48.028(4)(d)1. 1. The court or jury finds by clear and convincing evidence, including the testimony of one or more qualified expert witnesses chosen in the order of preference listed in par. (f), that continued custody of the Indian child by the parent or Indian custodian is likely to result in serious emotional or physical damage to the child.
48.028(4)(d)2. 2. The court or jury finds by clear and convincing evidence that active efforts, as described in par. (g) 1., have been made to provide remedial services and rehabilitation programs designed to prevent the breakup of the Indian child's family and that those efforts have proved unsuccessful. The court or jury shall make that finding notwithstanding that a circumstance specified in s. 48.355 (2d) (b) 1. to 5. applies.
48.028(4)(e) (e) Involuntary termination of parental rights; serious damage and active efforts. The court may not order an involuntary termination of parental rights to an Indian child unless all of the following occur:
48.028(4)(e)1. 1. The court or jury finds beyond a reasonable doubt, including the testimony of one or more qualified expert witnesses chosen in the order of preference listed in par. (f), that the continued custody of the Indian child by the parent or Indian custodian is likely to result in serious emotional or physical damage to the child.
48.028(4)(e)2. 2. The court or jury finds by clear and convincing evidence that active efforts, as described in par. (g) 1., have been made to provide remedial services and rehabilitation programs designed to prevent the breakup of the Indian child's family and that those efforts have proved unsuccessful.
48.028(4)(f) (f) Qualified expert witness; order of preference.
48.028(4)(f)1.1. Any party to a proceeding involving the out-of-home placement of, or involuntary termination of parental rights to, an Indian child may call a qualified expert witness. Subject to subd. 2., a qualified expert witness shall be chosen in the following order of preference:
48.028(4)(f)1.a. a. A member of the Indian child's tribe described in sub. (2) (g) 1.
48.028(4)(f)1.b. b. A member of another tribe described in sub. (2) (g) 2.
48.028(4)(f)1.c. c. A professional person described in sub. (2) (g) 3.
48.028(4)(f)1.d. d. A layperson described in sub. (2) (g) 4.
48.028(4)(f)2. 2. A qualified expert witness from a lower order of preference may be chosen only if the party calling the qualified expert witness shows that it has made a diligent effort to secure the attendance of a qualified expert witness from a higher order of preference. A qualified expert witness from a lower order of preference may not be chosen solely because a qualified expert witness from a higher order of preference is able to participate in the Indian child custody proceeding only by telephone or live audiovisual means as prescribed in s. 807.13 (2). The fact that a qualified expert witness called by one party is from a lower order of preference under subd. 1. than a qualified expert witness called by another party may not be the sole consideration in weighing the testimony and opinions of the qualified expert witnesses. In weighing the testimony of all witnesses, the court shall consider as paramount the best interests of the Indian child as provided in s. 48.01 (2). The court shall determine the qualifications of a qualified expert witness as provided in ch. 907.
48.028(4)(g) (g) Active efforts standard.
48.028(4)(g)1.1. The court may not order an Indian child to be removed from the home of the Indian child's parent or Indian custodian and placed in an out-of-home care placement unless the evidence of active efforts under par. (d) 2. or (e) 2. shows that there has been an ongoing, vigorous, and concerted level of case work and that the active efforts were made in a manner that takes into account the prevailing social and cultural values, conditions, and way of life of the Indian child's tribe and that utilizes the available resources of the Indian child's tribe, tribal and other Indian child welfare agencies, extended family members of the Indian child, other individual Indian caregivers, and other culturally appropriate service providers. The consideration by the court or jury of whether active efforts were made under par. (d) 2. or (e) 2. shall include whether all of the following activities were conducted:
48.028(4)(g)1.a. a. Representatives designated by the Indian child's tribe with substantial knowledge of the prevailing social and cultural standards and child-rearing practice within the tribal community were requested to evaluate the circumstances of the Indian child's family and to assist in developing a case plan that uses the resources of the tribe and of the Indian community, including traditional and customary support, actions, and services, to address those circumstances.
48.028(4)(g)1.am. am. A comprehensive assessment of the situation of the Indian child's family was completed, including a determination of the likelihood of protecting the Indian child's health, safety, and welfare effectively in the Indian child's home.
48.028(4)(g)1.b. b. Representatives of the Indian child's tribe were identified, notified, and invited to participate in all aspects of the Indian child custody proceeding at the earliest possible point in the proceeding and their advice was actively solicited throughout the proceeding.
48.028(4)(g)1.c. c. Extended family members of the Indian child, including extended family members who were identified by the Indian child's tribe or parents, were notified and consulted with to identify and provide family structure and support for the Indian child, to assure cultural connections, and to serve as placement resources for the Indian child.
48.028(4)(g)1.d. d. Arrangements were made to provide natural and unsupervised family interaction in the most natural setting that can ensure the Indian child's safety, as appropriate to the goals of the Indian child's permanency plan, including arrangements for transportation and other assistance to enable family members to participate in that interaction.
48.028(4)(g)1.e. e. All available family preservation strategies were offered or employed and the involvement of the Indian child's tribe was requested to identify those strategies and to ensure that those strategies are culturally appropriate to the Indian child's tribe.
48.028(4)(g)1.f. f. Community resources offering housing, financial, and transportation assistance and in-home support services, in-home intensive treatment services, community support services, and specialized services for members of the Indian child's family with special needs were identified, information about those resources was provided to the Indian child's family, and the Indian child's family was actively assisted or offered active assistance in accessing those resources.
48.028(4)(g)1.g. g. Monitoring of client progress and client participation in services was provided.
48.028(4)(g)1.h. h. A consideration of alternative ways of addressing the needs of the Indian child's family was provided, if services did not exist or if existing services were not available to the family.
48.028(4)(g)2. 2. If any of the activities specified in subd. 1. a. to h. were not conducted, the person seeking the out-of-home care placement or involuntary termination of parental rights shall submit documentation to the court explaining why the activity was not conducted.
48.028(5) (5)Voluntary proceedings; consent; withdrawal.
48.028(5)(a)(a) Out-of-home care placement. A voluntary consent by a parent or Indian custodian to an out-of-home care placement of an Indian child under s. 48.63 (1) (a) or (b) or (5) (b) or a delegation of powers by a parent regarding the care and custody of an Indian child under s. 48.979 is not valid unless the consent or delegation is executed in writing, recorded before a judge, and accompanied by a written certification by the judge that the terms and consequences of the consent or delegation were fully explained in detail to and were fully understood by the parent or Indian custodian. The judge shall also certify that the parent or Indian custodian fully understood the explanation in English or that the explanation was interpreted into a language that the parent or Indian custodian understood. Any consent or delegation of powers given under this paragraph prior to or within 10 days after the birth of the Indian child is not valid. A parent or Indian custodian who has executed a consent or delegation of powers under this paragraph may withdraw the consent or delegation for any reason at any time, and the Indian child shall be returned to the parent or Indian custodian. A parent or Indian custodian who has executed a consent or delegation of powers under this paragraph may also move to invalidate the out-of-home care placement or delegation of powers under sub. (6).
48.028(5)(b) (b) Termination of parental rights. A voluntary consent by a parent to a termination of parental rights under s. 48.41 (2) (e) is not valid unless the consent is executed in writing, recorded before a judge, and accompanied by a written certification by the judge that the terms and consequences of the consent were fully explained in detail to and were fully understood by the parent. The judge shall also certify that the parent fully understood the explanation in English or that the explanation was interpreted into a language that the parent understood. Any consent given under this paragraph prior to or within 10 days after the birth of the Indian child is not valid. A parent who has executed a consent under this paragraph may withdraw the consent for any reason at any time prior to the entry of a final order terminating parental rights, and the Indian child shall be returned to his or her parent unless an order or agreement specified in s. 48.368 (1) or 938.368 (1) provides for a different placement. After the entry of a final order terminating parental rights, a parent who has executed a consent under this paragraph may withdraw that consent as provided in par. (c), move to invalidate the termination of parental rights under sub. (6), or move for relief from the judgment under s. 48.46 (2).
48.028(5)(c) (c) Withdrawal of consent after order granting adoption. After the entry of a final order granting adoption of an Indian child, a parent who has consented to termination of parental rights under s. 48.41 (2) (e) may withdraw that consent and move the court for relief from the judgment on the grounds that the consent was obtained through fraud or duress. Any such motion shall be filed within 2 years after the entry of an order granting adoption of the Indian child. A motion under this subsection does not affect the finality or suspend the operation of the judgment or order terminating parental rights or granting adoption. If the court finds that the consent was obtained through fraud or duress, the court shall vacate the judgment or order terminating parental rights and, if applicable, the order granting adoption and return the Indian child to the custody of the parent, unless an order or agreement specified in s. 48.368 (1) or 938.368 (1) that was in effect prior to the termination of parental rights provides for a different placement.
48.028(6) (6)Invalidation of action. Any Indian child who is the subject of an out-of-home care placement, of a delegation of powers under s. 48.979, or of a termination of parental rights proceeding, any parent or Indian custodian from whose custody that Indian child was removed, or the Indian child's tribe may move the court to invalidate that out-of-home care placement, delegation of powers, or termination of parental rights on the grounds that the out-of-home care placement or delegation of powers was made or the termination of parental rights was ordered in violation of 25 USC 1911, 1912, or 1913. If the court finds that those grounds exist, the court shall invalidate the out-of-home care placement, delegation of powers, or termination of parental rights.
48.028(7) (7)Placements and delegations of powers; preferences.
48.028(7)(a)(a) Adoptive placement or delegation of powers; preferences. Subject to pars. (c) and (d), in placing an Indian child for adoption or in delegating powers, as described in sub. (2) (d) 5., regarding an Indian child, preference shall be given, in the absence of good cause, as described in par. (e), to the contrary, to a placement with or delegation to one of the following, in the order of preference listed:
48.028(7)(a)1. 1. An extended family member of the Indian child.
48.028(7)(a)2. 2. Another member of the Indian child's tribe.
48.028(7)(a)3. 3. Another Indian family.
48.028(7)(b) (b) Out-of-home care or preadoptive placement; preferences. Any Indian child who is accepted for an out-of-home care placement or a preadoptive placement shall be placed in the least restrictive setting that most approximates a family, that meets the Indian child's special needs, if any, and that is within reasonable proximity to the Indian child's home, taking into account those special needs. Subject to pars. (c) to (e), in placing an Indian child in an out-of-home care placement or a preadoptive placement, preference shall be given, in the absence of good cause, as described in par. (e), to the contrary, to a placement in one of the following, in the order of preference listed:
48.028(7)(b)1. 1. The home of an extended family member of the Indian child.
48.028(7)(b)2. 2. A foster home licensed, approved, or specified by the Indian child's tribe.
48.028(7)(b)3. 3. An Indian foster home licensed or approved by the department, a county department, or a child welfare agency.
48.028(7)(b)4. 4. A group home or residential care center for children and youth approved by an Indian tribe or operated by an Indian organization that has a program suitable to meet the needs of the Indian child.
48.028(7)(bm) (bm) Temporary physical custody; preferences. Any Indian child who is being held in temporary physical custody under s. 48.205 (1) shall be placed in compliance with par. (b) or, if applicable, par. (c), unless the person responsible for determining the placement finds good cause, as described in par. (e), for departing from the order of placement preference under par. (b) or finds that emergency conditions necessitate departing from that order. When the reason for departing from that order is resolved, the Indian child shall be placed in compliance with the order of placement preference under par. (b) or, if applicable, par. (c).
48.028(7)(c) (c) Tribal or personal preferences. In placing an Indian child under par. (a), (b), or (bm) or in delegating powers regarding an Indian child under par. (a), if the Indian child's tribe has established, by resolution, an order of preference that is different from the order specified in par. (a) or (b), the order of preference established by that tribe shall be followed, in the absence of good cause, as described in par. (e), to the contrary, so long as the placement or delegation under par. (a) is appropriate for the Indian child's special needs, if any, and the placement under par. (b) or (bm) is the least restrictive setting appropriate for the Indian child's needs as specified in par. (b). When appropriate, the preference of the Indian child or parent shall be considered, and, when a parent who has consented to the placement or delegation evidences a desire for anonymity, that desire shall be given weight, in determining the placement or delegation.
48.028(7)(d) (d) Social and cultural standards. The standards to be applied in meeting the placement preference requirements of this subsection shall be the prevailing social and cultural standards of the Indian community in which the Indian child's parents or extended family members reside or with which the Indian child's parents or extended family members maintain social and cultural ties.
48.028(7)(e) (e) Good cause.
48.028(7)(e)1.1. Whether there is good cause to depart from the order of placement preference under par. (a), (b), or (c) shall be determined based on any one or more of the following considerations:
48.028(7)(e)1.a. a. When appropriate, the request of the Indian child's parent or, if the Indian child is of sufficient age and developmental level to make an informed decision, the Indian child, unless the request is made for the purpose of avoiding the application of this section and the federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963.
48.028(7)(e)1.b. b. Any extraordinary physical, mental, or emotional health needs of the Indian child requiring highly specialized treatment services as established by the testimony of an expert witness, including a qualified expert witness. The length of time that an Indian child has been in a placement or subject to a delegation of powers, as described in sub. (2) (d) 5., does not, in itself, constitute an extraordinary emotional health need.
48.028(7)(e)1.c. c. The unavailability of a suitable placement for the Indian child after diligent efforts have been made to place the Indian child in the order of preference under par. (a), (b), or (c) or the unavailability of a suitable agent to whom to delegate powers, as described in sub. (2) (d) 5., regarding the Indian child after diligent efforts have been made to delegate those powers in the order of preference under par. (a).
48.028(7)(e)2. 2. The burden of establishing good cause to depart from the order of placement preference under par. (a), (b), or (c) shall be on the party requesting that departure.
48.028(7)(f) (f) Report of placements and delegations of powers. The department, a county department, or a child welfare agency shall maintain a record of each adoptive placement, out-of-home care placement, preadoptive placement, and delegation of powers, as described in sub. (2) (d) 5., made of an Indian child, evidencing the efforts made to comply with the placement preference requirements specified in this subsection, and shall make that record available at any time on the request of the U.S. secretary of the interior or the Indian child's tribe.
48.028(8) (8)Return of custody.
48.028(8)(a)(a) Adoption vacated, set aside, or terminated. If a final order granting adoption of an Indian child is vacated or set aside or if the parental rights to an Indian child of all adoptive parents of the Indian child are voluntarily terminated, the Indian child's former parent or former Indian custodian may petition for the return of custody of the Indian child. On receipt of a return of custody petition, the court shall set a date for a hearing on the petition that allows reasonable time for the parties to prepare. The court shall provide notice of the hearing to the guardian and legal custodian of the Indian child, to all other interested parties as provided in s. 48.27 (6), and to the Indian child's former parent and former Indian custodian. At the conclusion of the hearing, the court shall grant a petition for the return of custody of the Indian child to the Indian child's former parent or former Indian custodian unless there is a showing that return of custody is not in the best interests of the Indian child.
48.028(8)(b) (b) Removal from out-of-home care placement. If an Indian child is removed from an out-of-home care placement for the purpose of placing the Indian child in another out-of-home care placement, a preadoptive placement, or an adoptive placement, the placement shall be made in accordance with this section. Removal of an Indian child from an out-of-home care placement for the purpose of returning the Indian child to the home of the parent or Indian custodian from whose custody the Indian child was originally removed is not subject to this section.
48.028(9) (9)Adoptee information.
48.028(9)(a)(a) Provision of information to U.S. secretary of the interior. At the time a court enters an order granting adoption of an Indian child, the court shall provide the U.S. secretary of the interior with a copy of the order, together with such other records and papers pertaining to the adoption proceeding as may be necessary to provide that secretary with all of the following information:
48.028(9)(a)1. 1. The name and tribal affiliation of the Indian child.
48.028(9)(a)2. 2. The names and addresses of the Indian child's birth parents.
48.028(9)(a)3. 3. The names and addresses of the Indian child's adoptive parents.
48.028(9)(a)4. 4. The identity of any agency that has in its possession any files or information relating to the adoptive placement of the Indian child.
48.028(9)(b) (b) Confidentiality of parent's identity. The court shall give the birth parent of an Indian child the opportunity to file an affidavit indicating that the birth parent wishes the U.S. secretary of the interior to maintain the confidentiality of the birth parent's identity. If the birth parent files that affidavit, the court shall include the affidavit with the information provided to the U.S. secretary of the interior under par. (a), and that secretary shall maintain the confidentiality of the birth parent's identity as required under 25 USC 1951 (a) and (b).
48.028(9)(c) (c) Provision of tribal affiliation to adoptee. At the request of an Indian adoptee who is 18 years of age or older, the court that entered the order granting adoption of the adoptee shall provide or arrange to provide the adoptee with the tribal affiliation, if any, of the adoptee's birth parents and with such other information as may be necessary to protect any rights accruing to the adoptee as a result of that affiliation.
48.028(10) (10)Higher state or federal standard applicable. The federal Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 USC 1901 to 1963, supersedes this chapter in any Indian child custody proceeding governed by that act, except that in any case in which this chapter provides a higher standard of protection for the rights of an Indian child's parent or Indian custodian than the rights provided under that act, the court shall apply the standard under this chapter.
48.028 History History: 1981 c. 81; 2009 a. 94; 2011 a. 87; 2013 a. 314, 335.
48.028 Annotation When the children's code provides safeguards in addition to those in the Indian child welfare act, those safeguards should be followed. In Re Interest of D.S.P. 166 Wis. 2d 464, 480 N.W.2d 234 (1992).
48.029 48.029 Pregnancy testing prohibited. No law enforcement agency, district attorney, corporation counsel, county department, licensed child welfare agency or other person involved in the investigation or prosecution of an allegation that an unborn child has been the victim of or is at substantial risk of abuse may, without a court order, require a person to take a pregnancy test in connection with that investigation or prosecution.
48.029 History History: 1997 a. 292.
subch. II of ch. 48 SUBCHAPTER II
ORGANIZATION OF COURT
48.03 48.03 Time and place of court; absence or disability of judge; court of record.
48.03(1) (1) The judge shall set apart a time and place to hold court on juvenile matters.
48.03(2) (2) In the case of the absence or disability of the judge of a court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter and ch. 938, another judge shall be assigned under s. 751.03 to act temporarily in the judge's place. If the judge assigned temporarily is from a circuit other than the one for which elected, the judge shall receive expenses as provided under s. 753.073.
48.035 48.035 Court; Menominee and Shawano counties. Menominee County is attached to Shawano County for judicial purposes to the extent of the jurisdiction and functions of the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter and ch. 938 and the office and functions of the judge of the court, and the duly designated judge of the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter and ch. 938 of the circuit court for Menominee and Shawano counties shall serve in both counties. The county boards of Menominee County and Shawano County shall enter into an agreement on administration of this section and the prorating of expenditures involved, and for such purposes the county board of supervisors of Menominee County may appropriate, levy and collect a sum each year sufficient to pay its share of the expenses. If the 2 county boards are unable to agree on the prorating of expenditure involved, then the circuit judges for the circuit court for Menominee and Shawano counties shall, upon appropriate notice and hearing, determine the prorating of the expenditures on the basis of a fair allocation to each county under such procedure as they prescribe. If the circuit judges are unable to agree, the chief judge of the judicial administrative district shall make the determination.
48.035 History History: 1977 c. 449; 1995 a. 77.
48.04 48.04 Employees of court. If the county contains one or more cities of the 2nd or 3rd class, the circuit judges for the county, subject to the approval of the chief judge of the judicial administrative district, may appoint, by an instrument in writing, filed with the county clerk, a clerk of court for juvenile matters and such deputies as may be needed, who shall perform the duties of clerk and reporter of the court as directed by the judges. The clerk and deputies shall take and file the official oath and shall receive such salary as the county board of supervisors determines.
48.04 History History: 1977 c. 354, 449; 1985 a. 176; 1999 a. 83.
48.06 48.06 Services for court.
48.06(1)(1) Counties with a population of 750,000 or more.
48.06(1)(a)1.1. In counties with a population of 750,000 or more, the department shall provide the court with the services necessary for investigating and supervising child welfare and unborn child welfare cases under this chapter. The department is charged with providing child welfare and unborn child welfare intake and dispositional services and with administration of the personnel and services of the child welfare and unborn child welfare intake and dispositional sections of the department. The department shall include investigative services for all children and unborn children alleged to be in need of protection or services to be provided by the department.
48.06(1)(a)2. 2. The chief judge of the judicial administrative district shall formulate written judicial policy governing intake and court services for child welfare matters under this chapter and the department shall be charged with executing the judicial policy. The chief judge shall direct and supervise the work of all personnel of the court, except the work of the district attorney or corporation counsel assigned to the court.
48.06(1)(a)3. 3. The county board of supervisors does not have authority and may not assert jurisdiction over the disposition of any case, child, unborn child or expectant mother of an unborn child after a written order is made under s. 48.21 or 48.213 or if a petition is filed under s. 48.25.
48.06(1)(am)1.1. All intake workers providing services under this chapter who begin employment after May 15, 1980, shall have the qualifications required to perform entry level social work in a county department and shall have successfully completed 30 hours of intake training approved or provided by the department prior to the completion of the first 6 months of employment in the position. The department shall monitor compliance with this subdivision according to rules promulgated by the department.
48.06(1)(am)2. 2. The department shall make training programs available annually that permit intake workers who provide services under this chapter to satisfy the requirements specified under subd. 1.
48.06(1)(am)3. 3. Each intake worker providing services under this chapter whose responsibilities include investigation or treatment of child abuse or neglect or unborn child abuse shall successfully complete additional training in child abuse and neglect and unborn child abuse protective services approved by the department under s. 48.981 (8) (d). Not more than 4 hours of the additional training may be applied to the requirement under subd. 1.
48.06(2) (2)Counties with a population under 750,000.
48.06(2)(a)(a) In counties having less than 750,000 population, the county board of supervisors shall authorize the county department or court or both to provide intake services required by s. 48.067 and the staff needed to carry out the objectives and provisions of this chapter under s. 48.069. Intake services shall be provided by employees of the court or county department and may not be subcontracted to other individuals or agencies, except any county which had intake services subcontracted from the county sheriff's department on April 1, 1980, may continue to subcontract intake services from the county sheriff's department. Intake workers shall be governed in their intake work, including their responsibilities for recommending the filing of a petition and entering into an informal disposition, by general written policies which shall be formulated by the circuit judges for the county, subject to the approval of the chief judge of the judicial administrative district.
48.06(2)(b)1.1. All intake workers providing services under this chapter who begin employment after May 15, 1980, shall have the qualifications required to perform entry level social work in a county department and shall have successfully completed 30 hours of intake training approved or provided by the department prior to the completion of the first 6 months of employment in the position. The department shall monitor compliance with this paragraph according to rules promulgated by the department.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Oct. 4, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Oct. 4, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-4-14)