Before issuing an order under par. (a)
, the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under chs. 48
shall give the juvenile and the parent notice of the intent to issue the order and an opportunity to be heard regarding the order. The court shall give the juvenile and the parent an opportunity to present evidence as to the amount of the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge unpaid, but not as to the amount of the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge originally ordered. The court shall also give the juvenile and the parent an opportunity to present evidence as to the reason for the failure to pay the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge and the ability of the juvenile or the parent to pay the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge. In considering the ability of the juvenile or the parent to pay the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge, the court may consider the assets, as well as the income, of the juvenile or the parent and may consider the future ability of the juvenile or parent to pay the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge within the time specified in s. 893.40
In proceedings under this subsection, the court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under chs. 48
may take judicial notice of any deferred prosecution agreement, consent decree, dispositional order, sentence, extension of a consent decree, dispositional order or sentence or any other finding or order in the records of the juvenile maintained by that court or the municipal court.
In proceedings under this subsection, the juvenile and the parent may retain counsel of their own choosing at their own expense, but a juvenile or a parent has no right to be represented by appointed counsel in a proceeding under this subsection.
The court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under chs. 48
may order that the juvenile perform community service work for a public agency or nonprofit charitable organization that is designated by the court in lieu of making restitution or paying the forfeiture or surcharge. If the parent agrees to perform community service work in lieu of making restitution or paying the forfeiture or surcharge, the court may order that the parent perform community service work for a public agency or a nonprofit charitable organization that is designated by the court. Community service work may be in lieu of restitution only if also agreed to by the public agency or nonprofit charitable organization and by the person to whom restitution is owed. The court may utilize any available resources, including any community service work program, in ordering the juvenile or parent to perform community service work. The number of hours of community service work required may not exceed the number determined by dividing the amount owed on the restitution, forfeiture or surcharge by the minimum wage established under ch. 104
for adults in nonagriculture, nontipped employment. The court shall ensure that the juvenile or parent is provided with a written statement of the terms of the community service order and that the community service order is monitored.
An adjudication under s. 938.183
that the juvenile violated a civil law or ordinance, is delinquent or is in need of protection and services under s. 938.13 (12)
, based on proof that the juvenile committed the act, subject to its admissibility under s. 904.10
, shall, in an action under sub. (1)
, stop a juvenile's parent or parents from denying that the juvenile committed the act that resulted in the injury, damage or loss.
Except for recovery under sub. (4a)
or for retail theft under s. 943.51
, the maximum recovery under this section from any parent or parents may not exceed $5,000 for damages resulting from any one act of a juvenile in addition to taxable costs and disbursements and reasonable attorney fees, as determined by the court. If 2 or more juveniles in the custody of the same parent or parents commit the same act the total recovery under this section may not exceed $5,000, in addition to taxable costs and disbursements. The maximum recovery from any parent or parents for retail theft by their minor child is established under s. 943.51
The maximum recovery under this section by a school board or a governing body of a private school from any parent or parents with custody of a minor child may not exceed $20,000 for damages resulting from any one act of the minor child in addition to taxable costs and disbursements and reasonable attorney fees, as determined by the court, for damages caused to the school board or the governing body of a private school by any of the following actions of the minor child:
An act or threat that endangers the property, health or safety of persons at the school or under the supervision of a school authority or that damages the property of a school board or the governing body of a private school and that results in a substantial disruption of a school day or a school activity.
In addition to other recoverable damages, damages under par. (a)
may include the cost to the school board or the governing body of a private school in loss of instructional time directly resulting from the action of the minor child under par. (a)
If 2 or more minor children in the custody of the same parent or parents are involved in the same action under par. (a)
, the total recovery may not exceed $20,000, in addition to taxable costs, disbursements and reasonable attorney fees, as determined by the court.
If an insurance policy does not explicitly provide coverage for actions under par. (a)
, the issuer of that policy is not liable for the damages resulting from those actions.
This section does not limit the amount of damages recoverable by an action against a child or children except that any amount so recovered shall be reduced and apportioned by the amount received from the parent or parents under this section.
This section imposes absolute liability on parents once all elements have been established. Accordingly, the defense of contributory negligence is unavailable to parents. First Bank Southeast v. Bentkowski, 138 Wis. 2d 283
, 405 N.W.2d 764
(Ct. App. 1987).
An "act" under sub. (4) is a complete course of conduct. What distinguishes a single act from multiple acts is whether: 1) a sufficient period of time separates the conduct; 2) the conduct occurred at separate locations; and 3) there is a distinct difference in the nature of the conduct. In cases of improper sexual contact, the jury need not make an individual damage determination for each act. N.E.M. v. Strigel, 208 Wis. 2d 1
, 559 N.W.2d 256
Under s. 938.34 (5) (a) assessing the damages to the victim is the first step in the court's determination of restitution and determining the amount the juvenile is capable of paying is the second. Whichever amount is lower is the maximum amount that the court may order as restitution. Under sub. (2m) (a) courts are without authority to order that the "total damage" figure be converted to a civil judgment. Sub. (2m) (a) allows only for the conversion of restitution. State v. Anthony D. 2006 WI App 218
, 296 Wis. 2d 771
, 723 N.W. 2d 775
The constitutional validity of parental liability statutes. O'Connor, 55 MLR 584.
NOTE: See also the notes to s. 343.15, for parental responsibility for minor drivers.
Abortions on or for a minor without parental consent or judicial waiver. 895.037(2)(a)(a)
Any person who, in violation of s. 48.375 (4)
, intentionally performs or induces an abortion on or for a minor whom the person knows or has reason to know is not an emancipated minor may be required to forfeit not more than $10,000.
A person who intentionally violates s. 48.375 (4)
is liable to the minor on or for whom the abortion was performed or induced and to the minor's parent, guardian and legal custodian for damages arising out of the performance or inducement of the abortion including, but not limited to, damages for personal injury and emotional and psychological distress.
If a person who has been awarded damages under par. (a)
proves by clear and convincing evidence that the violation of s. 48.375 (4)
was willful, wanton or reckless, that person shall also be entitled to punitive damages.
A conviction under sub. (2) (a)
is not a condition precedent to bringing an action, obtaining a judgment or collecting that judgment under this subsection.
A person who recovers damages under par. (a)
may also recover reasonable attorney fees incurred in connection with the action, notwithstanding s. 814.04 (1)
A contract is not a defense to an action under this subsection.
Nothing in this subsection limits the common law rights of parents, guardians, legal custodians and minors.
The identity of a minor who is the subject of an action under this section and the identity of the minor's parents, guardian and legal custodian shall be kept confidential and may not be disclosed, except to the court, the parties, their counsel, witnesses and other persons approved by the court. All papers filed in and all records of a court relating to an action under this section shall identify the minor as "Jane Doe" and shall identify her parents, guardian and legal custodian by initials only. All hearings relating to an action under this section shall be held in chambers unless the minor demands a hearing in open court and her parents, guardian or legal custodian do not object. If a public hearing is not held, only the parties, their counsel, witnesses and other persons requested by the court, or requested by a party and approved by the court, may be present.
History: 1991 a. 263
The essential holding of Roe v. Wade allowing abortion is upheld, but various state restrictions on abortion are permissible. Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833
, 120 L. Ed. 2d 674
Partial-birth abortions; liability. 895.038(2)(a)(a)
Except as provided in par. (b)
, any of the following persons has a claim for appropriate relief against a person who performs a partial-birth abortion:
If the person on whom a partial-birth abortion was performed was a minor, the parent of the minor.
The father of the child aborted by the partial-birth abortion.
A person specified in par. (a) 1.
does not have a claim under par. (a)
if any of the following apply:
The person consented to performance of the partial-birth abortion.
The relief available under sub. (2)
shall include all of the following:
If the abortion was performed in violation of s. 940.16
, damages arising out of the performance of the partial-birth abortion, including damages for personal injury and emotional and psychological distress.
Exemplary damages equal to 3 times the cost of the partial-birth abortion.
(4) Subsection (2)
applies even if the mother of the child aborted by the partial-birth abortion consented to the performance of the partial-birth abortion.
History: 1997 a. 219
; 2005 a. 277
A Nebraska statute that provided that no partial birth abortion can be performed unless it is necessary to save the life of the mother whose life is endangered by a physical disorder, physical illness, or physical injury is unconstitutional. Stenberg v. Carthart, 530 U.S. 949
, 147 L. Ed. 2d 743
Enforcement of s. 940.16 is enjoined under Carhart. Hope clinic v. Ryan, 249 F.3d 603
Plaintiff in wrongful death action. 895.04(1)
An action for wrongful death may be brought by the personal representative of the deceased person or by the person to whom the amount recovered belongs.
If the deceased leaves surviving a spouse or domestic partner under ch.770
and minor children under 18 years of age with whose support the deceased was legally charged, the court before whom the action is pending, or if no action is pending, any court of record, in recognition of the duty and responsibility of a parent to support minor children, shall determine the amount, if any, to be set aside for the protection of such children after considering the age of such children, the amount involved, the capacity and integrity of the surviving spouse or surviving domestic partner, and any other facts or information it may have or receive, and such amount may be impressed by creation of an appropriate lien in favor of such children or otherwise protected as circumstances may warrant, but such amount shall not be in excess of 50% of the net amount received after deduction of costs of collection. If there are no such surviving minor children, the amount recovered shall belong and be paid to the spouse or domestic partner of the deceased; if no spouse or domestic partner survives, to the deceased's lineal heirs as determined by s. 852.01
; if no lineal heirs survive, to the deceased's brothers and sisters. If any such relative dies before judgment in the action, the relative next in order shall be entitled to recover for the wrongful death. A surviving nonresident alien spouse or a nonresident alien domestic partner under ch. 770
and minor children shall be entitled to the benefits of this section. In cases subject to s. 102.29
this subsection shall apply only to the surviving spouse's or surviving domestic partner's interest in the amount recovered. If the amount allocated to any child under this subsection is less than $10,000, s. 807.10
may be applied. Every settlement in wrongful death cases in which the deceased leaves minor children under 18 years of age shall be void unless approved by a court of record authorized to act hereunder.
If separate actions are brought for the same wrongful death, they shall be consolidated on motion of any party. Unless such consolidation is so effected that a single judgment may be entered protecting all defendants and so that satisfaction of such judgment shall extinguish all liability for the wrongful death, no action shall be permitted to proceed except that of the personal representative.
Judgment for damages for pecuniary injury from wrongful death may be awarded to any person entitled to bring a wrongful death action. Additional damages not to exceed $500,000 per occurrence in the case of a deceased minor, or $350,000 per occurrence in the case of a deceased adult, for loss of society and companionship may be awarded to the spouse, children or parents of the deceased, or to the siblings of the deceased, if the siblings were minors at the time of the death.
If the personal representative brings the action, the personal representative may also recover the reasonable cost of medical expenses, funeral expenses, including the reasonable cost of a cemetery lot, grave marker and care of the lot. If a relative brings the action, the relative may recover such medical expenses, funeral expenses, including the cost of a cemetery lot, grave marker and care of the lot, on behalf of himself or herself or of any person who has paid or assumed liability for such expenses.
Where the wrongful death of a person creates a cause of action in favor of the decedent's estate and also a cause of action in favor of a spouse, domestic partner under ch. 770
, or relatives as provided in this section, such spouse, domestic partner, or relatives may waive and satisfy the estate's cause of action in connection with or as part of a settlement and discharge of the cause of action of the spouse, domestic partner, or relatives.
Damages found by a jury in excess of the maximum amount specified in sub. (4)
shall be reduced by the court to such maximum. The aggregate of the damages covered by subs. (4)
shall be diminished under s. 895.045
if the deceased or person entitled to recover is found negligent.
Statutory increases in damage limitations recoverable in wrongful death actions constitute changes in substantive rights and not mere remedial changes. Bradley v. Knutson, 62 Wis. 2d 432
, 215 N.W.2d 369
A parent may maintain an action for loss of aid, comfort, society, and companionship of an injured minor child on the condition that the parents' cause of action is combined with that of the child for the child's personal injuries. Shockley v. Prier, 66 Wis. 2d 394
, 225 N.W.2d 495
In an action for wrongful death by 2 children of the deceased, the plaintiffs' failure to join 3 other siblings who would otherwise have been indispensable parties was not fatal to the court's subject matter jurisdiction because affidavits submitted to the trial court indicated that the 3 siblings were unavailable. Kochel v. Hartford Accident & Indemnity Co. 66 Wis. 2d 405
, 225 N.W.2d 604
A judgment under sub. (2) means a final, not interlocutory, judgment. Collins v. Gee, 82 Wis. 2d 376
, 263 N.W.2d 158
The trial court in a wrongful death action should inform the jury of statutory limitations on recovery, if any. Peot v. Ferraro, 83 Wis. 2d 727
, 266 N.W.2d 586
A posthumous illegitimate child may not maintain an action for the wrongful death of the putative father. Robinson v. Kolstad, 84 Wis. 2d 579
, 267 N.W.2d 886
This section does not require that proceeds be equally divided between parents. Keithley v. Keithley, 95 Wis. 2d 136
, 289 N.W.2d 368
(Ct. App. 1980).
Punitive damages are not recoverable incident to damages for wrongful death. Wangen v. Ford Motor Co. 97 Wis. 2d 260
, 294 N.W.2d 437
This section does not permit an estate to recover, on its own behalf, damages for the decedent's pecuniary loss. Weiss v. Regent Properties, Ltd. 118 Wis. 2d 225
, 346 N.W.2d 766
Recovery under sub. (7) is barred by s. 895.045 if a decedent's negligence was greater than any individual tortfeasor's. Delvaux v. Vanden Langenberg, 130 Wis. 2d 464
, 387 N.W.2d 751
A spouse's claim under sub. (4) for loss of society and companionship is additional to a common law claim for loss of consortium prior to the death of the deceased. Kottka v. PPG Industries, Inc. 130 Wis. 2d 499
, 388 N.W.2d 160
A person who "feloniously and intentionally" kills his or her spouse is not a surviving spouse for purposes of sub. (2) and is treated as having predeceased the decedent. Stienbarth v. Johannes, 144 Wis. 2d 159
, 423 N.W.2d 540
"Pecuniary injury" under sub. (4) includes the loss of any benefit, including social security disability benefits, that a plaintiff would have received from the decedent. Estate of Holt v. State Farm, 151 Wis. 2d 455
, 444 N.W.2d 453
(Ct. App. 1989).
This section is inapplicable in medical malpractice actions. There is no cause of action in an adult child for the loss of society and companionship of a parent. Dziadosz v. Zirneski, 177 Wis. 2d 59
, 501 N.W.2d 828
(Ct. App. 1993).
The damage limitation under sub. (4) is inapplicable to medical malpractice actions in which death resulted. Sub. (2) does not prevent a minor from bringing an action for a loss of companionship when malpractice causes a parent's death, including when the decedent is survived by a spouse. Jelinik v. St. Paul Fire & Casualty Ins. Co. 182 Wis. 2d 1
, 512 N.W.2d 764
Although only one parent was the named insured under an uninsured motorist insurance policy paying benefits for the wrongful death of the parents' child, this section requires payment of the proceeds to both parents. Bruflat v. Prudential Property & Casualty Insurance Co. 2000 WI App 69
, 233 Wis. 2d 523
, 608 N.W.2d 371
The rule that one who claims subrogation rights, whether under the aegis of either legal or conventional subrogation, is barred from any recovery unless the insured is made whole is applicable in wrongful death actions. Wrongful death plaintiffs are entitled to be made whole for their losses, but not more than whole. To the extent that wrongful death plaintiffs receive a portion of damages for expenses they have not incurred after having been made whole, they have been unjustly enriched. Petta v. ABC Insurance Co. 2005 WI 18
, 278 Wis. 2d 251
, 692 N.W.2d 639
Sub. (4) does not: 1) nullify the state constitutional right to have a jury assess damages under Art. I, s 5; 2) violate separation of powers principles by blurring the boundaries between judicial and legislative branches; 3) violate constitutional equal protection guarantees; and 4) does not violate substantive due process. Maurin v. Hall, 2004 WI 100
, 274 Wis. 2d 28
, 682 N.W.2d 866
. Partially overruled on other grounds. Bartholomew v. Wisconsin Patients Compensation Fund, 2006 WI 91
, 293 Wis. 2d 38
, 717 N.W.2d 26
The jury award of noneconomic damages for pre-death claims, namely the claim for the decedent's pre-death pain and suffering, and the jury award for pre-death loss of society and companionship are governed by the cap set forth in the medical malpractice statutes, s. 893.55, and not the wrongful death statute, this section. Bartholomew v. Wisconsin Patients Compensation Fund, 2006 WI 91
, 293 Wis. 2d 38
, 717 N.W.2d 216
Parents of minor children have separate claims for pre-death and post-death loss of society and companionship, and damages are not capped by the wrongful-death limit. Hegarty v. Beauchaine, 2006 WI App 248
, 297 Wis. 2d 70
, 727 N.W.2d 857