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24.25 24.25 Issuance and record of patent.
24.25(1) (1) Whenever full payment is made for any lands described in a certificate of sale issued under s. 24.17, as required by law, and the purchaser, or the purchaser's legal representatives, produces to the board the duplicate certificate of sale, with the receipt of the secretary of administration endorsed on the duplicate certificate, showing that the whole amount of the principal and interest due on the purchase of the land described in the certificate has been paid and that the holder of the duplicate certificate is entitled to a patent for the lands described in the certificate, the original and duplicate certificates shall be canceled, and the board shall immediately execute and deliver a patent to the person entitled to the patent for the land described in the certificate.
24.25(2) (2) All patents issued by the board shall be recorded in the board's office. The board's record of patents issued by it constitutes a legal record.
24.25(3) (3) Purchasers may, at any time before payment is due, pay any part or the whole of the purchase money for the land and the interest owing on the purchase money.
24.25(4) (4) If a patent is issued to a person who dies before the date of the patent, the title to the land described inures to and vests in the decedent's heirs, devisees, or assignees to the same extent as if the patent had issued to the decedent during the decedent's lifetime.
24.25 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2003 a. 33; 2005 a. 149.
24.251 24.251 Patents, issuance; county may record. Whenever it appears to the board that all the conditions relating to the issuance of patents have been complied with, the board may issue patents, and the county board of any county may cause the patents to be recorded in the county and pay the cost of the recording.
24.251 History History: 2005 a. 149.
24.26 24.26 Patentee's rights. Except as provided under s. 24.11, any person, or the person's heirs or assigns, who receives a patent pursuant to law for any public lands acquires the right to all timber, lumber, trees, wood, bark, stone, earth, and other materials cut, dug, taken, or removed from the lands subject to the patent before the issue of the patent, unless the materials were cut, dug, taken, or removed by the assent of the board or were sold by the state. The person receiving the patent may maintain an action for the recovery of the materials that were cut, dug, taken, or removed, or for any injury done to or trespass committed upon the lands before the patent was issued, in the same manner, with the same effect, and with the same entitlement to damages as if the injury or trespass had been committed after the patent was issued.
24.26 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2005 a. 149.
24.27 24.27 Purchase money a loan. The purchaser of public lands, when the balance of the purchase money becomes due, may retain the same as a loan from year to year on payment annually in advance, or on or before May 31, of the interest on the sum due, at the rate of interest specified in the certificate of sale, and the taxes annually assessed on the land described in the certificate, until required to pay the whole or part by the board or until the legislature shall otherwise direct.
24.27 History History: 1981 c. 169; 1983 a. 423.
24.28 24.28 Forfeiture.
24.28(1)(1) A certificate of sale issued under s. 24.17 becomes void upon the occurrence of any of the following, and the purchaser of the lands described in the certificate, or the purchaser's heirs and assigns, shall forfeit all right and interest in the lands:
24.28(1)(a) (a) Nonpayment of interest when it is due according to the terms of the certificate of sale.
24.28(1)(b) (b) Nonpayment of any taxes that before the annual interest required by the certificate of sale is paid are returned to the board by the county treasurer as due and unpaid upon the lands described in the certificate.
24.28(1)(c) (c) Nonpayment of the principal owing on the purchase of the lands described in the certificate of sale when required by the board.
24.28(2) (2) In the event of a forfeiture of lands under sub. (1), the board may take immediate possession of and resell the forfeited lands as provided under ss. 24.29 to 24.33.
24.28 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2005 a. 149.
24.29 24.29 Redemption. At any time before the 5 days next preceding the reoffering at public sale of any land forfeited under s. 24.28, the former purchaser, or the former purchaser's assigns or legal representatives, may prevent the resale of the forfeited lands and revive the original contract by paying the principal sum due, with interest, and all taxes returned on the forfeited lands to the secretary of administration that are still unpaid, and all costs occasioned by the delay, together with 3 percent damages on the whole sum owing for the forfeited lands.
24.29 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2003 a. 33; 2005 a. 149.
24.30 24.30 Liability of former purchaser. In case of a forfeiture of lands under s. 24.28, the former purchaser of the forfeited lands shall be liable for any waste or unnecessary injury that the former purchaser may have done to the forfeited lands or to the timber or minerals located upon the forfeited lands. An action for waste or unnecessary injury under this section may be prosecuted by the board in the name of the state.
24.30 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2005 a. 149.
24.31 24.31 Advertisement and resale of forfeited lands. Whenever any public lands have been forfeited under s. 24.28 for the nonpayment of principal, interest, or taxes, and the lands have remained forfeited for 3 months, the board shall first cause the forfeited lands to be appraised as provided under s. 24.08. Upon completion of the appraisal, the board shall advertise the forfeited land for sale as provided under s. 24.09 and shall state in the notice that the lands have been forfeited and give the names of the former purchasers. The sale of the forfeited lands shall be made either in the county where the lands lie or at the capitol on a day not less than 3 months nor more than 6 months after the first insertion of the notice. The board shall publish a class 3 notice, under ch. 985, of the sale giving the time and place where the sale will be held and the county in which the lands being sold are situated, but omitting any description of the lands. The last insertion of the notice shall be at least one week prior to the time the sale is to commence.
24.31 History History: 2005 a. 149.
24.32 24.32 Resale and redemption.
24.32(1) (1) Unless the resale of lands forfeited under s. 24.28 is prevented by payment under s. 24.29, the forfeited lands shall be offered for sale at public auction to the highest bidder in the manner and upon the terms provided for original sales and, if the lands are not then sold, the lands shall be subject to private entry.
24.32(2) (2)
24.32(2)(a)(a) Every tract of forfeited lands may be redeemed by the former purchaser, or the former purchaser's assigns or legal representatives, at any time before the June 30th next following the date of the resale of the forfeited tract, by doing all of the following:
24.32(2)(a)1. 1. Presenting to the board satisfactory proof, which shall be filed and preserved by the board, that the tract was, at the time of the resale, in whole or in part under cultivation or adjoining a tract partly cultivated, belonging to the former purchaser, or the former purchaser's assigns or legal representatives, and used in connection with the adjoining tract.
24.32(2)(a)2. 2. Depositing with the secretary of administration, for the use of the purchaser at the resale of the forfeited tract the amount paid by the resale purchaser for the tract, together with 25 percent of the amount of the taxes, interest, and costs, in addition to the purchase price.
24.32(2)(b) (b) Every certificate of sale issued upon any resale of forfeited lands shall be subject to the right of redemption under par. (a) whether or not the right of redemption is expressed in the certificate. No patent shall be issued on any resale of a forfeited tract until the expiration of the redemption period under par. (a).
24.32(3) (3) Upon a redemption under sub. (2), the board shall do all of the following:
24.32(3)(a) (a) Cancel the certificate of sale issued to the resale purchaser.
24.32(3)(b) (b) Make and deliver to the party redeeming the forfeited lands a certificate of the redemption.
24.32(3)(c) (c) Record the certificate of the redemption in a book kept in the board's office for that purpose.
24.32 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2003 a. 33; 2005 a. 149; 2009 a. 177.
24.33 24.33 Resale may be canceled.
24.33(1) (1) The board, within 3 months after a resale under s. 24.32, may by a written recorded order, a copy of which shall be immediately served on the purchaser of the resold land, avoid and cancel the resale and restore and revive the certificate issued to the original purchaser of the land under s. 24.17, after all of the following occur:
24.33(1)(a) (a) Proof is made that there are valuable improvements on the resold land.
24.33(1)(b) (b) Proof is made that the forfeiture was occasioned by the death of the holder of the first certificate, or the neglect of the first certificate holder's personal representative.
24.33(1)(c) (c) Payment is made to the secretary of administration in the amount actually due on the first certificate at the time of the resale, with interest, costs, and charges, and with interest on the amount for which the land was sold at the rate of 10% per year.
24.33(2) (2) Upon the surrender of the certificate, receipt, or patent given upon the resale, the purchaser of the resold land shall be paid out of the state treasury the amount paid by the purchaser at resale, together with the interest collected from the person redeeming the land.
24.33 History History: 1979 c. 110 s. 60 (13); 1991 a. 316; 2001 a. 102; 2003 a. 33.
24.34 24.34 Void sales. In the event that the sale of any public lands are made by mistake or not in accordance with law, or are obtained by fraud, or in the event that the state had no title to the lands sold, or the state's title has failed, the sale of the lands shall be void and no contract, certificate of purchase, or patent issued on the lands sold shall be of any effect, but the person named as vendee, or that person's successor in interest, may furnish to the board any proof that will satisfy the board of the facts. Except as provided in s. 24.341, upon receipt of satisfactory proof of the facts asserted by the vendee, the board shall order all amounts, either of principal or interest, paid for the lands described in the contract, certificate, or patent, together with the interest on the amounts so paid from the time of each such payment, at the rate of 6 percent per year, simple interest, to be refunded and paid out of the state treasury, from the fund to which it has been credited, to the person entitled to the refund. Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, no money shall be paid to any person participating in any fraud in obtaining the land, as provided in this section.
24.34 History History: 1979 c. 110 s. 60 (13); 1991 a. 316; 2005 a. 149.
24.341 24.341 Offset to refund on void sales. Whenever any claim is made for a refund on a void land sale under s. 24.34, the board shall make an investigation and determination, and offset the value of the use of the land, property removed from the land, and damage or injury to the land by the claimant, together with interest thereon, against the amounts actually paid to the state and to any other persons on account of the purchase, possession, use, damage, or injury to the lands by the claimants. The refund or payment to be made under s. 24.34 shall in no case be more than the excess, if any, of the amounts paid out by the claimant, with interest, over the offset determined under this section.
24.341 History History: 2005 a. 149.
24.35 24.35 Annulment of certificates and patents. Whenever the board has erroneously or improperly issued any certificate or patent for any public lands whereby wrong or injustice has been or may be done, including cases in which the state had no title to the lands, or its title has failed, the board may, upon the written application of the purchaser, or the purchaser's successor in interest, revoke and annul the certificate or patent by its order, which, with the application, shall be filed and recorded in the board's office. A certified copy of the board's order may be recorded in the office of the register of deeds for the county where the lands lie, and upon the recording of the order, the certificate or patent shall be void. When the board's order is so recorded there shall be paid out of the state treasury, from the fund to which it has been credited, to the purchaser, or the purchaser's successor in interest, the amounts in the manner and as provided in s. 24.34.
24.35 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2005 a. 149.
24.355 24.355 Limitation of actions. All claims under s. 24.34 or 24.35 shall be barred, unless application for a payment refund is made within 5 years from the time of the payment, or, in cases in which the state never had title, from the time when the invalidity of the title of the state was established.
24.355 History History: 2005 a. 149.
24.36 24.36 Lost certificates and patents. Whenever any duplicate certificate of sale has been lost or destroyed before the patent has been issued, or whenever any patent has been lost or destroyed, the board, upon satisfactory proof of the fact, established by affidavit filed with the board, may issue a certified copy of the original certificate of sale or of the record in the board's office of the patent, or a quitclaim deed in place of the missing patent, to the person entitled to the copy of the certificate or record of the patent, or quitclaim deed, which shall have the same force and effect as the original duplicate certificate or patent. The board's certificate to the copy and quitclaim deed shall recite the loss or destruction of the original.
24.36 History History: 2005 a. 149.
24.37 24.37 Ejectment. If any person holds or continues in possession of any public lands without written permission from the board, or contrary to the conditions or covenants of any lease or written agreement, or after the lands have been forfeited to the state, that person shall be liable to an action by the state or any purchaser from the state for an unlawful detainer or other proper action to recover possession of the lands and for damages for the detention of the lands.
24.37 History History: 1991 a. 316; 2005 a. 149; 2009 a. 177.
24.38 24.38 Boundaries. The lines, boundaries, and descriptions of the swamp lands as exhibited by the plats and field notes of the United States survey are adopted and deemed conclusively to be the true lines, boundaries, and descriptions of those swamp lands.
24.38 History History: 2005 a. 149.
24.39 24.39 Leases of public lands.
24.39(1) (1) The board of commissioners of public lands may grant leases of parts or parcels of any public lands except state park lands and state forest lands; grant easements, leases to enter upon any of said lands to flow the same or to prospect for and to dig and remove therefrom ore, minerals and other deposits, and sell therefrom such timber as the board shall find necessary to prevent future loss or damage. All sales of standing live timber shall be on a selective cutting basis in line with federal forest practices. Such easements, leases, licenses and sales shall be made only for a full and fair consideration paid or to be paid to the state, the amount and terms whereof shall be fixed by said board, and such easements, leases, licenses and sales shall conform to the requirements, so far as applicable, prescribed by ch. 26 for the exercise by the department of natural resources of similar powers affecting state park lands and state forest lands.
24.39(2) (2) In negotiating for such leases, licenses or sales, and in exercising the other powers conferred by this section the board of commissioners of public lands shall, so far as it finds it desirable and practicable, request and make proper use of such services and information as the department of natural resources may be able to furnish.
24.39(3) (3) All moneys received by the board from the leasing of land under the U.S. flood control act of 1954 and subsequent amendments thereto, shall be paid into the general fund of the state within one week and are appropriated therefrom to the board to be paid to the county clerk of the county in which the leased land is located for the benefit of the general fund of such county within 30 days of its receipt by the board.
24.39(4) (4)
24.39(4)(a)(a) Subject to pars. (c) and (d) the board of commissioners of public lands may:
24.39(4)(a)1. 1. Lease to riparian owners rights to the beds of lakes and rights to fill in beds of lakes or navigable streams, held by the state in trust for the public, when the purpose of the lease is for the improvement of navigation or for the improvement or construction of harbor facilities as defined in s. 30.01; and
24.39(4)(a)2. 2. Lease such rights to municipalities as defined in s. 30.01 and in locations where the municipality is the riparian owner, when the purpose of the lease is for the improvement or provision of recreational facilities related to navigation for public use.
24.39(4)(b) (b) All revenues from such leases shall be paid into the general fund.
24.39(4)(c) (c) No leases under par. (a) may be executed without a prior finding of the department of natural resources under s. 30.11 (5) that any proposed physical change in the area contemplated as the result of the execution of any term lease is consistent with the public interest in the navigable waters involved.
24.39(4)(d) (d) This subsection applies only to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers, the Fox River from Green Bay upstream to the point where it meets the Wolf River, and to the segments of all other bodies of water in which the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides and maintains commercial navigation channels.
24.39(4)(e) (e) Such lease shall be for a term not to exceed 50 years, and shall include therein any and all conditions and terms the board of commissioners of public lands believes to be necessary in the public interest. A lessee or the lessee's heirs, successors or assigns of a lease which has reached the end of its term shall have first opportunity to contract with the board of commissioners of public lands for a new lease.
24.39(4)(f) (f) A municipality may sublease rights leased to it under par. (a) 1. or 2. to corporations or private persons. A municipality may also make physical improvements on and above the bottoms to which rights were leased from the board of commissioners of public lands and may sublease these improvements to corporations or private persons. Any subleases under this paragraph shall be consistent with this subsection and with whatever standards or restrictions the department of natural resources, acting under s. 30.11 (5), may have found at the time of execution of the original lease by the board of commissioners of public lands to the municipality.
24.39(4)(g) (g) The lease may be terminated for nonuse or for a nonconforming use any time after 5 years from date of issue, or such shorter period of time as may be specified in the lease. It may also be terminated for any other ground recognized at law for termination of a lease.
24.39(4)(h) (h) All rights to submerged lands and rights above submerged lands ceded, granted, or leased to municipalities, or other persons by acts of the state that were effective prior to October 10, 1961, shall not be affected by this subsection or by s. 30.11 (5).
24.39(4)(i) (i) All leases entered into by the board of commissioners of public lands under this subsection and s. 30.11 shall be deemed to be subject to this section and any other applicable laws of this state or of the United States.
24.39 History History: 1981 c. 390; 1991 a. 316; 2001 a. 103; 2005 a. 149.
24.40 24.40 Easements; annexation.
24.40(1) (1) Every board, commission, department and agency of the state having real estate belonging to the state under its control may grant easements in said property for public utility service through, over, along or to said property, including without limitation by enumeration the necessary poles, wires, structures, lines, conduits, pipes or pipe lines for heat, light, water, gas, sewer, power, telecommunications, telegraph and transmission of messages.
24.40(2) (2) Every such board, commission, department and agency may petition or join in a petition for and on behalf of the state as the owner of such property to annex or detach the same or any part or parts thereof to or from an adjoining municipality.
24.40 History History: 1985 a. 297 s. 76.
24.51 24.51 Constitutional board. The board created by article X, section 7, of the constitution may be styled in any law or any action or proceeding in court as "The Board of Commissioners of Public Lands".
24.51 History History: 1979 c. 34 s. 699g; Stats. 1979 s. 24.51; 1983 a. 192.
24.52 24.52 Jurisdiction. Together with the power and duty of selling the school and university lands and investing the funds arising therefrom, prescribed for the board by article X, section 7, of the constitution, it is invested with power to dispose of all other public lands and all interests in lands held by the state for sale, and with such further powers as may be necessary or convenient to enable it to exercise the functions and perform the duties imposed upon it by law.
24.52 History History: 1979 c. 34 s. 699g; Stats. 1979 s. 24.52; 1983 a. 192.
24.53 24.53 Investigate land claims; deduct expenses. The board of commissioners of public lands shall investigate the rights of the state to school lands, normal school lands, university lands and agricultural college lands. The expenses incurred in making these investigations and taking necessary steps to protect common school lands, normal school lands, university lands and agricultural college lands and timber on those lands, as well as the expense of necessary surveys, records, appraisals and sales, upon the approval of the board, shall be deducted from the gross receipts of the fund to which the proceeds from the sale of the land or timber will be added.
24.53 History History: 1979 c. 34 s. 699g; Stats. 1979 s. 24.53.
24.54 24.54 Records; copies as evidence.
24.54(1) (1) The department of administration shall provide an office for the board. The board shall conveniently arrange and preserve in that office all records, books, reports, surveys, maps, field notes, plats and other papers pertaining to the public lands owned by the state, including all public lands that have been or shall be received from the United States or any officer of the United States. The board may perfect the records, books, reports, surveys, maps, field notes, plats and other papers when incomplete, and cause copies of those documents to be made when from injury, loss, use or accident it shall become necessary. Any copy, when certified to be a correct copy by the executive secretary of the board under the executive secretary's signature and the official seal of the office to have been made for any of the causes specified in this subsection, shall have the same force and effect in all courts and places as the original. Any copy from the original records, books, reports, surveys, maps, field notes, plats or other papers, or from any record or paper required by law to be kept in the office, or any copy from a certified copy of one of those documents, when certified by the executive secretary of the board or any member of the board of commissioners of public lands under the official seal of the board, shall be received in evidence with the same effect as the original.
24.54(2) (2) All records, books and files kept by the board shall at all business hours be open, under proper regulations made by it, to the inspection of any person, free of charge. The board also may in like manner make, perfect, and complete proper records, books, reports and other papers pertaining to the lands of which the state has been or is trustee for the United States.
24.54 History History: 1979 c. 34 s. 699g; 1979 c. 176; Stats. 1979 s. 24.54; 1989 a. 31; 1993 a. 16.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before June 30, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 1, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-1-14)