407.102 407.102 Definitions and index of definitions.
407.102(1)(1)In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
407.102(1)(a) (a) “Bailee" means a person that by a warehouse receipt, bill of lading, or other document of title acknowledges possession of goods and contracts to deliver them.
407.102(1)(b) (b) “Carrier" means a person that issues a bill of lading.
407.102(1)(c) (c) “Consignee" means a person named in a bill of lading to which or to whose order the bill promises delivery.
407.102(1)(d) (d) “Consignor" means a person named in a bill of lading as the person from which the goods have been received for shipment.
407.102(1)(e) (e) “Delivery order" means a record that contains an order to deliver goods directed to a warehouse, carrier, or other person that in the ordinary course of business issues warehouse receipts or bills of lading.
407.102(1)(f) (f) “Good faith" means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing.
407.102(1)(g) (g) “Goods" means all things that are treated as movable for the purposes of a contract for storage or transportation.
407.102(1)(h) (h) “Issuer" means a bailee that issues a document of title or, in the case of an unaccepted delivery order, the person that orders the possessor of goods to deliver. The term includes a person for which an agent or employee purports to act in issuing a document if the agent or employee has real or apparent authority to issue documents, even if the issuer did not receive any goods, the goods were misdescribed, or in any other respect the agent or employee violated the issuer's instructions.
407.102(1)(i) (i) “Person entitled under the document" means the holder, in the case of a negotiable document of title, or the person to which delivery of the goods is to be made by the terms of, or pursuant to instructions in a record under, a nonnegotiable document of title.
407.102(1)(j) (j) “Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
407.102(1)(k) (k) “Shipper" means a person that enters into a contract of transportation with a carrier.
407.102(1)(L) (L) “Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a record, any of the following:
407.102(1)(L)1. 1. To execute or adopt a tangible symbol.
407.102(1)(L)2. 2. To attach to or logically associate with the record an electronic sound, symbol, or process.
407.102(1)(m) (m) “Warehouse" means a person engaged in the business of storing goods for hire.
407.102(2) (2)Definitions in other chapters applying to this chapter and the sections in which they appear are:
407.102(2)(a) (a) “Contract for sale," s. 402.106.
407.102(2)(b) (b) “Lessee in ordinary course of business," s. 411.103.
407.102(2)(c) (c) “Receipt" of goods, s. 402.103.
407.102(3) (3)In addition, ch. 401 contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this chapter.
407.102 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.103 407.103 Relation of chapter to treaty or statute.
407.103(1)(1)This chapter is subject to any treaty or statute of the United States or a regulatory statute of this state to the extent the treaty, statute, or regulatory statute is applicable.
407.103(2) (2)This chapter does not repeal or modify any law prescribing the form or contents of a document of title or the services or facilities to be afforded by a bailee, or otherwise regulating a bailee's businesses in respects not specifically treated in this chapter. However, violation of such a law does not affect the status of a document of title that otherwise complies with the definition of a document of title.
407.103(3) (3)This chapter modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 USC 7001 to 7031, but does not modify, limit, or supersede section 101 (c) of that act, 15 USC 7001(c), or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in section 103 (b) of that act, 15 USC 7003 (b).
407.103(4) (4)To the extent there is a conflict between ch. 137 and this chapter, this chapter governs.
407.103 History History: 2009 a. 322; 2019 a. 125.
407.104 407.104 Negotiable and nonnegotiable document of title.
407.104(1)(1)Except as provided in sub. (3), a document of title is negotiable if by its terms the goods are to be delivered to bearer or to the order of a named person.
407.104(2) (2)A document of title other than one described in sub. (1) is nonnegotiable. A bill of lading that states that the goods are consigned to a named person is not made negotiable by a provision that the goods are to be delivered only against an order in a record signed by the same or another named person.
407.104(3) (3)A document of title is nonnegotiable if, at the time it is issued, the document has a conspicuous legend, however expressed, that it is nonnegotiable.
407.104 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.105 407.105 Reissuance in alternative medium.
407.105(1)(1)Upon request of a person entitled under an electronic document of title, the issuer of the electronic document may issue a tangible document of title as a substitute for the electronic document if all of the following apply:
407.105(1)(a) (a) The person entitled under the electronic document surrenders control of the document to the issuer.
407.105(1)(b) (b) The tangible document when issued contains a statement that it is issued in substitution for the electronic document.
407.105(2) (2)Upon issuance of a tangible document of title in substitution for an electronic document of title in accordance with sub. (1), all of the following apply:
407.105(2)(a) (a) The electronic document ceases to have any effect or validity.
407.105(2)(b) (b) The person that procured issuance of the tangible document warrants to all subsequent persons entitled under the tangible document that the warrantor was a person entitled under the electronic document when the warrantor surrendered control of the electronic document to the issuer.
407.105(3) (3)Upon request of a person entitled under a tangible document of title, the issuer of the tangible document may issue an electronic document of title as a substitute for the tangible document if all of the following apply:
407.105(3)(a) (a) The person entitled under the tangible document surrenders possession of the document to the issuer.
407.105(3)(b) (b) The electronic document when issued contains a statement that it is issued in substitution for the tangible document.
407.105(4) (4)Upon issuance of the electronic document of title in substitution for a tangible document of title in accordance with sub. (3), all of the following apply:
407.105(4)(a) (a) The tangible document ceases to have any effect or validity.
407.105(4)(b) (b) The person that procured issuance of the electronic document warrants to all subsequent persons entitled under the electronic document that the warrantor was a person entitled under the tangible document when the warrantor surrendered possession of the tangible document to the issuer.
407.105 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.106 407.106 Control of electronic document of title.
407.106(1)(1)A person has control of an electronic document of title if a system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the electronic document reliably establishes that person as the person to which the electronic document was issued or transferred.
407.106(2) (2)A system satisfies sub. (1), and a person is deemed to have control of an electronic document of title, if the document is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that satisfies all of the following:
407.106(2)(a) (a) A single authoritative copy of the document exists which is unique, identifiable, and, except as otherwise provided in pars. (d), (e), and (f), unalterable.
407.106(2)(b) (b) The authoritative copy identifies the person asserting control as one of the following:
407.106(2)(b)1. 1. The person to which the document was issued.
407.106(2)(b)2. 2. If the authoritative copy indicates that the document has been transferred, the person to which the document was most recently transferred.
407.106(2)(c) (c) The authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained by the person asserting control or its designated custodian.
407.106(2)(d) (d) Copies or amendments that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy can be made only with the consent of the person asserting control.
407.106(2)(e) (e) Each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the authoritative copy.
407.106(2)(f) (f) Any amendment of the authoritative copy is readily identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.
407.106 History History: 2009 a. 322.
subch. II of ch. 407 SUBCHAPTER II
WAREHOUSE RECEIPTS: SPECIAL PROVISIONS
407.201 407.201 Person that may issue a warehouse receipt; storage under bond.
407.201(1)(1)A warehouse receipt may be issued by any warehouse.
407.201(2) (2)If goods, including distilled spirits and agricultural commodities, are stored under a statute requiring a bond against withdrawal or a license for the issuance of receipts in the nature of warehouse receipts, a receipt issued for the goods is deemed to be a warehouse receipt even if issued by a person that is the owner of the goods and is not a warehouse.
407.201 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.202 407.202 Form of warehouse receipt.
407.202(1)(1)A warehouse receipt need not be in any particular form.
407.202(2) (2)Unless a warehouse receipt provides for each of the following, the warehouse is liable for damages caused to a person injured by its omission:
407.202(2)(a) (a) The location of the warehouse facility where the goods are stored.
407.202(2)(b) (b) The date of issue of the receipt.
407.202(2)(c) (c) The unique identification code of the receipt.
407.202(2)(d) (d) A statement whether the goods received will be delivered to the bearer, to a named person, or to a named person or its order.
407.202(2)(e) (e) The rate of storage and handling charges, but if goods are stored under a field warehousing arrangement, a statement of that fact is sufficient on a nonnegotiable receipt.
407.202(2)(f) (f) A description of the goods or the packages containing them.
407.202(2)(g) (g) The signature of the warehouse or its agent.
407.202(2)(h) (h) If the receipt is issued for goods that the warehouse owns, either solely, jointly, or in common with others, the fact of that ownership.
407.202(2)(i) (i) A statement of the amount of advances made and of liabilities incurred for which the warehouse claims a lien or security interest, but if the precise amount of advances made or of liabilities incurred is, at the time of the issue of the receipt, unknown to the warehouse or to its agent that issued the receipt, a statement of the fact that advances have been made or liabilities incurred and the purpose of the advances or liabilities is sufficient.
407.202(3) (3)A warehouse may insert in its receipt any terms that are not contrary to chs. 401 to 411 and do not impair its obligation of delivery under s. 407.403 or its duty of care under s. 407.204. Any contrary provisions are ineffective.
407.202 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.203 407.203 Liability for nonreceipt or misdescription. A party to or purchaser for value in good faith of a document of title, other than a bill of lading, that relies upon the description of the goods in the document may recover from the issuer damages caused by the nonreceipt or misdescription of the goods, except to the extent that any of the following apply:
407.203(1) (1)The document conspicuously indicates that the issuer does not know whether all or part of the goods in fact were received or conform to the description, such as a case in which the description is in terms of marks or labels or kind, quantity, or condition, or the receipt or description is qualified by “contents, condition, and quality unknown," “said to contain," or words of similar import, if the indication is true.
407.203(2) (2)The party or purchaser otherwise has notice of the nonreceipt or misdescription.
407.203 History History: 2009 a. 322.
407.204 407.204 Duty of care; contractual limitation of warehouse's liability.
407.204(1)(1)A warehouse is liable for damages for loss of or injury to the goods caused by its failure to exercise care with regard to the goods that a reasonably careful person would exercise under similar circumstances. However, unless otherwise agreed, the warehouse is not liable for damages that could not have been avoided by the exercise of that care.
407.204(2) (2)Damages may be limited by a term in the warehouse receipt or storage agreement limiting the amount of liability in case of loss or damage beyond which the warehouse is not liable. Such a limitation is not effective with respect to the warehouse's liability for conversion to its own use. The warehouse's liability, on request of the bailor in a record at the time of signing such storage agreement or within a reasonable time after receipt of the warehouse receipt, may be increased on part or all of the goods covered by the storage agreement or the warehouse receipt. In this event, increased rates may be charged based on an increased valuation of the goods.
407.204(3) (3)Reasonable provisions as to the time and manner of presenting claims and commencing actions based on the bailment may be included in the warehouse receipt or storage agreement.
407.204 History History: 2009 a. 322.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 186 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on July 3, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 3, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-3-20)