281.14(2)(c) (c) Collect water quality information for locations on the river itself and for major tributaries and major impoundments to use in evaluating the biological, physical, and chemical properties of the water and to use as data in watershed and river models.
281.14(2)(d) (d) Use watershed and river models and the information collected under this subsection and from other sources to forecast the effect on water quality of different methods of reducing the amounts of nutrients introduced into the river.
281.14(2)(e) (e) Develop tools to use in selecting and implementing methods of reducing the amounts of nutrients introduced into the river.
281.14 History History: 2009 a. 28; 2013 a. 20.
281.145 281.145 River and stream monitoring and study.
281.145(1) (1) In this section:
281.145(1)(a) (a) “Nonpoint source" has the meaning given in s. 281.16 (1) (e).
281.145(1)(b) (b) “Point source" has the meaning given in s. 283.01 (12).
281.145(2) (2) The department shall conduct a program to monitor and study the introduction of nutrients from point sources and nonpoint sources into the East and West Twin Rivers, the Manitowoc River, the Sheboygan River, and the streams that outlet to Lake Michigan and that lie in and between the Ahnapee River watershed and the Sauk Creek watershed. The department shall seek to do all of the following under this subsection:
281.145(2)(a) (a) Identify the amounts of nutrients being introduced into these waters.
281.145(2)(b) (b) Characterize and quantify the nutrients, in particular nitrogen and phosphorus, introduced into these waters from nonpoint sources relative to climate, land use, soil type, elevation, and drainage.
281.145(2)(c) (c) Collect water quality information from locations on these waters and from major tributaries and major impoundments to use in evaluating the biological, physical, and chemical properties of the water and to use as data in watershed and river models.
281.145(2)(d) (d) Use watershed and river models and the information collected under this subsection and from other sources to forecast the effect on water quality of different methods of reducing the amounts of nutrients introduced into these waters.
281.145(2)(e) (e) Develop tools to use in selecting and implementing methods of reducing the amounts of nutrients introduced into these waters.
281.145 History History: 2017 a. 59.
281.15 281.15 Water quality standards.
281.15(1) (1) The department shall promulgate rules setting standards of water quality to be applicable to the waters of the state, recognizing that different standards may be required for different waters or portions thereof. Water quality standards shall consist of the designated uses of the waters or portions thereof and the water quality criteria for those waters based upon the designated use. Water quality standards shall protect the public interest, which include the protection of the public health and welfare and the present and prospective future use of such waters for public and private water systems, propagation of fish and aquatic life and wildlife, domestic and recreational purposes and agricultural, commercial, industrial and other legitimate uses. In all cases where the potential uses of water are in conflict, water quality standards shall be interpreted to protect the general public interest.
281.15(2) (2) In adopting or revising any water quality criteria for the waters of the state or any designated portion thereof, the department shall do all of the following:
281.15(2)(a) (a) At least annually publish and provide public notice of water quality criteria to be adopted, revised or reviewed in the following year.
281.15(2)(b) (b) Consider information reasonably available to the department on the likely social, economic, energy usage and environmental costs associated with attaining the criteria and provide a description of the economic and social considerations used in the establishment of the criteria.
281.15(2)(c) (c) Establish criteria which are no more stringent than reasonably necessary to assure attainment of the designated use for the water bodies in question.
281.15(2)(d) (d) Employ reasonable statistical techniques, where appropriate, in interpreting the relevant water quality data.
281.15(2)(e) (e) Develop a technical support document which identifies the scientific data utilized, the margin of safety applied and any facts and interpretations of those data applied in deriving the water quality criteria, including the persistence, degradability and nature and effects of each substance on the designated uses, and which provides a summary of the information considered under this section.
281.15(3) (3)Subsection (2) does not apply to rules promulgated under this section by the department for any substance before November 10, 1987.
281.15(4) (4) By April 1, 1989, the department shall review, in accordance with sub. (2), and as necessary revise all water quality criteria, except those for dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and ammonia, adopted under this section before November 10, 1987.
281.15(5) (5) The department shall comply with this section with respect to all water quality criteria adopted or revised after November 10, 1987.
281.15(6) (6) Every 3 years, as part of the review required by 33 USC 1313 (c) (1), the department shall review the water quality standards promulgated under this section and determine whether any existing standards should be modified or new standards should be adopted. The department shall hold a public hearing to receive information and public comment regarding water quality standards promulgated under this section. The department shall publish notice of the hearing on the department's Internet site at least 45 days before the hearing date. The department shall submit the results of a review under this subsection to the federal environmental protection agency.
281.15 History History: 1995 a. 227 s. 377; 1995 a. 378 s. 41; 2015 a. 205.
281.15 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also chs. NR 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 207, and 213 Wis. adm. code.
281.16 281.16 Water quality protection; nonpoint sources.
281.16(1)(1)Definitions. In this section:
281.16(1)(a) (a) “Agricultural facility" means a structure associated with an agricultural practice.
281.16(1)(b) (b) “Agricultural practice" means beekeeping; commercial feedlots; dairying; egg production; floriculture; fish or fur farming; grazing; livestock raising; orchards; poultry raising; raising of grain, grass, mint and seed crops; raising of fruits, nuts and berries; sod farming; placing land in federal programs in return for payments in kind; owning land, at least 35 acres of which is enrolled in the conservation reserve program under 16 USC 3831 to 3836; and vegetable raising.
281.16(1)(bg) (bg) “Artificial water body" has the meaning given in s. 30.19 (1b) (a).
281.16(1)(br) (br) “Covered municipality" means a municipality that has been issued an individual municipal separate storm sewer permit under s. 283.33 or that is covered by a general municipal separate storm sewer permit under s. 283.35.
281.16(1)(c) (c) “Livestock operation" means a feedlot or other facility or a pasture where animals are fed, confined, maintained or stabled.
281.16(1)(d) (d) “Navigable waters" has the meaning given in s. 281.31 (2) (d).
281.16(1)(e) (e) “Nonpoint source" means a facility or practice that causes, or has the potential to cause, nonpoint source water pollution.
281.16(1)(f) (f) “Nonpoint source water pollution" means pollution of waters of the state that does not result from a point source, as defined in s. 283.01 (12).
281.16(1)(g) (g) “Water quality management area" means any of the following:
281.16(1)(g)1. 1. The area within 1,000 feet from the ordinary high-water mark of navigable waters that consist of a lake, pond or flowage, except that, for a navigable water that is a glacial pothole lake, “water quality management area" means the area within 1,000 feet from the high-water mark of the lake.
281.16(1)(g)2. 2. The area within 300 feet from the ordinary high-water mark of navigable waters that consist of a river or stream.
281.16(1)(g)3. 3. A site that is susceptible to groundwater contamination or that has the potential to be a direct conduit for contamination to reach groundwater.
281.16(1)(h) (h) Notwithstanding s. 281.01 (18), “waters of the state" has the meaning given in s. 283.01 (20).
281.16(2) (2)Nonpoint sources that are not agricultural.
281.16(2)(a)(a) The department shall, by rule, prescribe performance standards for nonpoint sources that are not agricultural facilities or agricultural practices. The performance standards shall be designed to achieve water quality standards by limiting nonpoint source water pollution.
281.16(2)(am)1.1. In this paragraph:
281.16(2)(am)1.c. c. “New development" means development resulting from the conversion of previously undeveloped land or agricultural land.
281.16(2)(am)1.d. d. “Redevelopment" means development that replaces older development.
281.16(2)(am)2. 2. Except as provided in subd. 3., the department may not enforce a provision in a rule that establishes a date by which a covered municipality must implement methods to achieve a specified reduction in the level of total suspended solids carried by runoff, if the provision requires the covered municipality to achieve a reduction of more than 20 percent. This subdivision does not apply to total suspended solids carried by runoff from new development or redevelopment in a covered municipality.
281.16(2)(am)3. 3. If a covered municipality has achieved, on July 1, 2011, a reduction of more than 20 percent of total suspended solids carried by runoff, the municipality shall, to the maximum extent practicable, maintain all of the best management practices that the municipality has implemented on or before July 1, 2011, to achieve that reduction.
281.16(2)(b) (b) The department shall, by rule, specify a process for the development and dissemination of technical standards to implement the performance standards under par. (a).
281.16(2)(c) (c) If a covered municipality has obtained all permits required for the construction of a storm water management pond in an artificial water body, whether navigable or nonnavigable, the department may not prohibit the construction of the storm water management pond as a method by which the covered municipality may achieve compliance with performance standards under par. (a) or with an approved total maximum daily load under 33 USC 1313 (d) (1) (C). The department shall give credit to the covered municipality for any pollutant reduction achieved by the storm water management pond in determining compliance with performance standards specified in a permit under s. 283.33 (1) (b), (c), (cg), or (cr) or an approved total maximum daily load under 33 USC 1313 (d).
281.16(3) (3)Nonpoint sources that are agricultural.
281.16(3)(a)(a) The department of natural resources, in consultation with the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection, shall promulgate rules prescribing performance standards and prohibitions for agricultural facilities and agricultural practices that are nonpoint sources. The performance standards and prohibitions shall be designed to achieve water quality standards by limiting nonpoint source water pollution. At a minimum, the prohibitions shall include all of the following:
281.16(3)(a)1. 1. That a livestock operation may have no overflow of manure storage structures.
281.16(3)(a)2. 2. That a livestock operation may have no unconfined manure pile in a water quality management area.
281.16(3)(a)3. 3. That a livestock operation may have no direct runoff from a feedlot or stored manure into the waters of the state.
281.16(3)(a)4. 4. That a livestock operation may not allow unlimited access by livestock to waters of the state in a location where high concentrations of animals prevent the maintenance of adequate sod cover.
281.16(3)(b) (b) The department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection, in consultation with the department of natural resources, shall promulgate rules prescribing conservation practices to implement the performance standards and prohibitions under par. (a) and specifying a process for the development and dissemination of technical standards to implement the performance standards and prohibitions under par. (a).
281.16(3)(c) (c) Using the process specified under par. (b), the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection shall develop and disseminate technical standards to implement the performance standards and prohibitions under par. (a). The department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection shall disseminate alternative technical standards for situations in which more than one method exists to implement the performance standards and prohibitions.
281.16(3)(d) (d) The conservation practices and technical standards under pars. (b) and (c) shall at a minimum cover animal waste management, nutrients applied to the soil and cropland sediment delivery.
281.16(3)(e) (e) An owner or operator of an agricultural facility or practice that is in existence before October 14, 1997, may not be required by this state or a municipality to comply with the performance standards, prohibitions, conservation practices or technical standards under this subsection unless cost-sharing is available, under s. 92.14 or 281.65 or from any other source, to the owner or operator. For the purposes of this paragraph, sub. (4) and ss. 92.07 (2), 92.15 (4) and 823.08 (3) (c) 2., the department of natural resources shall promulgate rules that specify criteria for determining whether cost-sharing is available under s. 281.65 and the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection shall promulgate rules that specify criteria for determining whether cost-sharing is available under s. 92.14 or from any other source. The rules may not allow a determination that cost-sharing is available to meet local regulations under s. 92.07 (2) or 92.15 that are consistent with or that exceed the performance standards, prohibitions, conservation practices or technical standards under this subsection unless the cost-sharing is at least 70 percent of the cost of compliance or is from 70 percent to 90 percent of the cost of compliance in cases of economic hardship, as defined in the rules.
281.16(4) (4)Application to animal feeding operations. If the department issues a notice of discharge under ch. 283 for an animal feeding operation, the performance standards, prohibitions, conservation practices and technical standards under sub. (3) apply to the animal feeding operation, except that if the animal feeding operation is in existence before October 14, 1997, the performance standards, prohibitions, conservation practices and technical standards only apply if the department determines that cost-sharing is available to the owner or operator of the animal feeding operation under s. 92.14 or 281.65 or from any other source.
281.16 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also chs. NR 151 and 243, Wis. adm. code.
281.165 281.165 Compliance with water quality standards for wetlands.
281.165(1)(1) Compliance; exemption. An activity shall be considered to comply with the water quality standards that are applicable to wetlands and that are promulgated as rules under s. 281.15 and is exempt from any prohibition, restriction, requirement, permit, license, approval, authorization, fee, notice, hearing, procedure or penalty specified under s. 29.601 (3) or chs. 30, 31, 281, 283, 289 to 292 or 299 or specified under any rule promulgated, order issued or ordinance adopted under any of those sections or chapters, if the activity meets all of the requirements under sub. (2), (3), or (4).
281.165(2) (2)Trempealeau County. Subsection (1) applies to an activity that meets all of the following requirements:
281.165(2)(a) (a) The wetland area that will be affected by the activity is less than 15 acres in size.
281.165(2)(b) (b) The site of the activity is zoned for industrial use and is in the vicinity of a manufacturing facility.
281.165(2)(c) (c) The site of the activity is within the corporate limits of a city on January 1, 1999.
281.165(2)(d) (d) The governing body of the city adopts a resolution stating that the exemption under this section is necessary to protect jobs that exist in the city on the date of the adoption of the resolution or is necessary to promote job creation.
281.165(2)(e) (e) The site of the activity is located in Trempealeau County.
281.165(3) (3)Dunn County.
281.165(3)(a)(a) Subsection (1) applies to an activity that meets the requirements under sub. (2) (c) and (d) and all of the following requirements:
281.165(3)(a)1. 1. The wetland area that will be affected by the activity is no more than 4.2 acres in size.
281.165(3)(a)2. 2. The site of the activity is zoned for technology park use and is in the vicinity of a manufacturing facility.
281.165(3)(a)3. 3. The site of the activity is located in Dunn County.
281.165(3)(b) (b) Before any person engages in the activity described in par. (a), the U.S. army corps of engineers shall have issued a permit for the activity that contains a mitigation plan that requires the creation of at least 1.5 acres of wetland for each acre of wetland affected by the activity.
281.165(4) (4)Village of Ashwaubenon.
281.165(4)(a)(a) Subsection (1) applies to an activity that meets all of the following requirements:
281.165(4)(a)1m. 1m. The wetland area is not subject to federal jurisdiction under 33 USC 1344, and the activity will affect less than 3 acres of that wetland area.
281.165(4)(a)2. 2. The site of the activity is zoned for community business use and is part of a tax incremental district.
281.165(4)(a)3m. 3m. The site of the activity is located in the village of Ashwaubenon in the vicinity of a professional football stadium.
281.165(4)(a)4m. 4m. The person who will engage in the activity shall have provided wetland mitigation at the ratio of at least 1.5 acres of wetland for each acre of wetland affected by the activity. Evidence of the mitigation can be provided by a written affidavit demonstrating a purchase of credits from any of the wetland mitigation banks that are located in the state and that are approved by the department or by an alternative mitigation project approved by the department.
281.165 History History: 1999 a. 9; 2011 a. 6, 118; 2015 a. 196.
281.17 281.17 Water quality and quantity; specific regulations.
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2015-16 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2017 Wis. Act 123 and all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders effective on or before December 8, 2017. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after December 8, 2017 are designated by NOTES. (Published 12-8-17)