322.019 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.020 322.020 Article 20 — Jurisdiction of summary courts-martial.
322.020(1)(1) Subject to s. 322.017, summary courts-martial have jurisdiction to try persons subject to this code, except officers, cadets, candidates, and midshipmen, for any offense made punishable by this code under limitations as the governor may prescribe.
322.020(2) (2) No person with respect to whom summary courts-martial have jurisdiction may be brought to trial before a summary court-martial if that person objects. If objection to trial by summary court-martial is made by an accused, trial by special or general court-martial may be ordered, as may be appropriate. Summary courts-martial may, under limitations as the governor may prescribe, adjudge any punishment not forbidden by this code except dismissal, dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge, confinement for more than one month, restriction to specified limits for more than 2 months, or forfeiture of more than two-thirds of one month's pay.
322.020 History History: 2007 a. 200.
subch. V of ch. 322 SUBCHAPTER V
APPOINTMENT AND COMPOSITION
OF COURTS-MARTIAL
322.022 322.022 Article 22 — Who may convene general courts-martial.
322.022(1)(1) General courts-martial may be convened by any of the following:
322.022(1)(a) (a) The governor.
322.022(1)(b) (b) The adjutant general.
322.022(1)(c) (c) The commanding general officer of any force of the state military forces.
322.022(1)(d) (d) The commanding officer of a division or a separate brigade.
322.022(1)(e) (e) The commanding officer of a separate wing.
322.022(2) (2) If any commanding officer is an accuser, the court shall be convened by superior competent authority and may in any case be convened by a superior authority if considered desirable by the authority.
322.022 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.023 322.023 Article 23 — Who may convene special courts-martial.
322.023(1)(1) Special courts-martial may be convened by any of the following:
322.023(1)(a) (a) Any person who may convene a general court-martial.
322.023(1)(b) (b) The commanding officer of a garrison, fort, post, camp, station, air national guard base, or naval base or station.
322.023(1)(c) (c) The commanding officer of a brigade, regiment, detached battalion, or corresponding unit of the army national guard.
322.023(1)(d) (d) The commanding officer of a wing, group, separate squadron, or corresponding unit of the air national guard.
322.023(1)(e) (e) The commanding officer or officer in charge of any other command when empowered by the adjutant general.
322.023(2) (2) If the officer is an accuser, the court shall be convened by superior competent authority and may in any case be convened by a superior authority if considered desirable by the superior competent authority.
322.023 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.024 322.024 Article 24 — Who may convene summary courts-martial.
322.024(1)(1) Summary courts-martial may be convened by any of the following:
322.024(1)(a) (a) Any person who may convene a general or special court-martial.
322.024(1)(b) (b) The commanding officer of a detached company or other detachment, or corresponding unit of the army national guard.
322.024(1)(c) (c) The commanding officer of a detached squadron or other detachment, or corresponding unit of the air national guard.
322.024(1)(d) (d) The commanding officer or officer in charge of any other command when empowered by the adjutant general.
322.024(2) (2) When only one commissioned officer is present with a command or detachment that officer shall be the summary court-martial of that command or detachment and shall hear and determine all summary court-martial cases. Summary courts-martial may, however, be convened in any case by superior competent authority if considered desirable by that authority.
322.024 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.025 322.025 Article 25 — Who may serve as a member on courts-martial.
322.025(1)(1) Any commissioned officer of the state military forces is eligible to serve on all courts-martial for the trial of any person subject to this code.
322.025(2) (2) Any warrant officer of the state military forces is eligible to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of any person subject to this code, other than a commissioned officer.
322.025(3) (3) Any enlisted member of the state military forces who is not a member of the same unit as the accused is eligible to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of any enlisted member subject to this code, but that member shall serve as a member of a court only if, before the conclusion of a session called by the military judge under s. 322.039 (1) prior to trial or, in the absence of a session, before the court is assembled for the trial of the accused, the accused personally has requested orally on the record or in writing that enlisted members serve on it. After a request, the accused may not be tried by a general or special court-martial the membership of which does not include enlisted members in a number comprising at least one-third of the total membership of the court, unless eligible enlisted members cannot be obtained on account of physical conditions or military exigencies. If the members cannot be obtained, the court may be assembled and the trial held without them, but the convening authority shall make a detailed written statement, to be appended to the record, stating why they could not be obtained.
322.025(4) (4) When it can be avoided, no person subject to this code may be tried by a court-martial any member of which is junior to the accused in rank or grade.
322.025(5) (5) When convening a court-martial, the convening authority shall detail members of the state military forces as, in the convening authority's opinion, are best qualified for the duty by reason of age, education, training, experience, length of service, and judicial temperament. No member of the state military forces is eligible to serve as a member of a general or special court-martial when that member is the accuser, a witness, or has acted as investigating officer or as counsel in the same case.
322.025(6) (6) Before a court-martial is assembled for the trial of a case, the convening authority may excuse a member of the court from participating in the case.
322.025(7) (7) The convening authority may delegate the authority under this section to a judge advocate or to any other principal assistant.
322.025(8) (8) In this section, "unit" means any regularly organized body of the state military forces not larger than a company, a squadron, a division of the naval militia, or a body corresponding to one of them.
322.025 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.026 322.026 Article 26 — Military judge of a general or special court-martial.
322.026(1)(1) A military judge shall be detailed to each general and special court-martial. The military judge shall preside over each open session of the court-martial to which the military judge has been detailed.
322.026(2) (2) A military judge shall meet all of the following qualifications:
322.026(2)(a) (a) Be a commissioned officer of the armed forces of the United States or of a component thereof or a commissioned officer of an organized state military force.
322.026(2)(b) (b) Be an attorney licensed to practice in this state or be a member of the bar of a federal court for at least 5 years.
322.026(2)(c) (c) Be certified as qualified for duty as a military judge by the senior force judge advocate of the same force as the accused.
322.026(3) (3) In the instance when a military judge is not an attorney licensed to practice in this state, the military judge shall be deemed admitted on motion, subject to filing a certificate with the senior force judge advocate of the same force as the accused setting forth the qualifications provided in sub. (2).
322.026(4) (4) The military judge of a general or special court-martial shall be designated by the state senior force judge advocate of the same force as the accused if possible, or otherwise by the senior of the senior force judge advocates, or a designee, for detail by the convening authority. Neither the convening authority nor any staff member of the convening authority shall prepare or review any report concerning the effectiveness, fitness, or efficiency of the military judge so detailed, which relates to performance of duty as a military judge.
322.026(5) (5) No person is eligible to act as military judge in a case if that person is the accuser or a witness, or has acted as investigating officer, trial counsel, or defense counsel in the same case.
322.026(6) (6) The military judge of a court-martial may not consult with the members of the court except in the presence of the accused, trial counsel, and defense counsel nor vote with the members of the court.
322.026 History History: 2007 a. 200; 2009 a. 179; 2013 a. 201.
322.027 322.027 Article 27 — Detail of trial counsel and defense counsel.
322.027(1)(1) For each general and special court-martial the authority convening the court shall detail trial counsel, defense counsel, and assistants as are appropriate.
322.027(2) (2) No person who has acted as investigating officer, military judge, witness or court member in any case may act later as trial counsel, assistant trial counsel, or, unless expressly requested by the accused, as defense counsel or assistant or associate defense counsel in the same case. No person who has acted for the prosecution may act later in the same case for the defense nor may any person who has acted for the defense act later in the same case for the prosecution.
322.027(3) (3) Except as provided in sub. (4), trial counsel or defense counsel detailed for a general or special court-martial must meet all of the following:
322.027(3)(a) (a) A judge advocate.
322.027(3)(b) (b) In the case of trial counsel, an attorney licensed to practice in this state.
322.027(4) (4) In the instance when a defense counsel is not an attorney licensed to practice in this state, the defense counsel shall be deemed admitted on motion, subject to filing a certificate with the military judge setting forth the qualifications that counsel is all of the following:
322.027(4)(a) (a) A commissioned officer of the armed forces of the United States or a component thereof.
322.027(4)(b) (b) A member in good standing of the bar of the highest court of another state.
322.027(4)(c) (c) Certified as a judge advocate in the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the army, air force, navy, or the marine corps, or a judge advocate as defined in this code.
322.027(5) (5) Trial counsel detailed to a court-martial shall be considered a prosecutor under state statutes.
322.027 History History: 2007 a. 200; 2009 a. 179.
322.028 322.028 Article 28 — Detail or employment of reporters and interpreters. Under regulations as may be prescribed, the convening authority of a general or special court-martial or court of inquiry shall detail or employ qualified court reporters, who shall record the proceedings of and testimony taken before that court and may detail or employ interpreters who shall interpret for the court.
322.028 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.029 322.029 Article 29 — Absent and additional members.
322.029(1)(1) No member of a general or special court-martial may be absent or excused after the court has been assembled for the trial of the accused unless excused as a result of a challenge, excused by the military judge for physical disability or other good cause, or excused by order of the convening authority for good cause.
322.029(2) (2) Whenever a general court-martial, other than a general court-martial composed of a military judge only, is reduced below 5 members, the trial may not proceed unless the convening authority details new members sufficient in number to provide not less than the applicable minimum number of 5 members. The trial may proceed with the new members present after the recorded evidence previously introduced before the members of the court has been read to the court in the presence of the military judge, the accused, and counsel for both sides.
322.029(3) (3) Whenever a special court-martial, other than a special court-martial composed of a military judge only, is reduced below 3 members, the trial may not proceed unless the convening authority details new members sufficient in number to provide not less than 3 members, unless the accused waives the number of members. The trial shall proceed with the new members present as if no evidence had been introduced previously at the trial, unless a verbatim record of the evidence previously introduced before the members of the court or a stipulation is read to the court in the presence of the military judge, the accused, and counsel for both sides.
322.029(4) (4) If the military judge of a court-martial composed of a military judge only is unable to proceed with the trial because of physical disability, as a result of a challenge, or for other good cause, the trial shall proceed, subject to any applicable conditions of s. 322.016 (1) (b) or (2) (b), after the detail of a new military judge as if no evidence had previously been introduced, unless a verbatim record of the evidence previously introduced or a stipulation is read in court in the presence of the new military judge, the accused, and counsel for both sides.
322.029 History History: 2007 a. 200.
subch. VI of ch. 322 SUBCHAPTER VI
PRETRIAL PROCEDURE
322.030 322.030 Article 30 — Charges and specifications.
322.030(1)(1) Charges and specifications shall be signed by a person subject to this code under oath before a commissioned officer authorized by s. 322.136 (1) to administer oaths and shall state all of the following:
322.030(1)(a) (a) That the signer has personal knowledge of, or has investigated, the matters set forth in the charges and specifications.
322.030(1)(b) (b) That the facts are true to the best of the signer's knowledge and belief.
322.030(2) (2) Upon the preferring of charges, the proper authority shall take immediate steps to determine what disposition should be made in the interest of justice and discipline, and the person accused shall be informed of the charges as soon as practicable.
322.030 History History: 2007 a. 200; 2009 a. 179.
322.031 322.031 Article 31 — Compulsory self-incrimination prohibited.
322.031(1)(1) No person subject to this code may compel any person to incriminate himself or herself or to answer any question the answer to which may tend to incriminate him or her.
322.031(2) (2) No person subject to this code may interrogate or request any statement from an accused or a person suspected of an offense without first informing that person of the nature of the accusation and advising that person that the person does not have to make any statement regarding the offense of which the person is accused or suspected and that any statement made by the person may be used as evidence against the person in a trial by court-martial.
322.031(3) (3) No person subject to this code may compel any person to make a statement or produce evidence before any military court if the statement or evidence is not material to the issue and may tend to degrade the person.
322.031(4) (4) No statement obtained from any person in violation of this section or through the use of coercion, unlawful influence, or unlawful inducement may be received in evidence against the person in a trial by court-martial.
322.031 History History: 2007 a. 200.
322.032 322.032 Article 32 — Investigation.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Dec. 13, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Dec. 13, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 12-13-14)