If a check held by a licensee as a result of a payday loan is dishonored, or an instruction to execute an electronic funds transfer authorized as the result of a payday loan is denied, the licensee may bring an action to collect the amount of the check or electronic funds transfer, but may not threaten or pursue criminal action against a debtor as a result of the debtor's dishonored check or denied electronic funds transfer or the debtor's payday loan not being paid.
All payday loans shall be governed by chs. 421
, but to the extent that chs. 421
are inconsistent with this section, this section shall govern. All payday loans shall be governed by ch. 427
A licensee shall deliver to the customer, at the time a payday loan is made, a statement in the English and Spanish languages including all the disclosures required by the federal Consumer Credit Protection Act. The statement shall disclose that the customer may prepay the customer's loan in whole or in part and that if the loan is prepaid in full the customer will receive a refund of interest as provided by this section. The statement shall also clearly and conspicuously indicate the percentage per year of interest charged for the payday loan.
A licensee shall give to the customer a plain and complete receipt for all cash payments made on account of any payday loan at the time such payments are made.
No payday loan, wherever made, for which a greater rate or amount of interest than is allowed under sub. (10) (a) 2.
has been contracted for or received, may be enforced in this state, and every person in any way participating therein in this state shall be subject to this section. If a licensee makes an excessive charge of such interest as the result of an unintentional mistake, but upon demand makes correction of such mistake, the loan shall be enforceable and treated as if no violation occurred at the agreed rate. Nothing in this paragraph shall limit any greater rights or remedies afforded in chs. 421
to a customer in a consumer credit transaction.
The division or a database provider shall develop, implement, and maintain a single statewide database that has real-time access through an Internet connection, is accessible at all times to licensees and the division, and otherwise meets the requirements of this section.
The division may operate the database or may contract with a single 3rd-party provider to operate the database. If the division contracts with a 3rd-party provider for the operation of the database, the division shall do all the following:
Ensure that the 3rd-party provider operates the database according to the provisions of this section.
In selecting a 3rd-party provider, consider the cost of providing the service and the 3rd-party provider's ability to meet all the requirements of this section.
In selecting a 3rd-party provider, give strong consideration to all of the following:
The 3rd-party provider's ability to prevent fraud, abuse, and other unlawful activity associated with payday loan transactions, and to provide additional tools for the administration and enforcement of this section.
Whether the provider is currently providing a similar service for another state.
Allow a licensee accessing the database to check a customer's unique identification number that is assigned to the customer in a manner specified by the division. A customer's unique identification number may not be based on the customer's social security number.
Allow a licensee accessing the database to determine if making a new payday loan would cause a violation of this section.
Provide information necessary to aid a licensee in complying with any requirements imposed under federal law by the office of foreign assets control of U.S. department of the treasury.
Provide any other information that the division determines is necessary and requires by rule or contract with the database provider.
The database provider shall do all the following:
Use the data collected under this section only as prescribed in this section and, in the case of a 3rd-party provider, as prescribed in the contract with the division, and for no other purpose.
Establish and maintain an alternate process for responding to transaction authorization requests necessary because of technical difficulties occurring with the database that prevent a licensee from accessing the database through the Internet.
Upon receiving notification that a payday loan is paid, designate the transaction as closed in the database no later than 11:59 p.m. on the day that such notification is received.
Automatically designate a payday loan as paid in the database 5 days after the maturity date of the loan unless a licensee reports to the database provider before that time that the loan remains open because of the customer's failure to make payment; that the loan is open because the customer's check or an electronic redeposit is in the process of clearing the banking system; that the loan remains open because the customer's check is being returned to the licensee for insufficient funds, a closed account, or a stop payment order; or that any other factors determined by the division are applicable. If a licensee makes such a report, the database provider shall designate the payday loan as an open transaction until the database provider is notified that the transaction is closed.
If a licensee stops making payday loans, designate all open transactions with that licensee as closed in the database 60 days after the date on which the licensee stops making payday loans, unless the licensee reports to the database provider before the expiration of the 60-day period which of its transactions remain open and the specific reason each transaction remains open.
In response to an inquiry from a licensee, state only that a person is eligible or ineligible for a new payday loan and describe the reason for that determination. Only the person seeking the loan may make a direct inquiry to the database provider to request a more detailed explanation of an ineligibility determination.
If at any time the division determines that a licensee that has stopped making payday loans is not updating the database in accordance with a plan approved under par. (o)
, the division shall immediately close or instruct the database provider to immediately close all remaining open transactions of that licensee.
The division may, without cost, access the database for the purposes of enforcing this section.
The division shall, by order or rule, stipulate the period for which data is to be retained in the database only as required to ensure licensee compliance with this section or for enforcement or compliance purposes. The division may require that any identifying customer information be deleted from the database when data is archived. The division may maintain access to archived data for future legislative or policy review.
The division shall, by order or rule, specify a database transaction fee of no more than $1 that the database provider shall charge to licensees to cover the costs of developing and implementing the database, and accessing the database to verify that a customer does not have any payday loans with the licensee or others that in combination with a new transaction will create a violation of this section. The database fee is payable directly to the division in a manner prescribed by the division and, if the department has contracted with a 3rd-party provider to operate the database, the division shall remit the fee to the 3rd-party provider as specified in the contract.
A licensee shall verify a customer's eligibility to enter into a payday loan by doing one of the following, as applicable:
If the database, as determined by the division, is not implemented or is not fully operational, verifying that the customer does not have an open payday loan with the licensee that in conjunction with a new payday loan would cause a violation of this section. The licensee shall maintain a database of all of the licensee's payday loans at all of its places of business and search that database to meet its obligation under this subdivision.
If the database, as determined by the division, is implemented and fully operational, accessing the database and verifying that the customer does not have an outstanding payday loan with the licensee and does not have open payday loans with other licensees that in conjunction with a new payday loan would cause a violation of this section.
If the database, as determined by the division, is not fully operational, or the licensee is unable to access the database and, as determined under rules promulgated by the division, the alternate process established under par. (d) 2.
is also unavailable, a licensee may rely upon the written verification of the customer in a statement provided in substantially the following form in at least 12-point type:
“I DO NOT HAVE ANY OUTSTANDING PAYDAY LOANS WITH THIS LICENSEE AND I DO NOT HAVE MORE PAYDAY LOANS WITH ANY OTHER LICENSED PAYDAY LOAN PROVIDER IN THIS STATE."
If, as determined by the division, a licensee is unable to access the database due to technical difficulties occurring with the database, the licensee shall utilize the alternate process established under par. (d) 2.
A licensee may rely on the information contained in the database as accurate and is not subject to any administrative forfeiture as a result of relying on inaccurate information contained in the database.
Before entering into a payday loan, a licensee shall submit to the database provider the customer's name; unique identification number that is assigned in a manner specified by the division; address; driver license number or other method of state identification; the amount of the transaction; the customer's check number, if applicable; the date of the transaction; the maturity date of the loan; and any other information reasonably required by the division, in a format approved by the division.
When a payday loan is closed, the licensee shall designate the transaction as closed and notify the database provider no later than 11:59 p.m. on the day on which the transaction is closed. The division shall assess an administrative forfeiture of $100 for each day that the licensee fails to notify the database provider that the payday loan has been closed. It is a defense to the assessment of an administrative forfeiture that notifying the database provider was not possible due to temporary technical problems with the database or to circumstances beyond the licensee's control.
If the licensee stops making payday loans, the licensee shall provide to the division a plan acceptable to the division that outlines how the licensee will continue to update the database after it stops making payday loans. The division shall approve or disapprove the plan and within 5 business days notify the licensee of the decision. If a plan is disapproved, the licensee may submit a new or modified plan for the division to approve or disapprove.
Any information in the database regarding any person's transactional history is confidential and is not subject to public copying or inspection under s. 19.35 (1)
No licensee or person with whom the division contracts for operation of the database under sub. (14) (b)
may sell to another person any information regarding a customer or a payday loan made to a customer.
Any person, partnership, or corporation, or the officers or employees thereof, who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned for not more than 6 months or both.
If a person who is not licensed under this section makes a payday loan to a customer, the loan is void, the customer is not obligated to pay any amounts owed on the loan, and the customer may recover from the person all amounts the customer has paid to the person. An action to recover such amounts shall be commenced within one year after the date of the last scheduled payment on the loan or shall be barred.
Private cause of action.
If a person makes a payday loan to a customer in violation of this section, the customer may bring an action against the person for damages of $250 or the amount of the payday loan, whichever is greater, plus costs, and, notwithstanding s. 814.04 (1)
, reasonable attorney fees.
“Division" means the division of banking attached to the department of financial institutions.
“Title loan" means a loan of $25,000 or less to a borrower, who obtains or seeks to obtain the loan for personal, family, or household purposes, that is, or is to be, secured by an interest, other than a purchase money security interest, in the borrower's motor vehicle, and that has an original term of not more than 6 months.
Before a licensed lender may make title loans under this section, the licensed lender shall first obtain from the division, for each licensed location at which any title loan is to be made, a certificate authorizing the licensed lender to make title loans from that location.
At the time of making an application for a certificate under par. (a)
, an applicant shall pay to the division an initial annual fee of $5,000. The valid period for the certificate shall be a calendar year and each certificate shall expire on the last day of the calendar year. To renew a certificate, the certificate holder shall, on or before December 10 of the year in which the certificate is to expire, pay to the division an annual renewal fee of $5,000 for the following calendar year.
No licensed lender may make a title loan to a borrower that results in the borrower having liability for the loan, in principal, of more than 50 percent of the retail value of the motor vehicle used as security for the loan. The division shall promulgate rules for determining the retail value of a motor vehicle for purposes of this paragraph, including rules specifying nationally recognized pricing guides that may be used for determining retail value at the time of loan origination.
This section imposes no limit on the interest that a licensed lender may charge before the maturity date of a title loan.
If a title loan is not paid in full on or before the maturity date, a licensed lender may charge, after the maturity date, interest at a rate not exceeding 2.75 percent per month. Interest earned under this subdivision shall be calculated at the rate of one-thirtieth of the monthly rate charged for each calendar day that the balance of the loan is outstanding. Interest may not be assessed on any interest earned under this subdivision.
A borrower may rescind a title loan, before the close of business on the next day of business after the loan is made, or, if the place of business where the loan is made is open 24 hours, before 5 p.m. on the next day of business after the loan is made, by returning to the licensed lender the proceeds of the loan. The licensed lender may not charge the borrower any fee for rescinding the title loan as provided in this subsection.
A licensed lender may not make a title loan to a borrower that is secured by an interest in a motor vehicle if the motor vehicle is subject to another security interest.
A licensed lender may not require a borrower to provide the licensed lender with a key or copy of a key to a motor vehicle used as security for a title loan as a condition for making the title loan to the borrower.
A licensed lender or person acting on behalf of a licensed lender may not take possession of a motor vehicle used as security for a title loan to a borrower without sending notice to the borrower at least 20 days prior to taking possession. The notice shall state the intent to take possession and describe the basis for the right to take possession. This paragraph does not apply to possession that is obtained by a borrower's voluntary surrender of a motor vehicle.
A licensed lender or other person may charge a borrower a reasonable storage fee for a motor vehicle of the borrower of which the licensed lender or person acting on behalf of the licensed lender has obtained possession, including possession that is obtained by voluntary surrender.
A licensed lender shall return to a borrower the amount of any proceeds from the disposition of a motor vehicle used as security for a title loan to the borrower that exceed the borrower's liability to the licensed lender for the loan.
A borrower is not liable to a licensed lender for any deficiency resulting from the licensed lender's disposition of a motor vehicle used as security for a title loan, unless the borrower has done any of the following:
Impaired the licensed lender's security interest by intentionally damaging or destroying the motor vehicle.
Pledged to the licensed lender a motor vehicle that is already encumbered by an undisclosed prior lien.
Subsequent to obtaining the title loan, pledged or sold to a third party a motor vehicle used as security for a title loan without the licensed lender's written consent.
History: 2009 a. 405
; 2011 a. 32
See also ch. DFI-Bkg 78
, Wis. adm. code.
Discrimination in granting credit or loans prohibited. 138.20(1)(1)
No financial organization, as defined under ss. 71.04 (8) (a)
and 71.25 (10) (a)
, or any other credit granting commercial institution may discriminate in the granting or extension of any form of loan or credit, or of the privilege or capacity to obtain any form of loan or credit, on the basis of the applicant's physical condition, developmental disability as defined in s. 51.01 (5)
, sex or marital status; provided, however, that no such organization or institution shall be required to grant or extend any form of loan or credit to any person who such organization or institution has evidence demonstrating the applicant's lack of legal capacity to contract therefor or to contract with respect to any mortgage or security interest in collateral related thereto.
Any person violating this section may be fined not more than $1,000. Each individual who is discriminated against under this section constitutes a separate violation.
As to sub. (1m), see notes in 1985 Wis. Act 37
, marital property trailer bill.
See also chs. DFI-SB 8
and DFI-SL 8
, Wis. adm. code.