447.07 Annotation The 5-pronged test of Gimenez, 203 Wis. 2d 349, does not apply to cases in which fraud and misrepresentation are alleged. Gimenez expressly limits the application of the test to cases in which the medical professional is charged with choosing a course of treatment that is dangerous or detrimental to his or her patient or the public. It does not apply to allegations of unprofessional conduct by perpetrating a fraud on a patient in an attempt to obtain compensation. Krahenbuhl v. Wisconsin Dentistry Examining Board, 2006 WI App 73, 292 Wis. 2d 154, 713 N.W.2d 152, 05-1376.
447.09 447.09 Penalties. Any person who violates this chapter may be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year in the county jail or both for the first offense and is guilty of a Class I felony for the 2nd or subsequent conviction within 5 years.
447.09 History History: 1989 a. 349; 1997 a. 283; 2001 a. 109.
447.10 447.10 Injunction. If it appears upon the complaint of any person to the examining board, or it is believed by the examining board that any person is violating this chapter, the examining board, or the district attorney of the proper county, may investigate such alleged violation, and may, in addition to or in lieu of any other remedies provided by law, bring action in the name and on behalf of the state against any such person to enjoin such violation. Between meetings of the examining board, its president and secretary, acting in its behalf, are empowered jointly to make such an investigation, and on the basis thereof to seek such relief. Investigations conducted by the examining board, or by its president and secretary, shall be conducted according to rules promulgated under s. 440.03 (1).
447.10 History History: 1977 c. 418.
447.11 447.11 Wisconsin Dental Association. The Wisconsin Dental Association is continued with the general powers of a domestic nonstock corporation. It may take by purchase or gift and hold real and personal property. It may adopt, alter and enforce bylaws and rules for the admission and expulsion of members, the election of officers and the management of its affairs.
447.11 History History: 1989 a. 349.
447.12 447.12 County and district dental societies.
447.12(1) (1) The dentists of any county who are licensed to practice dentistry under this chapter, provided there are at least 5 in the county, may organize a county dental society as a component of the Wisconsin Dental Association. When so organized it shall be a body corporate, and shall be designated as the dental society of the county, and shall have the general powers of a corporation and may take by purchase or gift and hold real and personal property. County dental societies now existing are continued with the powers and privileges conferred by this chapter. A county or district dental society that was in existence but unincorporated on September 29, 1963, is not required to incorporate unless that is the express wish of the majority of its members.
447.12(2) (2) Persons who hold the degree of doctor of dental surgery, or its equivalent, and any other persons who have been licensed by the examining board to practice dentistry in this state, shall be eligible to meet for the organization of or to become members of a county dental society.
447.12(3) (3) If there are not a sufficient number of dentists in a given county to form a dental society under sub. (1), those residing in the county may unite with those of adjoining counties and organize a multicounty or district dental society as a component of the Wisconsin Dental Association. The organizational meeting shall be held at the time and place agreed upon in writing by a majority of those eligible to belong.
447.12(4) (4) A county or district dental society may adopt, alter and enforce articles and bylaws, or a constitution and bylaws for the admission and expulsion of members, the election of officers and the management of its affairs, but no instrument or action on the part of the society is valid if it is inconsistent with the articles, bylaws or policies of the Wisconsin Dental Association, or if it violates the autonomy of any other component of the Wisconsin Dental Association. Any county or district dental society which incorporates after September 29, 1963, shall file its articles as provided in ch. 181.
447.12 History History: 1989 a. 349.
447.13 447.13 Service insurance corporations for dental care. The Wisconsin Dental Association or, in a manner and to the extent approved by the Wisconsin Dental Association, a county or district dental society, may establish in one or more counties a service insurance corporation for dental care under ch. 613.
447.13 History History: 1975 c. 223; 1989 a. 349.
447.15 447.15 Definitions applicable to indemnification and insurance provisions. In ss. 447.15 to 447.31:
447.15(1) (1) "Dental society" means a county or district dental society organized or continued under s. 447.12.
447.15(2) (2) "Director or officer" means any of the following:
447.15(2)(a) (a) A natural person who is or was a director or officer of a dental society.
447.15(2)(b) (b) A natural person who, while a director or officer of a dental society, is or was serving at the dental society's request as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member of any governing or decision-making committee, employee or agent of another dental society or corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
447.15(2)(c) (c) A natural person who, while a director or officer of a dental society, is or was serving an employee benefit plan because his or her duties to the dental society also imposed duties on, or otherwise involved services by, the person to the plan or to participants in or beneficiaries of the plan.
447.15(2)(d) (d) Unless the context requires otherwise, the estate or personal representative of a director or officer.
447.15(3) (3) "Expenses" include fees, costs, charges, disbursements, attorney fees and any other expenses incurred in connection with a proceeding.
447.15(4) (4) "Liability" includes the obligation to pay a judgment, settlement, forfeiture, or fine, including any excise tax assessed with respect to an employee benefit plan, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814, and reasonable expenses.
447.15(5) (5) "Party" means a natural person who was or is, or who is threatened to be made, a named defendant or respondent in a proceeding.
447.15(6) (6) "Proceeding" means any threatened, pending or completed civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit, arbitration or other proceeding, whether formal or informal, which involves foreign, federal, state or local law and which is brought by or in the right of the dental society or by any other person.
447.15 History History: 1987 a. 13; 2003 a. 139.
447.17 447.17 Mandatory indemnification.
447.17(1) (1) A dental society shall indemnify a director or officer, to the extent he or she has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of a proceeding, for all reasonable expenses incurred in the proceeding if the director or officer was a party because he or she is a director or officer of the dental society.
447.17(2) (2)
447.17(2)(a)(a) In cases not included under sub. (1), a dental society shall indemnify a director or officer against liability incurred by the director or officer in a proceeding to which the director or officer was a party because he or she is a director or officer of the dental society, unless liability was incurred because the director or officer breached or failed to perform a duty he or she owes to the dental society and the breach or failure to perform constitutes any of the following:
447.17(2)(a)1. 1. A willful failure to deal fairly with the dental society or its members in connection with a matter in which the director or officer has a material conflict of interest.
447.17(2)(a)2. 2. A violation of criminal law, unless the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was lawful or no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.
447.17(2)(a)3. 3. A transaction from which the director or officer derived an improper personal profit.
447.17(2)(a)4. 4. Willful misconduct.
447.17(2)(b) (b) Determination of whether indemnification is required under this subsection shall be made under s. 447.19.
447.17(2)(c) (c) The termination of a proceeding by judgment, order, settlement or conviction, or upon a plea of no contest or an equivalent plea, does not, by itself, create a presumption that indemnification of the director or officer is not required under this subsection.
447.17(3) (3) A director or officer who seeks indemnification shall make a written request to the dental society.
447.17(4) (4)
447.17(4)(a)(a) Indemnification under this section is not required to the extent limited by the dental society's articles, constitution or bylaws under s. 447.23.
447.17(4)(b) (b) Indemnification under this section is not required if the director or officer has previously received indemnification or allowance of expenses from any person, including the dental society, in connection with the same proceeding.
447.17 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.17 Annotation Cooperative indemnification. La Rowe and Weine. WBB Sept. 1988.
447.19 447.19 Determination of right to indemnification. Unless otherwise provided by the articles, constitution or bylaws or by written agreement between the director or officer and the dental society, the director or officer seeking indemnification under s. 447.17 (2) shall select one of the following means for determining his or her right to indemnification:
447.19(1) (1) By majority vote of a quorum of the board of directors consisting of directors not at the time parties to the same or related proceedings. If a quorum of disinterested directors cannot be obtained, by majority vote of a committee duly appointed by the board of directors and consisting solely of 2 or more directors not at the time parties to the same or related proceedings. Directors who are parties to the same or related proceedings may participate in the designation of members of the committee.
447.19(2) (2) By independent legal counsel selected by a quorum of the board of directors or its committee in the manner prescribed in sub. (1) or, if unable to obtain such a quorum or committee, by a majority vote of the full board of directors, including directors who are parties to the same or related proceedings.
447.19(3) (3) By a panel of 3 arbitrators consisting of one arbitrator selected by those directors entitled under sub. (2) to select independent legal counsel, one arbitrator selected by the director or officer seeking indemnification and one arbitrator selected by the 2 arbitrators previously selected.
447.19(4) (4) By an affirmative vote of a majority of members who are entitled to vote and who are present in person or represented by proxy at a meeting at which a quorum is present, if there are members having voting rights. Unless the articles, constitution or bylaws provide otherwise, members holding one-tenth of the votes entitled to be cast, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of members. Membership rights owned by, or voted under the control of, persons who are at the time parties to the same or related proceedings, whether as plaintiffs or defendants or in any other capacity, may not be voted in making the determination.
447.19(5) (5) By a court under s. 447.27.
447.19(6) (6) By any other method provided for in any additional right to indemnification permitted under s. 447.25.
447.19 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.21 447.21 Allowance of expenses as incurred. Upon written request by a director or officer who is a party to a proceeding, a dental society may pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses as incurred if the director or officer provides the dental society with all of the following:
447.21(1) (1) A written affirmation of his or her good faith belief that he or she has not breached or failed to perform his or her duties to the dental society.
447.21(2) (2) A written undertaking, executed personally or on his or her behalf, to repay the allowance and, if required by the dental society, to pay reasonable interest on the allowance to the extent that it is ultimately determined under s. 447.19 that indemnification under s. 447.17 (2) is not required and that indemnification is not ordered by a court under s. 447.27 (2) (b). The undertaking under this subsection shall be an unlimited general obligation of the director or officer and may be accepted without reference to his or her ability to repay the allowance. The undertaking may be secured or unsecured.
447.21 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.23 447.23 Dental society may limit indemnification.
447.23(1) (1) A dental society's obligations to indemnify under s. 447.17 may be limited as follows:
447.23(1)(a) (a) If the dental society is organized before June 13, 1987, except as provided in s. 447.12 (4), by an amendment to its articles, constitution or bylaws which becomes effective on or after June 13, 1987.
447.23(1)(b) (b) If the dental society is organized on or after June 13, 1987, except as provided in s. 447.12 (4), by its articles, constitution or bylaws, including any amendments to its articles, constitution or bylaws.
447.23(2) (2) A limitation under sub. (1) applies if the first alleged act of a director or officer for which indemnification is sought occurred while the limitation was in effect.
447.23 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.25 447.25 Additional rights to indemnification and allowance of expenses.
447.25(1)(1) Except as provided in sub. (2), ss. 447.17 and 447.21 do not preclude any additional right to indemnification or allowance of expenses that a director or officer may have under any of the following:
447.25(1)(a) (a) The articles, constitution or bylaws.
447.25(1)(b) (b) A written agreement between the director or officer and the dental society.
447.25(1)(c) (c) A resolution of the board of directors.
447.25(1)(d) (d) A resolution, after notice, adopted by a majority vote of members who are entitled to vote.
447.25(2) (2) Regardless of the existence of an additional right under sub. (1), the dental society may not indemnify a director or officer, or permit a director or officer to retain any allowance of expenses unless it is determined by or on behalf of the dental society that the director or officer did not breach or fail to perform a duty he or she owes to the dental society which constitutes conduct under s. 447.17 (2) (a) 1., 2., 3. or 4. A director or officer who is a party to the same or related proceeding for which indemnification or an allowance of expenses is sought may not participate in a determination under this subsection.
447.25(3) (3)Sections 447.15 to 447.31 do not affect a dental society's power to pay or reimburse expenses incurred by a director or officer in any of the following circumstances:
447.25(3)(a) (a) As a witness in a proceeding to which he or she is not a party.
447.25(3)(b) (b) As a plaintiff or petitioner in a proceeding because he or she is or was an employee, agent, director or officer of the dental society.
447.25 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.27 447.27 Court-ordered indemnification.
447.27(1) (1) Except as provided otherwise by written agreement between the director or officer and the dental society, a director or officer who is a party to a proceeding may apply for indemnification to the court conducting the proceeding or to another court of competent jurisdiction. Application shall be made for an initial determination by the court under s. 447.19 (5) or for review by the court of an adverse determination under s. 447.19 (1), (2), (3), (4) or (6). After receipt of an application, the court shall give any notice it considers necessary.
447.27(2) (2) The court shall order indemnification if it determines any of the following:
447.27(2)(a) (a) That the director or officer is entitled to indemnification under s. 447.17 (1) or (2). If the court also determines that the dental society unreasonably refused the director's or officer's request for indemnification, the court shall order the dental society to pay the director's or officer's reasonable expenses incurred to obtain the court-ordered indemnification.
447.27(2)(b) (b) That the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification in view of all the relevant circumstances, regardless of whether indemnification is required under s. 447.17 (2).
447.27 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.29 447.29 Indemnification and allowance of expenses of employees and agents. A dental society may indemnify and allow reasonable expenses of an employee or agent who is not a director or officer to the extent provided by the articles, constitution or bylaws, by general or specific action of the board of directors or by contract.
447.29 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.31 447.31 Insurance. A dental society may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of an individual who is an employee, agent, director or officer of the dental society against liability asserted against and incurred by the individual in his or her capacity as an employee, agent, director or officer, or arising from his or her status as an employee, agent, director or officer, regardless of whether the dental society is required or authorized to indemnify or allow expenses to the individual against the same liability under ss. 447.17, 447.21, 447.25 and 447.29.
447.31 History History: 1987 a. 13.
447.34 447.34 Reliance by directors or officers. Unless the director or officer has knowledge that makes reliance unwarranted, a director or officer of a county or district dental society organized or continued under s. 447.12 may, in discharging his or her duties to the dental society, rely on information, opinions, reports or statements, any of which may be written or oral, formal or informal, including financial statements and other financial data, if prepared or presented by any of the following:
447.34(1) (1) An officer or employee of the dental society whom the director or officer believes in good faith to be reliable and competent in the matters presented.
447.34(2) (2) Legal counsel, certified public accountants licensed under ch. 442, or other persons as to matters the director or officer believes in good faith are within the person's professional or expert competence.
447.34(3) (3) In the case of reliance by a director, a committee of the board of directors of which the director is not a member if the director believes in good faith that the committee merits confidence.
447.34 History History: 1987 a. 13; 2001 a. 16.
447.36 447.36 Consideration of interests in addition to members' interests. In discharging his or her duties to a county or district dental society organized or continued under s. 447.12 and in determining what he or she believes to be in the best interests of the dental society, a director or officer may, in addition to considering the effects of any action on members, consider the following:
447.36(1) (1) The effects of the action on employees, suppliers and customers of the dental society.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Dec. 13, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Dec. 13, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 12-13-14)