic record is received when:
It enters an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purpose of receiving electronic records or information of the type sent and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic record; and
It is in a form capable of being processed by that system.
(3) Subsection (2)
applies even if the place where the information processing system is located is different from the place where the electronic record is deemed to be received under sub. (4)
Unless otherwise expressly provided in the electronic record or agreed between the sender and the recipient, an electronic record is deemed to be sent from the sender's place of business and to be received at the recipient's place of business. For purposes of this subsection:
If the sender or recipient has more than one place of business, the place of business of that person is the place having the closest relationship to the underlying transaction.
If the sender or the recipient does not have a place of business, the place of business is the sender's or recipient's residence, as the case may be.
An electronic record is received under sub. (2)
even if no individual is aware of its receipt.
Receipt of an electronic acknowledgment from an information processing system described in sub. (2)
establishes that a record was received but, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received.
If a person is aware that an electronic record purportedly sent under sub. (1)
, or purportedly received under sub. (2)
, was not actually sent or received, the legal effect of the sending or receipt is determined by other applicable law. Except to the extent permitted by the other law, the requirements of this subsection may not be varied by agreement.
History: 2003 a. 294
Transferable records. 137.24(1)
In this section, "transferable record" means an electronic record that is a note under ch. 403
or a record under ch. 407
An electronic record qualifies as a transferable record under this section only if the issuer of the electronic record expressly has agreed that the electronic record is a transferable record.
A person has control of a transferable record if a system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the transferable record reliably establishes that person as the person to which the transferable record was issued or transferred.
A system satisfies the requirements of sub. (2)
, and a person is deemed to have control of a transferable record, if the transferable record is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that:
A single authoritative copy of the transferable record exists which is unique, identifiable, and, except as otherwise provided in pars. (d)
The authoritative copy identifies the person asserting control as the person to which the transferable record was issued or, if the authoritative copy indicates that the transferable record has been transferred, the person to which the transferable record was most recently transferred;
The authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained by the person asserting control or its designated custodian;
Copies or revisions that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy can be made only with the consent of the person asserting control;
Each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the authoritative copy; and
Any revision of the authoritative copy is readily identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.
Except as otherwise agreed, a person having control of a transferable record is the holder, as defined in s. 401.201 (2) (km)
, of the transferable record and has the same rights and defenses as a holder of an equivalent record or writing under chs. 401
, including, if the applicable statutory requirements under s. 403.302 (1)
, or 409.330
are satisfied, the rights and defenses of a holder in due course, a holder to which a negotiable record of title has been duly negotiated, or a purchaser, respectively. Delivery, possession, and endorsement are not required to obtain or exercise any of the rights under this subsection.
Except as otherwise agreed, an obligor under a transferable record has the same rights and defenses as an equivalent obligor under equivalent records or writings under chs. 401
If requested by a person against which enforcement is sought, the person seeking to enforce the transferable record shall provide reasonable proof that the person is in control of the transferable record. Proof may include access to the authoritative copy of the transferable record and related business records sufficient to review the terms of the transferable record and to establish the identity of the person having control of the transferable record.
History: 2003 a. 294
; 2009 a. 320
Submission of written documents. 137.25(1)
Unless otherwise prohibited by law, with the consent of a governmental unit of this state that is to receive a record, any record that is required by law to be submitted in writing to that governmental unit and that requires a written signature may be submitted as an electronic record, and if submitted as an electronic record may incorporate an electronic signature.
The department of administration shall promulgate rules concerning the use of electronic records and electronic signatures by governmental units, which shall govern the use of electronic records or signatures by governmental units, unless otherwise provided by law. The rules shall include standards regarding the receipt of electronic records or electronic signatures that promote consistency and interoperability with other standards adopted by other governmental units of this state and other states and the federal government and nongovernmental persons interacting with governmental units of this state. The standards may include alternative provisions if warranted to meet particular applications.
History: 1997 a. 306
; 2003 a. 294
If a governmental unit of this state adopts standards regarding its receipt of electronic records or electronic signatures under s. 137.25
, the governmental unit shall promote consistency and interoperability with similar standards adopted by other governmental units of this state and other states and the federal government and nongovernmental persons interacting with governmental units of this state. Any standards so adopted may include alternative provisions if warranted to meet particular applications.
History: 2003 a. 294