A participant in a recreational activity that includes physical contact between persons in a sport involving amateur teams, including teams in recreational, municipal, high school and college leagues, may be liable for an injury inflicted on another participant during and as part of that sport in a tort action only if the participant who caused the injury acted recklessly or with intent to cause injury.
Unless the professional league establishes a clear policy with a different standard, a participant in an athletic activity that includes physical contact between persons in a sport involving professional teams in a professional league may be liable for an injury inflicted on another participant during and as part of that sport in a tort action only if the participant who caused the injury acted recklessly or with intent to cause injury.
(5) Effect on related provisions.
Nothing in this section affects the limitation of property owners' liability under s. 895.52
or the limitation of school districts' liability, of school boards' liability, and of liability of governing bodies of charter schools under s. 895.523
This section codifies common law. It does not impose a greater duty of care on individuals than exists at common law. Rockweit v. Senecal, 197 Wis. 2d 409
, 541 N.W.2d 742
Sub. (3) does not mean that all who ski are negligent under all circumstances. Sub. (3) and (4) when read together impose an obligation of ordinary care on a skier to avoid foreseeable harms, including adherence to the conditions enumerated in sub. (4). Ansani v. Cascade Mountain, Inc. 223 Wis. 2d 39
, 588 N.W.2d 321
(Ct. App. 1998), 97-3514
Cheerleaders are immune from negligence actions because they participate in a recreational activity that includes physical contact between persons in a sport involving amateur teams. Cheerleading is a sport because a sport is an activity involving physical exertion and skill that is governed by a set of rules or customs. Cheerleaders are on amateur teams because a team is a group organized to work together and cheerleaders are a group dedicated to leading fan participation and taking part in competitions. Cheerleading involves a significant amount of contact among the participants that at times can produce a forceful interaction between the cheerleaders when one person is tossed high into the air and then caught by those same tossers. Noffke v. Bakke, 2009 WI 10
, 315 Wis. 2d 350
, 760 N.W.2d 156
Go Team! Wisconsin's Latest Recreational Immunity controversy. Condon. Wis. Law. June 2009.
Participation in a snow sport; restrictions on civil liability, assumption of risk. 895.526(1)
All definitions in s. 167.33
apply to this section unless the context otherwise requires.
(2) Appreciation of conditions and risk of participation in a snow sport. 895.526(2)(a)(a)
Every participant in a snow sport at a ski area accepts the conditions and risks of the snow sport as set forth in s. 167.33 (2)
Every participant in a snow sport at a ski area is presumed to have seen and understood signage provided by the ski area operator pursuant to s. 167.33 (3)
Every participant in a snow sport at a ski area accepts that failure to wear a helmet or wearing a helmet that is improperly sized, fitted, or secured increases the risk of injury or death or the risk of a more severe injury. Every participant in a snow sport at a ski area accepts that a helmet may not be available for purchase or for rent at a ski area.
Every participant in a snow sport at a ski area accepts that natural or man-made items or obstacles within a ski area, including ski area infrastructure and ski area vehicles, may be unpadded or not heavily padded and accepts that there may be a higher risk of injury or death or of a more severe injury associated with a collision with an item or obstacle that is unpadded or not heavily padded.
(3) Responsibilities of a participant in a snow sport.
Every participant in a snow sport is responsible to do all of the following:
Choose whether to wear a helmet while participating in the snow sport. If the participant chooses to wear a helmet, he or she has the responsibility to ensure the helmet is of the correct size and fit and to ensure that it is properly secured while he or she participates in the snow sport.
(4) Limits on liability for a ski area operator; release and liability of a participant. 895.526(4)(a)(a)
A ski operator who fulfills all of his or her duties under s. 167.33 (3)
owes no further duty of care to a participant in a snow sport and is not liable for an injury or death that occurs as a result of any condition or risk accepted by the participant under sub. (2)
A participant involved in a collision with any other participant or with a nonparticipant may be liable for an injury or death that occurs as a result of the collision.
(5) Effect on related provision.
Nothing in this section affects the limitation of a property owner's liability under s. 895.52
History: 2011 a. 199
Sport shooting range activities; limitations on liability and restrictions on operation. 895.527(1)
In this section, "sport shooting range" means an area designed and operated for the use and discharge of firearms.
A person who owns or operates a sport shooting range is immune from civil liability related to noise resulting from the operation of the sport shooting range.
A person who owns or operates a sport shooting range is not subject to an action for nuisance or to zoning conditions related to noise and no court may enjoin or restrain the operation or use of a sport shooting range on the basis of noise.
Any sport shooting range that exists on June 18, 2010, may continue to operate as a sport shooting range at that location notwithstanding any zoning ordinance enacted under s. 59.69
or 62.23 (7)
, if the sport shooting range is a lawful use or a legal nonconforming use under any zoning ordinance enacted under s. 59.69
or 62.23 (7)
that is in effect on June 18, 2010. The operation of the sport shooting range continues to be a lawful use or legal nonconforming use notwithstanding any expansion of, or enhancement or improvement to, the sport shooting range.
Any sport shooting range that exists on June 18, 1998, may continue to operate as a sport shooting range at that location notwithstanding all of the following:
A city, village town or county may regulate the hours between 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. that an outdoor sport shooting range may operate, except that such a regulation may not apply to a law enforcement officer as defined in s. 165.85 (2) (c)
, a member of the U.S. armed forces or a private security person as defined in s. 440.26 (1m) (h)
who meets all of the requirements under s. 167.31 (4) (a) 4.
A person who is shooting in the customary or a generally acceptable manner at a sport shooting range between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m. is presumed to not be engaging in disorderly conduct merely because of the noise caused by the shooting.
This section does not prohibit the application of a zoning ordinance to a sport shooting range unless the range was a lawful use under the ordinance as of June 18, 1998. Town of Avon v. Edgar Oliver, 2002 WI App 97
, 253 Wis. 2d 647
, 644 N.W.2d 260
Civil liability limitation; duty of care owed to trespassers. 895.529(1)(a)
"Possessor of real property" means an owner, lessee, tenant, or other lawful occupant of real property.
"Trespasser" means a natural person who enters or remains upon property in possession of another without express or implied consent.
Except as provided in sub. (3)
, a possessor of real property owes no duty of care to a trespasser.
A possessor of real property may be liable for injury or death to a trespasser under the following circumstances:
The possessor of real property willfully, wantonly, or recklessly caused the injury or death. This paragraph does not apply if the possessor used reasonable and necessary force for the purpose of self-defense or the defense of others under s. 939.48
or used reasonable and necessary force for the protection of property under s. 939.49
The person injured or killed was a child and all of the following apply:
The possessor of real property maintained, or allowed to exist, an artificial condition on the property that was inherently dangerous to children.
The possessor of real property knew or should have known that children trespassed on the property.
The possessor of real property knew or should have known that the artificial condition he or she maintained or allowed to exist was inherently dangerous to children and involved an unreasonable risk of serious bodily harm or death to children.
The injured or killed child, because of his or her youth or tender age, did not discover the condition or realize the risk involved in entering onto the property, or in playing in close proximity to the inherently dangerous artificial condition.
The possessor of real property could have reasonably provided safeguards that would have obviated the inherent danger without interfering with the purpose for which the artificial condition was maintained or allowed to exist.
This section does not create or increase any liability on the part of a possessor of real property for circumstances not specified under this section and does not affect any immunity from or defenses to liability available to a possessor of real property under common law or another statute.
History: 2011 a. 93
Civil and criminal liability exemption; tests for intoxication. 895.53(1)(a)
"Conservation warden" means a person appointed as a conservation warden by the department of natural resources under s. 23.10 (1)
Any person withdrawing blood at the request of a traffic officer, law enforcement officer or conservation warden for the purpose of determining the presence or quantity of alcohol, controlled substances, controlled substance analogs or any combination of alcohol, controlled substances and controlled substance analogs is immune from any civil or criminal liability for the act, except for civil liability for negligence in the performance of the act.
Any employer of the person under sub. (2)
or any hospital where blood is withdrawn by that person has the same immunity from liability under sub. (2)
History: 1983 a. 535
; 1983 a. 538
; Stats. 1983 s. 895.53; 1985 a. 331
; 1995 a. 448
; 2005 a. 155
Liability exemption; notification of release.
A person is immune from any liability regarding any act or omission regarding the notification of any applicable office or person under s. 51.37 (10)
, 304.06 (1)
, 971.17 (4m)
. This section does not apply to willful or wanton acts or omissions.
History: 1991 a. 269
; 1993 a. 479
Liability exemption; oil discharge control. 895.55(1)(a)
"Damages" means those damages specified in 33 USC 2702
(b) (2) and includes the cost of assessing those damages.
"Discharge" means, but is not limited to, spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying or dumping.
"Federal on-scene coordinator" means the federal official designated by the federal environmental protection agency or the U.S. coast guard to coordinate and direct responses under the national contingency plan.
"Oil" means petroleum, hydrocarbon, vegetable or mineral oil of any kind or in any form and includes oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil.
"Person" means an individual, owner, operator, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, association, municipality, interstate agency, state agency or federal agency.
"Removal" means the containment and elimination of oil from water, shorelines and beaches or the taking of other actions, including disposal, as may be necessary to minimize or mitigate damages to public health and welfare, including to fish, shellfish, wildlife and public or private property, shorelines and beaches.
"Removal costs" means the costs of removal that are incurred after an oil discharge occurs or, if there is a substantial threat of an oil discharge, the costs to prevent, minimize or mitigate an oil discharge.
Notwithstanding any provision of s. 93.57
, subchs. II
and IV of ch. 30
, ch. 29
, or 323
or subch. II of ch. 295
, or any other provision of this chapter, a person is immune from liability for damages resulting from the person's acts or omissions and for the removal costs resulting from the person's acts or omissions if all of the following conditions are met:
Those acts or omissions were taken while rendering assistance, advice or care related to the threat of an oil discharge into the navigable waters of this state or related to the removal of oil resulting from an oil discharge into the navigable waters of this state.
The assistance, advice or care was consistent with the national contingency plan or the state contingency plan or was otherwise directed by the federal on-scene coordinator or the secretary of natural resources.
The immunity under sub. (2)
does not extend to any person:
Who is required to act under s. 292.11 (3)
because the person possessed or controlled the oil that was initially discharged into the navigable waters of this state or caused the initial discharge or initial threat of discharge of the oil into the navigable waters of this state.
Whose act or omission involves gross negligence or reckless, wanton or intentional misconduct.
Who causes personal injury or wrongful death.
A person under sub. (3) (a)
is liable for any damages or removal costs that another person is immune from under sub. (2)
Nothing in this section affects the responsibility of a person under sub. (3) (a)
to fulfill that person's requirements under s. 292.11
Civil liability exemption; anhydrous ammonia. 895.555(1)(1)
Except as provided under sub. (2)
, any person who owns, maintains, or installs anhydrous ammonia equipment, as defined in s. 101.10 (1) (b)
, or who uses anhydrous ammonia for any legal purpose is immune from any civil liability for acts or omissions relating to the anhydrous ammonia equipment or to anhydrous ammonia that cause damage or injury to an individual, if that damage or injury occurs during the individual's violation of s. 101.10 (3) (c)
, or (f)
A person is not immune from civil liability under sub. (1)
if the damage or injury is caused by the person's reckless or wanton acts or omissions or by acts or omissions intended by the person to cause damage or injury.
History: 2001 a. 3
; 2005 a. 14
Liability exemption; handling of petroleum-contaminated soil under contract with the department of transportation.