84.25 84.25 Controlled-access highways.
84.25(1)(1)Authority of department; procedure. The legislature declares that the effective control of traffic entering upon or leaving intensively traveled highways is necessary in the interest of public safety, convenience and the general welfare. The department is authorized to designate as controlled-access highways the rural portions of the state trunk system on which, after traffic engineering surveys, investigations and studies, it shall find, determine and declare that the average traffic potential is in excess of 2,000 vehicles per 24-hour day. Such designation of a portion of any state trunk highway in any county as a controlled-access highway shall not be effected until after a public hearing in the matter has been held in the county courthouse or other convenient public place within the county following notice by publication of a class 3 notice, under ch. 985, in a newspaper published in the county. If the department shall then find that the average traffic potential is as provided by this subsection, and that the designation of the highway as a controlled-access highway is necessary in the interest of public safety, convenience and the general welfare, it shall make its finding, determination and declaration to that effect, specifying the character of the controls to be exercised. Copies of the finding, determination and declaration shall be recorded with the register of deeds, and filed with the county clerk, and published as a class 1 notice, under ch. 985, in the newspaper in which the notice of hearing was published, and the order shall be effective on such publication. Not more than 1,500 miles of highway shall be designated as controlled-access highways under authority of this section.
84.25(2) (2)Controlled-access highway defined. For the purposes of this section, a controlled-access highway is a highway on which the traffic is such that the department has found, determined and declared it to be necessary, in the interest of the public safety, convenience and the general welfare to prohibit entrance upon and departure from the highway or street except at places specially designated and provided for such purposes, and to exercise special controls over traffic on such highway or street.
84.25(3) (3)Construction; other powers of department. In order to provide for the public safety, convenience and the general welfare, the department may use an existing highway or provide new and additional facilities for a controlled-access highway and so design the same and its appurtenances, and so regulate, restrict or prohibit access to or departure from it as the department deems necessary or desirable. The department may eliminate intersections at grade of controlled-access highways with existing highways or streets, by grade separation or service road, or by closing off such roads and streets at the right-of-way boundary line of such controlled-access highway and may divide and separate any controlled-access highway into separate roadways or lanes by raised curbings, dividing sections or other physical separations or by signs, markers, stripes or other suitable devices, and may execute any construction necessary in the development of a controlled-access highway including service roads or separation of grade structures.
84.25(4) (4)Connections by other highways. After the establishment of any controlled-access highway, no street or highway or private driveway, shall be opened into or connected with any controlled-access highway without the previous consent and approval of the department in writing, which shall be given only if the public interest shall be served thereby and shall specify the terms and conditions on which such consent and approval is given.
84.25(5) (5)Use of highway. No person shall have any right of entrance upon or departure from or travel across any controlled-access highway, or to or from abutting lands except at places designated and provided for such purposes, and on such terms and conditions as may be specified from time to time by the department.
84.25(6) (6)Abutting owners. After the designation of a controlled-access highway, the owners or occupants of abutting lands shall have no right or easement of access, by reason of the fact that their property abuts on the controlled-access highway or for other reason, except only the controlled right of access and of light, air or view.
84.25(7) (7)Special crossing permits. Whenever property held under one ownership is severed by a controlled-access highway, the department may permit a crossing at a designated location, to be used solely for travel between the severed parcels, and such use shall cease if such parcels pass into separate ownership.
84.25(8) (8)Right-of-way. Any lands or other private or public property or interest in such property needed to carry out the purposes of this section may be acquired by the department in the manner provided in s. 84.09.
84.25(9) (9)Cooperative agreements. To facilitate the purposes of this section, the department and the governing bodies of a city, county, town or village are authorized to enter into agreements with each other or with the federal government respecting the financing, planning, establishment, improvement, maintenance, use, regulation or vacation of controlled-access highways or other public ways in their respective jurisdictions.
84.25(10) (10)Local service roads. In connection with the development of any controlled-access highway, the department and county, city, town or village highway authorities are authorized to plan, designate, establish, use, regulate, alter, improve, maintain, or vacate local service roads and streets or to designate as local service roads and streets any existing roads or streets, and to exercise jurisdiction over local service roads in the same manner as is authorized over controlled-access highways under the provisions of this section, if, in their opinion, such local service roads or streets shall serve the necessary purposes.
84.25(11) (11)Commercial enterprises. No commercial enterprise, except a vending facility which is licensed by the department of workforce development and operated by blind or visually impaired persons, or a commercial enterprise exempted from this subsection by an agreement under s. 84.01 (30) (g), shall be authorized or conducted within or on property acquired for or designated as a controlled-access highway.
84.25(12) (12)Unlawful use of highway; penalties. It shall be unlawful for any person to drive any vehicle into or from a controlled-access highway except through an opening provided for that purpose. Any person who violates this provision shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100 or by imprisonment for not more than 30 days, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
84.25(13) (13)Vacating. A controlled-access highway shall remain such until vacated by order of the department. The discontinuance of all state trunk highway routings over a highway established as a controlled-access highway shall summarily vacate the controlled-access status of such section of highway only after a traffic engineer survey investigation and study finds, determines and declares that the vacating of the controlled-access status is in the public interest. Such vacating shall not be effected until after a public hearing is held in the county courthouse or other convenient place within the county, following notice by publication under sub. (1). The department shall record formal notice of any vacation of a controlled-access highway with the register of deeds of the county wherein such highway lies. When the county board, or county boards in the case of boundary line roads, by resolution enacted and filed with the department prior to the vacating of a controlled-access by the department, requests that the controlled-access highway be continued pursuant to s. 83.027, then and thereafter all authority established by s. 83.027 shall be in effect with respect to such controlled-access highway, except that the county need not comply with s. 83.027 (1), and the department shall be relieved of any further authority for such controlled-access highway.
84.25 Annotation This section does not mean that once access is granted it may not be taken away. Estoppel is seldom applied against a government and would not be justified under the facts. Surety Savings & Loan Association v. State, 54 Wis. 2d 438, 195 N.W.2d 464 (1972).
84.25 Annotation Sub. (3) authorizes the Department of Transportation to change access to a highway designated as controlled access in whatever way it deems “necessary or desirable." In controlled-access highway cases, abutting property owners are precluded from compensation for a change in access under s. 32.09 (6) (b) as a matter of law. However, exercises of the police power cannot deprive the owner of all or substantially all beneficial use of the property without compensation. If the replacement access is so circuitous as to amount to a regulatory taking of the property, compensation is due and the abutting property owner may bring an inverse condemnation claim under s. 32.10. Provision of some access preserves the abutting property owner's controlled right of access to the property. Reasonableness is not the standard to apply to determine if compensation is due under s. 32.09 (6) (b). Hoffer Properties, LLC v. State, 2016 WI 5, 366 Wis. 2d 372, 874 N.W.2d 533, 12-2520.
84.25 Annotation By allowing the Department of Transportation (DOT) to designate an existing highway “controlled-access" and to thereafter “regulate, restrict or prohibit access to or departure from it as the department deems necessary or desirable," sub. (3) grants DOT broad control over the entire portion of the existing highway that has been designated “controlled-access," including placement and replacement of access points. Because elimination of direct access points is a means of restricting or prohibiting access, it cannot be correct that the statute does not grant DOT authority to eliminate an owner's direct access points. Hoffer Properties, LLC v. State, 2016 WI 5, 366 Wis. 2d 372, 874 N.W.2d 533, 12-2520.
84.25 Annotation Under sub. (1), it is the designation of a highway as “controlled-access" that must be “necessary in the interest of public safety, convenience and the general welfare" and that is an exercise of the police power. The designation as “controlled-access" serves as a precondition for the operation of the other subsections of this section. These subsections grant the Department of Transportation expansive powers after a proper designation of “controlled-access," including authority over how the general public and abutting property owners access the highway. Once the highway has been designated “controlled-access," the department may change the access points in whatever way it “deems necessary or desirable." Hoffer Properties, LLC v. State, 2016 WI 5, 366 Wis. 2d 372, 874 N.W.2d 533, 12-2520.
84.25 Annotation The phrase “from time to time" in sub. (5) indicates that the legislature enabled the Department of Transportation to periodically change the terms and conditions by which any person — abutter or otherwise — has access to a controlled-access highway. Replacing direct access with a more circuitous route is inarguably a change of the “terms and conditions" by which an abutter is allowed to enter the highway. Hoffer Properties, LLC v. State, 2016 WI 5, 366 Wis. 2d 372, 874 N.W.2d 533, 12-2520.
84.25 Annotation Sub. (6) eliminates an abutting property owner's right to compensation under s. 32.09 (6) (b) for a change to existing access at the moment the Department of Transportation designates the highway “controlled-access." Replacement access that results in a circuitous route rather than a direct one is a lawful — if regrettable — result of controlling access. Hoffer Properties, LLC v. State, 2016 WI 5, 366 Wis. 2d 372, 874 N.W.2d 533, 12-2520.
84.27 84.27 Institution roads. The department may administer a program to improve highways forming convenient connections between the University of Wisconsin System and state charitable or penal institutions, and the state trunk highway system, or to construct roadways under or over state trunk highways that pass through the grounds thereof, or to construct and maintain all drives and roadways on such grounds or the grounds of the state capitol. Within the limitations and for the purposes of this section, work may be performed by or under the supervision or authority of the department, upon the request for such work filed by the board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System or the state boards, commissions, departments or officers, respectively, as to such work in connection with the institution controlled by them. The cost of any work under this section shall be the responsibility of the board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System or the state boards, commissions, departments or officers involved.
84.28 84.28 State park, forest and riverway roads.
84.28(1)(1)Moneys from the appropriations under s. 20.370 (7) (mc) and (mr) may be expended for the renovation, marking, and maintenance of a town or county highway located within the boundaries of any state park, state forest, or other property under the jurisdiction of the department of natural resources. Moneys from the appropriations under s. 20.370 (7) (mc) and (mr) may be expended for the renovation, marking, and maintenance of a town or county highway located in the lower Wisconsin state riverway as defined in s. 30.40 (15). Outside the lower Wisconsin state riverway as defined in s. 30.40 (15), or outside the boundaries of these parks, forests, or property, moneys from the appropriations under s. 20.370 (7) (mc) and (mr) may be expended for the renovation, marking, and maintenance of roads that the department of natural resources certifies are utilized by a substantial number of visitors to state parks, state forests, or other property under the jurisdiction of the department of natural resources. The department of natural resources shall authorize expenditures under this subsection. The department of natural resources shall rank projects eligible for assistance under a priority system and funding may be restricted to those projects with highest priority. In ranking projects, the department of natural resources shall consider whether the project is for the renovation, marking, or maintenance of roads used for forestry management on property under the jurisdiction of the department of natural resources.
84.28(2) (2)The department may administer a program for the construction, maintenance and marking of roads, including fire roads, service areas, trailer or vehicle parking stalls or parking areas and other facilities consistent with highway construction and for the marking of scenic routes in the state parks, state forests, the lower Wisconsin state riverway as defined under s. 30.40 (15), state fish hatcheries, other public used areas under the jurisdiction of the department of natural resources and other public lands as defined in ch. 24, for highways or fire roads leading from the most convenient state trunk highways to such lands, and for the relocation and construction of state trunk highways in or near state parks when required in the interests of public safety. Within the limitations and for the purposes of this section, work may be performed by or under the supervision or authority or with the approval of the department, upon the request for such work filed by the department of natural resources as to the lower Wisconsin state riverway, as defined in s. 30.40 (15), or as to state park or forest lands, or by the board of commissioners of the public lands as to other classes of public lands. Outside the lower Wisconsin state riverway, as defined in s. 30.40 (15), and outside the limits of the park, state forest and public land areas, direct connections to the most convenient state trunk highway may be built or maintained under this section. Roads in unincorporated areas within 5 miles of the boundaries of the Horicon national wildlife refuge or the Horicon marsh wildlife area may be built or maintained under this section upon request of the town board, if the department of transportation certifies that such roads are or will be used by a substantial number of visitors to such area. Costs incurred under this section shall be the responsibility of the department of natural resources, commissioners of public lands or town board, as appropriate.
84.29 84.29 National system of interstate highways.
84.29(1)(1)Department of transportation to cooperate with federal agencies. The legislature of the state of Wisconsin hereby declares that the intent of this section is to assent to acts of the United States Congress heretofore and hereafter enacted, authorizing development of the national system of interstate highways located wholly or partly within the state of Wisconsin to the full extent that it is necessary or desirable to secure any benefits under such acts and to authorize the appropriate state boards, commissions, departments, and the governing bodies of counties, cities, towns and villages, and especially the department of transportation, to cooperate in the planning, development and construction of the national system of interstate highways that may be proposed for development in Wisconsin, with any agency or department of the government of the United States in which is vested the necessary authority to construct or otherwise develop or aid in the development of such system. Whenever authority shall exist for the planning and development of a national system of interstate highways of which any portion shall be located in this state, it shall be the duty of the department of transportation to make such investigations and studies in cooperation with the appropriate federal agency, and such state boards, commissions, departments and municipalities as shall have interest in such system development, to the extent that shall be desirable and necessary to provide that the state shall secure all advantages that may accrue through such interstate system development and that the interest of municipalities along such system shall be conserved.
84.29(2) (2)Routes of interstate system, state trunk highways. Upon finding by the department that the development of any proposed highway as a route of the national system of interstate highways, hereinafter designated the interstate system or interstate highways, or any portion thereof, including the laying out, construction, maintenance and operation of any part thereof as a freeway or expressway, is in the promotion of the public and social welfare of the state and for the benefit of public travel, the department is empowered and it shall have full authority to lay out, construct, operate and maintain such highway as a part of the state trunk highway system. Except as otherwise provided by this section, all provisions of law relative to the acquisition of land for highway purposes and for surveys, plans, establishing, laying out, widening, enlarging, extending, constructing, reconstructing, improving, maintaining and financing of other state trunk highways shall apply to the interstate highways undertaken in this state.
84.29(3) (3)Changes in existing highways and utilities. It is recognized that in the construction of interstate highways in this state to modern standard and design, mutually agreed upon by the department and the federal agency, to promote the public and social welfare, and benefit public travel of the state, and meet the needs of national defense, it will become necessary for the department to make or cause to be made changes in the location, lines and grades of existing public highways, railroads and public utility transmission lines and facilities.
84.29(4) (4)Laying new highways for interstate system. Upon finding and determination by the department that it is not in the public interest and that it is impractical to establish the route of the interstate system on or along an existing state trunk highway, the department is authorized and empowered to lay out and establish a new and additional state trunk highway for the interstate highway. As an interstate highway may be established, laid out and constructed on a new location as an expressway or freeway which is not on and along an existing public highway, no right of access to the highway shall accrue to or vest in any abutting property owner. As an interstate highway may be established, laid out and constructed as an expressway or freeway on and along an existing public highway, reasonable provision for public highway traffic service or access to abutting property shall be provided by means of frontage roads as a part of the interstate highway development, or the right of access to or crossing of the public highway shall be acquired on behalf of the state as a part of the interstate highway improvement project. The occupation or use of any part of an existing public highway is authorized for the construction of the interstate system. The action of the department relative to establishment, layout, location or relocation of any part of the interstate system shall be conclusive.
84.29(5) (5)Construction of grade separations at intersections. In the furtherance of the public interest and general welfare of the state and the traveling public in the development of the interstate system, the department is authorized and empowered to construct grade separations at intersections of any interstate highway with other public highways and railroads and to change and adjust the lines of public highways and if necessary combine or relocate the same to adjust traffic service to grade separation structures. The entire cost of grade separations and relocations and alterations of local roads as so determined by the department shall be a part of the construction of and financed as a part of the cost of the interstate highway. The department may by agreement with a county or municipality or by order summarily vacate or relocate any town, county, city or village highway as part of the construction of an interstate highway but shall pay any damage legally payable under existing law to any property owner directly injured by the vacation or relocation of such street or highway. The department is empowered to enter into agreement with the unit of government having jurisdiction over the local highway relocated or altered as a part of the interstate highway improvement with respect to maintenance thereof, and in the absence of mutual agreement to the contrary, such relocated or altered highway shall be maintained by the unit of government having jurisdiction thereof before it was so relocated or altered, except any parts thereof which the department determines to be useful in the operation of or for access to the interstate highway, which parts shall be maintained by the state, subject to s. 84.07 (1r), as a part of the interstate highway. The action by the department relative to vacation and relocation or combining a public highway under jurisdiction of any county, town, city or village shall be conclusive.
84.29(6) (6)Power to relocate and close highways.
84.29(6)(a)(a) Without limiting the authority extended by other provisions of this section, the department is authorized on behalf of the state, to enter into an agreement with the governing body of any county or municipality having jurisdiction over any highway and, as provided in such agreement, to relocate any such highway or to close the same at or near the point of intersection with any interstate highway, or to make provision for carrying such highway over or under the interstate highway, and may do any and all things on such highway as may be necessary to lay out, acquire rights-of-way for, and build the same.
84.29(6)(b) (b) No highway of any kind shall be opened into or connected with the interstate highway by a municipality unless the department approves the same and fixes the terms and conditions on which such connection shall be made. The department may give or withhold its approval or fix such terms and conditions as it deems will best serve the public interest.
84.29(7) (7)Powers granted liberally construed. All powers granted in this section shall be liberally construed in favor of the state in the furtherance of the expeditious and orderly construction of any interstate highway project.
84.29(8) (8)Establishing freeway status. After adoption of an order by the department laying out and establishing any portion of the interstate system as an expressway or freeway, the highway described in the order shall have the status of a freeway or expressway for all purposes of this section. Such order shall not affect private property rights of access to preexisting public highways, and any property rights taken shall be acquired in the manner provided by law. No previously existing public highway shall be converted into a freeway or expressway without acquiring by donation, purchase, or condemnation the right of access thereto of the owners of abutting lands.
84.29 History History: 1977 c. 29 ss. 944, 1654 (8) (a), (c); 1977 c. 43, 203; 1993 a. 490; 2013 a. 20.
84.295 84.295 Freeways and expressways.
84.295(1)(1)Legislative intent. In the interest of promoting public safety and convenience and the general welfare, the legislature of the state of Wisconsin declares that the intent of this section is to provide for the development of a well balanced and integrated state trunk highway system further modernized and improved to adequate standards to provide needed increased traffic capacity, relieve the congestion on overtaxed existing highways, and otherwise more adequately serve the present and anticipated future needs of highway travel, and toward that end to prevent conflicting costly economic development on areas of lands to be available as right-of-way when needed for future highway construction.
84.295(2) (2)Investigations, surveys and studies. As a function in the improvement of state trunk highways and connecting highways the department is authorized to make investigations, surveys and studies of the present and anticipated needs for the improvement of desirable, probable additions to the state trunk highway system, and to otherwise carry out the expressed intent of this section.
84.295(3) (3)Designating freeways and expressways. Where the department finds that the volume and character of the traffic to be served thereby warrant the construction or the acquisition of right-of-way for the ultimate construction of a highway to accommodate 4 or more lanes for moving traffic and that such development is in the public interest, it may by order designate as freeways or expressways segments of state trunk highways having currently assignable traffic volumes in excess of 4,000 vehicles per day. The findings, determinations and orders of the department under this subsection shall be recorded. Except as otherwise provided by this section, all provisions of law relative to the acquisition or dedication by subdivision plat or otherwise, of land and interests in land for highway purposes, and relative to surveys, plans, establishing, laying out, widening, enlarging, extending, constructing, improving, maintaining and financing of state trunk highways shall apply to the segments designated freeways or expressways pursuant to this section. The “Hampton Avenue Corridor" in Milwaukee County shall not be designated as a freeway or expressway under this subsection.
84.295(4) (4)Changes in existing highways and utilities. It is recognized that in the construction of freeways or expressways to modern standard and design, to promote the public and social welfare and benefit public travel of the state, it will become necessary for the department to make or cause to be made changes in the location, lines and grades of existing public highways, railroads and public utility transmission lines and facilities.
84.295(4m) (4m)Municipal utility relocation; freeway construction.
84.295(4m)(a)(a) The state shall pay 90 percent of the eligible costs of the relocation or replacement of any municipal utility facilities required by the construction of any freeway undertaken by the department. The affected municipal utility shall pay the balance of such costs.
84.295(4m)(b) (b) This subsection applies only to relocations or replacements that:
84.295(4m)(b)1. 1. Involve municipal utility facilities located on publicly held lands prior to such relocation or replacement;
84.295(4m)(b)2. 2. Are not eligible for state reimbursement under any other provision of law; and
84.295(4m)(b)3. 3. Take place after July 1, 1976.
84.295(4m)(c) (c) In administering this subsection the department shall use the same procedures and accounting principles as are applicable to utility relocations and replacements for which full reimbursement is required by law.
84.295(4m)(d) (d) In order to be eligible for reimbursement under this subsection, any entry upon or occupation of state freeway right-of-way after relocation or replacement by a metropolitan sewerage district acting under s. 200.11 (5) (b) or 200.35 (7) shall be done in a manner acceptable to the department.
84.295(4m)(e) (e) In this subsection:
84.295(4m)(e)1. 1. “Eligible costs" mean the actual costs of relocating or replacing utility facilities less the:
84.295(4m)(e)1.a. a. Salvage value of the old facilities;
84.295(4m)(e)1.b. b. Used life credit on the old facilities; and
84.295(4m)(e)1.c. c. Cost of any upgrading of the facilities being replaced or relocated made solely for the benefit and at the election of the utility and not attributable to the freeway construction.
84.295(4m)(e)2. 2. “Municipal utility facilities" mean any utility facilities owned by any town, village, or city or any joint local water authority created under s. 66.0823 or any town sanitary district established under subch. IX of ch. 60, or under the jurisdiction of any metropolitan sewerage district established under ch. 200.
84.295(4m)(e)3. 3. “Publicly held lands" include any right or interest in real estate held by the state or by any county, city, village, town or other body politic and corporate.
84.295(5) (5)Designating highways as freeways or expressways. Where a state trunk highway is established on a new location which is not on or along an existing public highway, and the state trunk highway is designated as a freeway or expressway no right of access to the highway shall accrue to or vest in any abutting property owner. Where a state trunk highway is on or along any highway which is open and used for travel and is designated as a freeway or expressway, reasonable provision for public highway traffic service or access to abutting property shall be provided by means of frontage roads as a part of the freeway or expressway development, or the right of access to or crossing of the public highway shall be acquired on behalf of the state as a part of the freeway or expressway improvement project. The occupation or use of any part of an existing public highway is authorized for the construction of a freeway or expressway. The action of the department relative to designation, layout, location or relocation of any part of a freeway or expressway shall be conclusive.
84.295(6) (6)Construction of grade separations at intersections. In the furtherance of the public interest and general welfare of the state and the traveling public in the development of freeways or expressways, the department is authorized and empowered to construct grade separations at intersections of any freeway or expressway with other public highways and railroads and to change and adjust the lines of public highways and if necessary combine, relocate or extend the same to adjust traffic service to grade separation structures. The entire cost of grade separations and relocations, alterations or extensions of local roads as so determined by the department shall be a part of the construction of and financed as a part of the cost of the freeway or expressway. The department may by agreement with a county or municipality or by order summarily vacate or relocate any town, county, city or village highway as part of the construction of a freeway or expressway but shall pay any damage legally payable under existing law to any property owner directly injured by the vacation or relocation of such street or highway. The department is empowered to enter into agreement with the units of government having jurisdiction over a local highway relocated, altered or extended as a part of the freeway or expressway improvement with respect to maintenance thereof, and in the absence of mutual agreement to the contrary, such relocated, altered or extended highway shall be maintained by the unit of government having jurisdiction thereof before it was so relocated, altered or extended, except any parts thereof which the department determines to be useful in operation of or for access to the freeway or expressway, including structures over the freeway or expressway, which parts shall be maintained by the state, subject to s. 84.07 (1r), as a part of the freeway or expressway. The action by the department relative to vacation, relocation, extension or combining of a public highway under jurisdiction of any county, town, city or village shall be conclusive.
84.295(7) (7)Authority to relocate and close highways.
84.295(7)(a)(a) Without limiting the authority extended by other provisions of this section the department may, on behalf of the state, enter into an agreement with the governing body of any county or municipality having jurisdiction over any highway and, as provided in such agreement, relocate or extend any such highway or close the same at or near the point of intersection with any freeway or expressway, or make provision for carrying such highway over or under the freeway or expressway, and may do any and all things on such highway as may be necessary to lay out, acquire rights-of-way for, and build the same.
84.295(7)(b) (b) No highway of any kind shall be opened into or connected with a freeway or expressway by a municipality unless the department approves the same and fixes the terms and conditions on which such connections shall be made. The department may give or withhold its approval or fix such terms and conditions as it deems will best serve the public interest.
84.295(8) (8)Powers granted liberally construed. The provisions of this section are not restricted by other provisions of the statutes, and all powers granted in this section shall be liberally construed in favor of the state in the furtherance of the expeditious and orderly construction of any freeway or expressway project and in the furtherance of the orderly operation of a freeway or expressway designated pursuant to this section.
84.295(9) (9)Establishing freeway status. After the adoption of an order by the department laying out and designating any portion of a state trunk highway as a freeway or expressway, the highway described in the order shall have the status of a freeway or expressway for all purposes of this section. Such orders shall not affect private property rights of access to preexisting public highways, and any property rights to be taken shall be acquired in the manner provided by law. No previously existing public highway shall be developed as a freeway or expressway without acquiring by donation, purchase or condemnation the right of access thereto of the owners of abutting land.
84.295(10) (10)Establishing locations and right-of-way widths for future freeways or expressways.
84.295(10)(a) (a) Where, as the result of its investigations and studies, the department finds that there will be a need in the future for the development and construction of segments of a state trunk highway as a freeway or expressway, and where the department determines that in order to prevent conflicting costly economic development on areas of lands to be available as rights-of-way when needed for such future development, there is need to establish, and to inform the public of, the approximate location and widths of rights-of-way needed, it may proceed to establish such location and the approximate widths of rights-of-way in the following manner. It shall hold a public hearing in the matter in a courthouse or other convenient public place in or near the region to be affected by the proposed change, which public hearing shall be advertised and held as are state trunk highway change hearings. The department shall consider and evaluate the testimony presented at the public hearing. It may make a survey and prepare a map showing the location of the freeway or expressway and the approximate widths of the rights-of-way needed for the freeway or expressway, including the right-of-way needed for traffic interchanges with other highways, grade separations, frontage roads and other incidental facilities and for the alteration or relocation of existing public highways to adjust traffic service to grade separation structures and interchange ramps. The map shall also show the existing highways and the property lines and record owners of lands needed. Upon approval of the map by the department, a notice of such action and the map showing the lands or interests therein needed in any county shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds of such county. Notice of the action and of the recording shall be published as a class 1 notice, under ch. 985, in such county, and within 60 days after recording, notice of the recording shall be served by registered mail on the owners of record on the date of recording. With like approval, notice and publications, and notice to the affected record owners, the department may from time to time supplement or change the map.
84.295(10)(b) (b) After such location is thus established, within the area of the rights-of-way as shown on the map or in such proximity thereto as to result in consequential damages when the right-of-way is acquired, no one shall erect or move in any additional structure, nor rebuild, alter or add to any existing structure, without first giving to the department by registered mail 60 days' notice of such contemplated construction, alteration or addition describing the same, provided that this prohibition and requirement shall not apply to any normal or emergency repairs or replacements which are necessary to maintain an existing structure or facility in approximately its previously existing functioning condition. When the right-of-way is acquired, no damages shall be allowed for any construction, alterations or additions in violation of this paragraph.
84.295(10)(c) (c) Without limiting any authority otherwise existing, any of the rights-of-way needed may be acquired at any time by the state or by the county or municipality in which such freeway or expressway is located. If one owner's contiguous land is acquired to an extent which is less than the total thereof shown on the map as needed, consequential damages to the portion not acquired shall be allowed if found to exist.
84.30 84.30 Regulation of outdoor advertising.
84.30(1)(1)Legislative findings and purpose. To promote the safety, convenience and enjoyment of public travel, to preserve the natural beauty of Wisconsin, to aid in the free flow of interstate commerce, to protect the public investment in highways, and to conform to the expressed intent of congress to control the erection and maintenance of outdoor advertising signs, displays and devices adjacent to the national system of interstate and defense highways, it is hereby declared to be necessary in the public interest to control the erection and maintenance of billboards and other outdoor advertising devices adjacent to said system of interstate and federal-aid primary highways and the Great River Road.
84.30(2) (2)Definitions. In this section, unless the context otherwise requires:
84.30(2)(a) (a) “Adjacent area" means an area which is adjacent to and within 660 feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way of any interstate or primary highway or the Great River Road, which 660 feet distance shall be measured horizontally along a line normal or perpendicular to the center line of the highway.
84.30(2)(b) (b) “Business area" means any part of an adjacent area which is zoned for business, industrial or commercial activities under the authority of the laws of this state; or not zoned, but which constitutes an unzoned commercial or industrial area as defined in par. (k). In adjacent areas along the interstate system business areas shall be limited to commercial or industrial zones within the boundaries of incorporated municipalities, as those boundaries existed on September 1, 1959, and all other areas where the land-use as of September 1, 1959, was clearly established by state law as industrial or commercial.
84.30(2)(c) (c) “Center line of the highway" means a line equidistant from the edges of the median separating the main-traveled ways of a divided highway, or the center line of the main-traveled way of a nondivided highway.
84.30(2)(d) (d) “Commercial or industrial activities" for purposes of unzoned industrial and commercial areas mean those activities generally recognized as commercial or industrial by local zoning authorities in this state, except that none of the following activities shall be considered commercial or industrial:
84.30(2)(d)1. 1. Outdoor advertising structures.
84.30(2)(d)2. 2. Agricultural, forestry, ranching, grazing, farming and similar activities, including, but not limited to wayside fresh produce stands.
84.30(2)(d)3. 3. Activities normally or regularly in operation less than 3 months of the year.
84.30(2)(d)4. 4. Transient or temporary activities.
84.30(2)(d)5. 5. Activities not visible from the main-traveled way.
84.30(2)(d)6. 6. Activities more than 660 feet from the nearest edge of the right-of-way.
84.30(2)(d)7. 7. Railroad tracks and minor sidings.
84.30(2)(d)8. 8. Areas which are predominantly used for residential purposes.
84.30(2)(e) (e) “Erect" means to construct, build, raise, assemble, place, affix, attach, create, paint, draw, or in any other way bring into being or establish; but it does not include any of the foregoing activities when performed as an incident to the change of advertising message or customary maintenance of the sign structures.
84.30(2)(em) (em) “Great River Road" means any highway officially designated as part of the Great River Road system by the department and approved by the appropriate authority of the federal government and any highway designated as part of the Great River Road under s. 84.107. Signs along the Great River Road shall be regulated as are signs along primary highways.
84.30(2)(f) (f) “Interstate highway" means any highway at any time officially designated as a part of the national system of interstate and defense highways by the department and approved by the appropriate authority of the federal government.
Loading...
Loading...
2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 18 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on October 1, 2019. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after October 1, 2019, are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-1-19)