181.0809(2) (2)Appointed directors.
181.0809(2)(a)(a) Except as otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, an appointed director may be removed without cause by the person appointing the director.
181.0809(2)(b) (b) The person removing an appointed director shall do so by giving written notice of the removal to the appointed director and either the presiding officer of the board or the corporation's president or secretary.
181.0809(2)(c) (c) A removal under this subsection is effective when the notice under par. (b) is effective under s. 181.0141 unless the notice specifies a future effective date.
181.0809 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0810 181.0810 Removal of directors by judicial proceeding.
181.0810(1)(1) Grounds for removal. The circuit court for the county where a corporation's principal office is located may remove a director of the corporation from office in a proceeding commenced either by the corporation or by its members holding at least 10% of the voting power of any class, if the court finds all of the following:
181.0810(1)(a) (a) That the director engaged in fraudulent or dishonest conduct, or gross abuse of authority or a final judgment has been entered finding that the director has violated a fiduciary duty or a duty under ss. 181.0831 to 181.0833.
181.0810(1)(b) (b) That removal is in the best interest of the corporation.
181.0810(2) (2)Bar from serving. A court that removes a director may bar the director from serving on the board for a period prescribed by the court.
181.0810(3) (3)Corporation as defendant. If members commence a proceeding under sub. (1), the corporation shall be made a party defendant.
181.0810 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0811 181.0811 Vacancies.
181.0811(1)(1) Filling of vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, any vacancy occurring on the board, including a vacancy created by an increase in the number of directors, may be filled until the next succeeding annual election by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum. In the event that the board ceases to exist, and there are no members having voting rights, the members without voting rights have the power to elect a new board.
181.0811(2) (2)Appointed directors. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, if a vacant office was held by an appointed director, only the person who appointed the director may fill the vacancy.
181.0811(3) (3)Designated directors. If a vacant office was held by a designated director, the vacancy shall be filled as provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws. In the absence of an applicable article of incorporation or bylaw provision, the vacancy may not be filled by the board.
181.0811(4) (4)When vacancy filled. A vacancy that will occur at a specific later date, because of a resignation effective at a later date under s. 181.0807 (2) or otherwise, may be filled before the vacancy occurs but the new director may not take office until the vacancy occurs.
181.0811 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0820 181.0820 Regular and special meetings.
181.0820(1) (1) In general. If the time and place of a board meeting is fixed by the bylaws or the board, the meeting is a regular meeting. All other meetings are special meetings.
181.0820(2) (2)Location. A board may hold regular or special meetings in or outside of this state.
181.0820(3) (3)Methods of conducting meeting.
181.0820(3)(a)(a) Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, the board may permit any or all directors to participate in a regular or special meeting or in a committee meeting of the board by, or to conduct the meeting through the use of, any means of communication by which any of the following occurs:
181.0820(3)(a)1. 1. All participating directors may simultaneously hear or read each other's communications during the meeting.
181.0820(3)(a)2. 2. All communication during the meeting is immediately transmitted to each participating director, and each participating director is able to immediately send messages to all other participating directors.
181.0820(3)(b) (b) If a meeting will be conducted through the use of any means described in par. (a), all participating directors shall be informed that a meeting is taking place at which official business may be transacted. A director participating in a meeting by any means described in par. (a) is considered to be present in person at the meeting. If requested by a director, minutes of the meeting shall be prepared and distributed to each director.
181.0820 History History: 1997 a. 79; 2003 a. 259.
181.0821 181.0821 Action without meeting.
181.0821(1m) (1m) Definitions. In this section:
181.0821(1m)(a) (a) "In writing" or "written" includes a communication that is transmitted or received by electronic means.
181.0821(1m)(b) (b) "Sign" includes executing an electronic signature.
181.0821(1r) (1r)Method. An action required or permitted to be taken at a board meeting may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing setting forth the action is signed by all of the directors then in office. If the articles of incorporation or bylaws so provide, an action required or permitted to be taken at a board meeting may be taken by written action signed by two-thirds of the directors then in office.
181.0821(2) (2)Effectiveness. A consent under this section has the same force and effect as a vote of the board of directors taken at a meeting and may be described as such in any articles or document filed with the department under this chapter. The written action is effective when signed by the required number of directors, unless a different effective date and time are specified in the written consent. If written notice is required under sub. (3), the written action shall be effective on the date specified in the written consent or on the 10th day after the date on which written notice under sub. (3) is given, whichever is later.
181.0821(3) (3)Notice; liability. If written action is permitted to be taken by less than all directors, all directors must be noticed immediately of the text of the written consent and of its effective date and time. Failure to provide notice under this section does not invalidate the action taken by written consent under this section. A director who does not sign or consent to the action taken by written consent is not liable for the action.
181.0821 History History: 1997 a. 79; 2003 a. 259.
181.0822 181.0822 Call and notice of meetings.
181.0822(1) (1) Regular meetings. Unless the articles of incorporation, bylaws or sub. (3) provides otherwise, regular meetings of the board may be held without notice.
181.0822(2) (2)Special meetings. Unless the articles of incorporation, bylaws or sub. (3) provides otherwise, special meetings of the board must be preceded by at least 2 days' notice to each director of the date, time and place, but not the purpose, of the meeting.
181.0822(3) (3)Corporations without members. In corporations without members, any board action to remove a director or to approve a matter that would require approval by the members if the corporation had members, shall not be valid unless each director is given at least 7 days' written notice that the matter will be voted upon at a board meeting or unless notice is waived under s. 181.0823.
181.0822(4) (4)Method of giving notice. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, the presiding officer of the board, the president or 20% of the directors then in office may call and give notice of a meeting of the board.
181.0822 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0823 181.0823 Waiver of notice.
181.0823(1)(1) Written waivers. A director may waive any notice required by this chapter, the articles of incorporation or the bylaws before or after the date and time stated in the notice. Except as provided in sub. (2), the waiver must be in writing, signed by the director entitled to the notice, and filed with the minutes or the corporate records.
181.0823(2) (2)Effect of attendance or participation. A director's attendance at or participation in a meeting waives any required notice of the meeting unless the director upon arriving at the meeting or before the vote on a matter not noticed in conformity with this chapter, the articles of incorporation or the bylaws objects to lack of notice and does not thereafter vote for or assent to the objected to action.
181.0823 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0824 181.0824 Quorum and voting.
181.0824(1)(1) Quorum. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the articles of incorporation or the bylaws, a quorum of a board consists of a majority of the directors in office immediately before a meeting begins.
181.0824(2) (2)Voting. If a quorum is present when a vote is taken, the affirmative vote of a majority of directors present is the act of the board unless this chapter, the articles of incorporation or the bylaws require the vote of a greater number of directors.
181.0824 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0825 181.0825 Committees of the board. If the articles of incorporation or bylaws so provide, the board may adopt a resolution designating one or more committees. Each committee shall consist of 3 or more directors elected by the board of directors. To the extent provided by the resolution or in the articles of incorporation or in the bylaws, the committee may exercise the powers of the board with respect to the management of the affairs of the corporation, when the board is not meeting, except for electing officers or the filling of vacancies on the board or on committees created under this section. The board may elect one or more of its members as alternate members of a committee created under this section, who may take the place of absent members at any meeting of the committee. The designation of a committee and the delegation of authority to it does not relieve the board or any director of any responsibility imposed upon the board or director by law.
181.0825 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0831 181.0831 Director conflict of interest.
181.0831(1) (1) When contract or transaction is not void or voidable. No contract or other transaction between a corporation and a director, or any entity in which a director is a director or officer or has a material financial interest, is void or voidable because of the relationship or interest or because the director is present at the meeting of the board or a committee that authorizes, approves or ratifies the contract or transaction or because the director's vote is counted for that purpose, if any of the following applies:
181.0831(1)(a) (a) The relationship or interest is disclosed or known to the board or committee that authorizes, approves or ratifies the contract or transaction and the contract or transaction was authorized, approved or ratified by a vote or consent sufficient for the purpose without counting the votes or consents of interested directors.
181.0831(1)(b) (b) The fact of such relationship or interest is disclosed or known to the members entitled to vote and they authorize, approve or ratify that contract or transaction by vote or written consent.
181.0831(1)(c) (c) The contract or transaction is fair and reasonable to the corporation.
181.0831(2) (2)Quorum requirements. Common and interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the board or a committee that authorizes, approves or ratifies a contract or transaction under sub. (1).
181.0831(3) (3)Additional requirements. The articles of incorporation, the bylaws or a resolution of the board may impose additional requirements on conflict of interest transactions.
181.0831 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0832 181.0832 Loans to directors and officers.
181.0832(1) (1) Requirements for loan or guarantee. Except as provided in sub. (3), a corporation may not lend money to or guarantee the obligation of a director or officer of the corporation unless any of the following occurs:
181.0832(1)(a) (a) The particular loan or guarantee is approved by the members.
181.0832(1)(b) (b) The corporation's board determines that the loan or guarantee benefits the corporation and either approves the specific loan or guarantee or a general plan authorizing loans and guarantees.
181.0832(2) (2)Effect of violations. A violation of this section does not affect the borrower's liability on the loan.
181.0832(3) (3)Limited applicability. This section does not apply to an advance to a director or officer that is permitted by s. 181.0874 or 181.0877 (3) or that is made to defray expenses incurred by the director or officer in the ordinary course of the corporation's business.
181.0832 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0833 181.0833 Liability for unlawful distributions.
181.0833(1) (1) When liable. Except as provided in sub. (3), a director who votes for or assents to a distribution made in violation of subch. XIII or the articles of incorporation is personally liable to the corporation for the amount of the distribution that exceeds what could have been distributed without violating subch. XIII or the articles of incorporation, if it is established that the director's vote or assent constitutes conduct described by s. 181.0855 (1) (a), (b), (c) or (d). In any proceeding brought under this section, a director has all of the defenses ordinarily available to a director.
181.0833(2) (2)Right to contribution. A director who is liable under sub. (1) for an unlawful distribution is entitled to contribution from all of the following persons:
181.0833(2)(a) (a) Every other director who could be held liable under sub. (1) for the unlawful distribution.
181.0833(2)(b) (b) Each member, for the amount that the member accepted knowing that the distribution was made in violation of subch. XIII or the articles of incorporation.
181.0833(3) (3)When proceeding barred. A proceeding under this section is barred unless it is brought within 2 years after the date on which the distribution was made.
181.0833 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0840 181.0840 Officers.
181.0840(1)(1) Principal officers. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, a corporation shall have a president, a secretary, a treasurer and such other officers as are appointed by the board.
181.0840(2) (2)Assistant officers. A duly appointed officer may appoint one or more officers or assistant officers if authorized by the bylaws or the board.
181.0840(3) (3)Multiple offices. The same individual may simultaneously hold more than one office in a corporation.
181.0840 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0841 181.0841 Duties and authority of officers and agents. Each officer or agent has the authority and shall perform the duties set forth in the bylaws or, to the extent consistent with the bylaws, the duties and authority prescribed in a resolution of the board or by direction of an officer authorized by the board to prescribe the duties and authority of other officers.
181.0841 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0843 181.0843 Resignation and removal of officers.
181.0843(1)(1) Resignation. An officer may resign at any time by delivering notice to the corporation that complies with s. 181.0141. The resignation is effective when the notice is delivered, unless the notice specifies a later effective date and the corporation accepts the later effective date. If a resignation is effective at a later date, the board, or the officer authorized by the bylaws or the board to appoint the resigning officer, may fill the pending vacancy before the effective date if the appointment provides that the successor may not take office until the effective date.
181.0843(2) (2)Removal. The board may remove any officer and, unless restricted by the bylaws or by the board, an officer may remove any officer or assistant officer appointed by that officer under s. 181.0840 (2), at any time, with or without cause and notwithstanding the contract rights, if any, of the officer removed.
181.0843 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0844 181.0844 Contract rights of officers.
181.0844(1) (1) Effect of appointment. The appointment of an officer does not itself create contract rights.
181.0844(2) (2)Effect of removal or resignation. Except as provided in s. 181.0843 (2), an officer's resignation or removal is subject to any remedies provided by any contract between the officer and the corporation or otherwise provided by law.
181.0844 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0850 181.0850 Reliance by directors or officers. Unless the director or officer has knowledge that makes reliance unwarranted, a director or officer, in discharging his or her duties to the corporation, may rely on information, opinions, reports or statements, any of which may be written or oral, formal or informal, including financial statements and other financial data, if prepared or presented by any of the following:
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before June 30, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 1, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-1-14)