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48.427(3m)(a)1. 1. A county department authorized to accept guardianship under s. 48.57 (1) (e).
48.427(3m)(a)3. 3. A child welfare agency licensed under s. 48.61 (5) to accept guardianship.
48.427(3m)(a)4. 4. The department.
48.427(3m)(a)5. 5. A relative with whom the child resides, if the relative has filed a petition to adopt the child or if the relative is a kinship care relative or is receiving payments under s. 48.62 (4) for providing care and maintenance for the child.
48.427(3m)(a)6. 6. An individual who has been appointed guardian of the child by a court of a foreign jurisdiction.
48.427(3m)(am) (am) Transfer guardianship and custody of the child to a county department authorized to accept guardianship under s. 48.57 (1) (hm) for placement of the child for adoption by the child's foster parent, if the county department has agreed to accept guardianship and custody of the child and the foster parent has agreed to adopt the child.
48.427(3m)(b) (b) Transfer guardianship of the child to one of the agencies specified under par. (a) 1. to 4. and custody of the child to an individual in whose home the child has resided for at least 12 consecutive months immediately prior to the termination of parental rights or to a relative.
48.427(3m)(c) (c) Appoint a guardian under s. 48.977 and transfer guardianship and custody of the child to the guardian.
48.427(3p) (3p) If the rights of both parents or of the only living parent are terminated under sub. (3) and if a guardian has been appointed under s. 48.977, the court may enter one of the orders specified in sub. (3m) (a) or (b). If the court enters an order under this subsection, the court shall terminate the guardianship under s. 48.977.
48.427(4) (4) If the rights of one or both parents are terminated under sub. (3), the court may enter an order placing the child in sustaining care under s. 48.428.
48.427(5) (5) In placing an Indian child in a preadoptive placement following a transfer of guardianship and custody under sub. (3m) or (3p) or in placing an Indian child in sustaining care under sub. (4), the court or an agency specified in sub. (3m) (a) 1. to 4. or (am) shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (b) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c), unless the court or agency finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order.
48.427(6) (6) If an order is entered under sub. (3), the court shall:
48.427(6)(a) (a) Inform each birth parent, as defined under s. 48.432 (1) (am), whose rights have been terminated of the provisions of ss. 48.432, 48.433 and 48.434.
48.427(6)(b) (b) Forward to the department:
48.427(6)(b)1. 1. The name and date of birth of the child whose birth parent's rights have been terminated.
48.427(6)(b)2. 2. The names and current addresses of the child's birth parents, guardian and legal custodian.
48.427(6)(b)3. 3. The medical and genetic information obtained under s. 48.422 (9) or 48.425 (1) (am) or (2).
48.427(6)(b)4. 4. If the court knows or has reason to know that the child is an Indian child, information relating to the child's membership or eligibility for membership in an Indian tribe.
48.427(7) (7)
48.427(7)(a)(a) If an order is entered under sub. (3), the court may orally inform the parent or parents who appear in court of the ground for termination of parental rights specified in s. 48.415 (10).
48.427(7)(b) (b) In addition to the notice permitted under par. (a), any written order under sub. (3) may notify the parent or parents of the information specified in par. (a).
48.427 Annotation Once a basis for termination has been found by the jury and confirmed with a finding of unfitness by the court, the court must move to the dispositional hearing in which the prevailing factor is the best interests of the child. A court should not dismiss a petition for termination at a dispositional hearing unless it can reconcile dismissal with the best interests of the child. Sheboygan County D.H.S.S. v. Julie A.B. 2002 WI 95, 255 Wis. 2d 170, 648 N.W.2d 402, 01-1692.
48.427 Annotation The 10-day time limit in sub. (1) addressed a period after the circuit court made the final decisions that served to terminate parental rights of the child and put the child in a position to be adopted. There was no reason why, after all critical stages within the adjudication process are complete, and the court had made the required rulings, failure to enter a written order implicated the court's competency. Dane Co. DHS v. Dyanne M. 2007 WI App 129, 06-2919.
48.427 Annotation Sub. (1) provides that a court must enter one of the dispositions specified under subs. (2) to (4). Nevertheless, the court cannot simply enter one of the dispositions set forth in sub. (3m), (3p), or (4). Rather, it must first enter a disposition terminating parental rights under sub. (3). Brown County Department of Human Services v. Brenda B. 2011 WI 6, 331 Wis. 2d 310, 795 N.W.2d 730, 10-0321.
48.428 48.428 Sustaining care.
48.428(1)(1) A court may place a child in sustaining care if the court has terminated the parental rights of the parent or parents of the child or has appointed a guardian for the child under s. 48.831 and the court finds that the child is unlikely to be adopted or that adoption is not in the best interest of the child.
48.428(2) (2)
48.428(2)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), when a court places a child in sustaining care after an order under s. 48.427 (4), the court shall transfer legal custody of the child to the county department, the department in a county having a population of 500,000 or more, or a licensed child welfare agency, transfer guardianship of the child to an agency listed in s. 48.427 (3m) (a) 1. to 4. or (am), and place the child in the home of a licensed foster parent or kinship care relative with whom the child has resided for 6 months or longer. In placing an Indian child in sustaining care, the court shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (b) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c), unless the court finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order. Pursuant to the placement, that licensed foster parent or kinship care relative shall be a sustaining parent with the powers and duties specified in sub. (3).
48.428(2)(b) (b) When a court places a child in sustaining care after an order under s. 48.427 (4) with a person who has been appointed as the guardian of the child under s. 48.977 (2), the court may transfer legal custody of the child to the county department, the department in a county having a population of 500,000 or more, or a licensed child welfare agency, transfer guardianship of the child to an agency listed in s. 48.427 (3m) (a) 1. to 4. or (am), and place the child in the home of a licensed foster parent or kinship care relative with whom the child has resided for 6 months or longer. In placing an Indian child in sustaining care, the court shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (b) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c), unless the court finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order. Pursuant to the placement, that licensed foster parent or kinship care relative shall be a sustaining parent with the powers and duties specified in sub. (3). If the court transfers guardianship of the child to an agency listed in s. 48.427 (3m) (a) 1. to 4. or (am), the court shall terminate the guardianship under s. 48.977.
48.428(3) (3) Subject to the authority of the guardian and legal custodian of the child and to any treatment or dispositional plans for the child established by the court, the sustaining parent has the rights and responsibilities necessary for the day-to-day care of the child, including but not limited to:
48.428(3)(a) (a) The authority to consent to routine and emergency health care for the child.
48.428(3)(b) (b) The authority to sign the child's application for a license under s. 343.15.
48.428(3)(c) (c) The authority to approve the child's participation in school and youth group activities.
48.428(3)(d) (d) The authority to travel out of state with the child and consent to the child's travel out of state.
48.428(3)(e) (e) The authority to act as the child's parent under subch. V of ch. 115 and s. 118.125.
48.428(4) (4) Before a licensed foster parent or kinship care relative may be appointed as a sustaining parent, the foster parent or kinship care relative shall execute a contract with the agency responsible for providing services to the child, in which the foster parent or kinship care relative agrees to provide care for the child until the child's 18th birthday unless the placement order is changed by the court because the court finds that the sustaining parents are no longer able or willing to provide the sustaining care or the court finds that the behavior of the sustaining parents toward the child would constitute grounds for the termination of parental rights if the sustaining parent was the birth parent of the child.
48.428(6) (6)
48.428(6)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), the court may order or prohibit visitation by a birth parent of a child placed in sustaining care.
48.428(6)(b)1.1. Except as provided in subd. 2., the court may not grant visitation under par. (a) to a birth parent of a child who has been placed in sustaining care if the birth parent has been convicted under s. 940.01 of the first-degree intentional homicide, or under s. 940.05 of the 2nd-degree intentional homicide, of the child's other birth parent, and the conviction has not been reversed, set aside or vacated.
48.428(6)(b)1m. 1m. Except as provided in subd. 2., if a birth parent who is granted visitation rights with a child under par. (a) is convicted under s. 940.01 of the first-degree intentional homicide, or under s. 940.05 of the 2nd-degree intentional homicide, of the child's other birth parent, and the conviction has not been reversed, set aside or vacated, the court shall issue an order prohibiting the birth parent from having visitation with the child on petition of the child, the guardian or legal custodian of the child, or the district attorney or corporation counsel of the county in which the dispositional order was entered, or on the court's own motion, and on notice to the birth parent.
48.428(6)(b)2. 2. Subdivisions 1. and 1m. do not apply if the court determines by clear and convincing evidence that the visitation would be in the best interests of the child. The court shall consider the wishes of the child in making that determination.
48.43 48.43 Court orders; contents and effect; review.
48.43(1)(1) The court shall enter a judgment setting forth its findings and disposition in accordance with s. 48.426 in an order implementing the disposition chosen. If the court dismisses the petition under s. 48.427 (2), the order shall contain the reasons for dismissal. If the disposition is for the termination of parental rights under s. 48.427 (3), the order shall contain all of the following:
48.43(1)(a) (a) The identity of any agency or individual that has received guardianship of the child or will receive guardianship or custody of the child upon termination and the identity of the agency which will be responsible for securing the adoption of the child or establishing the child in a permanent family setting.
48.43(1)(am) (am) If the department or a county department receives guardianship or custody of the child under par. (a), an order ordering the child into the placement and care responsibility of the department or county department as required under 42 USC 672 (a) (2) and assigning the department or county department primary responsibility for providing services to the child.
48.43(1)(b) (b) If the child will be in need of continued care and treatment after termination, the agencies and persons responsible.
48.43(1)(c) (c) If an agency receives custody of the child under par. (a), the child's permanency plan prepared under s. 48.38 by the agency. If a permanency plan has not been prepared at the time the order is entered, or if the court enters an order that is not consistent with the permanency plan, the agency shall prepare a permanency plan that is consistent with the order or revise the permanency plan to conform to the order and shall file the plan with the court within 60 days from the date of the order.
48.43(1)(cm) (cm) If a permanency plan has previously been prepared for the child, a finding as to whether the agency primarily responsible for providing services to the child has made reasonable efforts to achieve the permanency goal of the child's permanency plan, including, if appropriate, through an out-of-state placement. The court shall make the findings specified in this paragraph on a case-by-case basis based on circumstances specific to the child and shall document or reference the specific information on which those findings are based in the order. An order that merely references this paragraph without documenting or referencing that specific information in the order or an amended order that retroactively corrects an earlier order that does not comply with this paragraph is not sufficient to comply with this paragraph.
48.43(1)(d) (d) A finding that the termination of parental rights is in the best interests of the child.
48.43(2) (2) An order terminating parental rights permanently severs all legal rights and duties between the parent whose parental rights are terminated and the child and between the child and all persons whose relationship to the child is derived through that parent, except as follows:
48.43(2)(a) (a) The relationship between the child and his or her siblings is not severed until that relationship is extinguished by an order of adoption as provided in s. 48.92 (2).
48.43(2)(b) (b) A relative whose relationship to the child is derived through the parent whose parental rights are terminated is considered to be a relative of the child for purposes of placement of, and permanency planning for, the child until that relationship is extinguished by an order of adoption as provided in s. 48.92 (2).
48.43(3) (3) If only one parent consents under s. 48.41 or if the grounds specified in s. 48.415 are found to exist as to only one parent, the rights of only that parent may be terminated without affecting the rights of the other parent.
48.43(4) (4) A certified copy of the order terminating parental rights shall be furnished by the court to the agency given guardianship for placement for adoption of the child or to the person or agency given custodianship or guardianship for placement of the child in sustaining care and to the person appointed as the guardian of the child under s. 48.977 (2). The court shall, upon request, furnish a certified copy of the child's birth certificate and a transcript of the testimony in the termination of parental rights hearing to the same person or agency.
48.43(5) (5)
48.43(5)(a)(a) If the custodian specified in sub. (1) (a) is an agency, the agency shall report to the court on the status of the child at least once each year until the child is adopted or reaches 18 years of age, whichever is sooner. The agency shall file an annual report no less than 30 days before the anniversary of the date of the order. An agency may file an additional report at any time if it determines that more frequent reporting is appropriate. A report shall summarize the child's permanency plan and the recommendations of the review panel under s. 48.38 (5), if any, and shall describe any progress that has been made in finding a permanent placement for the child.
48.43(5)(b)1.1. The court shall hold a hearing to review the permanency plan within 30 days after receiving a report under par. (a). At least 10 days before the date of the hearing, the court shall provide notice of the time, place, and purpose of the hearing to the agency that prepared the report, the child's guardian, the child, and the child's foster parent, the operator of the facility in which the child is living, or the relative with whom the child is living.
48.43(5)(b)2. 2. If the child's permanency plan includes a statement under s. 48.38 (4) (i) indicating that the child's age and developmental level are sufficient for the court to consult with the child regarding the child's permanency plan or if, notwithstanding a decision under s. 48.38 (4) (i) that it would not be appropriate for the court to consult with the child, the court determines that consultation with the child would be in the best interests of the child, the court shall consult with the child, in an age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate manner, regarding the child's permanency plan and any other matters the court finds appropriate. If none of those circumstances apply, the court may permit the child's caseworker, the child's counsel, or, subject to s. 48.235 (3) (a), the child's guardian ad litem to make a written or oral statement during the hearing, or to submit a written statement prior to the hearing, expressing the child's wishes, goals, and concerns regarding the permanency plan and those matters. If the court permits such a written or oral statement to be made or submitted, the court may nonetheless require the child's presence at the hearing.
48.43(5)(b)3. 3. The court shall give a foster parent, operator of a facility, or relative who is notified of a hearing under subd. 1. a right to be heard at the hearing by permitting the foster parent, operator, or relative to make a written or oral statement during the hearing, or to submit a written statement prior to the hearing, relevant to the issues to be determined at the hearing. The foster parent, operator of a facility, or relative does not become a party to the proceeding on which the hearing is held solely on the basis of receiving that notice and right to be heard.
48.43(5)(bm) (bm) If the order under sub. (1) involuntarily terminated parental rights to an Indian child, the court shall also provide notice of the hearing under par. (b) to the Indian child's tribe in the manner specified in s. 48.028 (4) (a). No hearing may be held under par. (b) until at least 10 days after receipt of notice of the hearing by the Indian child's tribe or, if the identity or location of the Indian child's tribe cannot be determined, until at least 15 days after receipt of notice of the hearing by the U.S. secretary of the interior. On request of the Indian child's tribe, the court shall grant a continuance of up to 20 additional days to enable the tribe to prepare for the hearing.
48.43(5)(c) (c) Following the hearing, the court shall make all of the determinations specified under s. 48.38 (5) (c), except the determinations relating to the child's parents. The court may amend the order under sub. (1) to transfer the child's guardianship and custody to any agency specified under s. 48.427 (3m) (a) 1. to 4. or (am) that consents to the transfer, if the court determines that the transfer is in the child's best interest. If an Indian child's guardianship and custody are transferred under this paragraph, the agency consenting to the transfer shall comply with the order of placement preference under s. 48.028 (7) (b) or, if applicable, s. 48.028 (7) (c) in placing the child, unless the agency finds good cause, as described in s. 48.028 (7) (e), for departing from that order. If an order is amended, the agency that prepared the permanency plan shall revise the plan to conform to the order and shall file a copy of the revised plan with the court. Each plan filed under this paragraph shall be made a part of the court order.
48.43(5m) (5m) Either the court or the agency that prepared the permanency plan shall furnish a copy of the original plan and each revised plan to the child, if he or she is 12 years of age or over, to the child's guardian, to the child's foster parent, the operator of the facility in which the child is living, or the relative with whom the child is living, and, if the order under sub. (1) involuntarily terminated parental rights to an Indian child, to the Indian child's tribe.
48.43(6) (6)
48.43(6)(a)(a) Judgments under this subchapter terminating parental rights are final and are appealable under s. 808.03 (1) according to the procedure specified in s. 809.107 and are subject to a petition for rehearing or a motion for relief only as provided in s. 48.46 (1m) and (2) and, in the case of an Indian child, s. 48.028 (5) (c) and (6). The attorney representing a person during a proceeding under this subchapter shall continue representation of that person by filing a notice of intent to appeal under s. 809.107 (2), unless the attorney has been previously discharged during the proceeding by the person or by the trial court.
48.43(6)(b) (b) The mother of a child who completes an affidavit under s. 48.42 (1g) may not collaterally attack a judgment terminating parental rights on the basis that the father of the child was not correctly identified.
48.43(6)(c) (c) Except as provided in s. 48.028 (5) (c) and (6), in no event may any person, for any reason, collaterally attack a judgment terminating parental rights more than one year after the date on which the period for filing an appeal from the judgment has expired, or more than one year after the date on which all appeals from the judgment, if any were filed, have been decided, whichever is later.
48.43(6m) (6m) If a person whose parental rights are terminated is present in court when the court grants the order terminating those rights, the court shall provide written notification to the person of the time periods for appeal of the judgment. The person shall sign the written notification, indicating that he or she has been notified of the time periods for filing an appeal under ss. 808.04 (7m) and 809.107. The person's counsel shall file a copy of the signed, written notification with the court on the date on which the judgment is granted.
48.43(7) (7)
48.43(7)(a)(a) If the agency specified under sub. (1) (a) is the department, the department shall seek a permanent adoptive placement for the child or seek to enter into a subsidized guardianship agreement under s. 48.623 (2) with a proposed guardian of the child and petition the court for the appointment of that individual as the guardian of the child under s. 48.977 (2).
48.43(7)(b) (b) If a permanent adoptive or subsidized guardianship placement is not in progress 2 years after entry of the order, the department may petition the court to transfer legal custody of the child to a county department, except that the department may not petition the court to transfer to a county department legal custody of a child who was initially taken into custody under s. 48.195 (1). The court shall transfer the child's legal custody to the county department specified in the petition. The department shall remain the child's guardian.
48.43 History History: 1979 c. 330; 1983 a. 27, 219, 286; 1985 a. 70, 176, 332; Sup. Ct. Order, 136 Wis. 2d xxv (1987); 1987 a. 383; 1993 a. 395, 446; 1995 a. 275; 1997 a. 237; 2005 a. 232, 293, 296; 2007 a. 20, 199; 2009 a. 28, 79, 94; 2011 a. 181, 258; 2013 a. 20, 165.
48.43 Annotation The appeal process in a termination case must be commenced within 30 days after the order is entered. In Interest of J.D. 106 Wis. 2d 126, 315 N.W.2d 365 (1982).
48.43 Annotation Termination has the same effect on relationships between members of the biological parents' families and the child as it has on the parent-child relationship. Equitable considerations did not form a basis to allow biological grandparents to obtain visitation rights after termination and adoption. Elgin and Carol W. v. DHFS, 221 Wis. 2d 36, 584 N.W.2d 195 (Ct. App. 1998), 97-3595.
48.432 48.432 Access to medical information.
48.432(1) (1) In this section:
48.432(1)(a) (a) "Adoptee" means a person who has been adopted in this state with the consent of his or her birth parent or parents before February 1, 1982.
48.432(1)(ag) (ag) "Agency" means a county department or a licensed child welfare agency.
48.432(1)(am) (am) "Birth parent" means either:
48.432(1)(am)1. 1. The mother designated on the individual's or adoptee's original birth certificate.
48.432(1)(am)2. 2. One of the following:
48.432(1)(am)2.a. a. The adjudicated father.
48.432(1)(am)2.b. b. If there is no adjudicated father, the husband of the mother at the time the individual or adoptee is conceived or born, or when the parents intermarry under s. 767.803.
48.432(1)(b) (b) "Individual" means a person whose birth parent's rights have been terminated in this state at any time.
48.432(2) (2)
48.432(2)(a)(a) The department, or agency contracted with under sub. (9), shall maintain all information obtained under s. 48.427 (6) (b) in a centralized birth record file.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before June 30, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 1, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-1-14)