948.31 Annotation The common law affirmative defense of fraud is not applicable to this section. The circuit court properly prevented the defendant from collaterally attacking the underlying custody order despite his allegations that it was obtained by fraud. State v. Campbell, 2006 WI 99, 294 Wis. 2d 100, 718 N.W.2d 649, 04-0803.
948.31 Annotation For a violation of the "withholds a child for more than 12 hours" provision of sub. (2), the state must prove 3 elements: 1) on the date of the alleged offense, the child was under the age of 18 years; 2) the defendant withheld the child for more than 12 hours from the child's parents; and 3) the child's parents did not consent. There is no requirement that the state prove that the defendant had the parents' initial permission to take the child. State v. Ziegler, 2012 WI 73, 342 Wis. 2d 256, 816 N.W.2d 238, 10-2514.
948.40 948.40 Contributing to the delinquency of a child.
948.40(1)(1) No person may intentionally encourage or contribute to the delinquency of a child. This subsection includes intentionally encouraging or contributing to an act by a child under the age of 10 which would be a delinquent act if committed by a child 10 years of age or older.
948.40(2) (2) No person responsible for the child's welfare may, by disregard of the welfare of the child, contribute to the delinquency of the child. This subsection includes disregard that contributes to an act by a child under the age of 10 that would be a delinquent act if committed by a child 10 years of age or older.
948.40(3) (3) Under this section, a person encourages or contributes to the delinquency of a child although the child does not actually become delinquent if the natural and probable consequences of the person's actions or failure to take action would be to cause the child to become delinquent.
948.40(4) (4) A person who violates this section is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor, except:
948.40(4)(a) (a) If death is a consequence, the person is guilty of a Class D felony; or
948.40(4)(b) (b) If the child's act which is encouraged or contributed to is a violation of a state or federal criminal law which is punishable as a felony, the person is guilty of a Class H felony.
948.40 History History: 1987 a. 332; 1989 a. 31; 1995 a. 77; 2001 a. 109.
948.40 Annotation The punishments for first-degree reckless homicide by delivery of a controlled substance under s. 940.02 (2) (a) and contributing to the delinquency of a child with death as a consequence in violation of subs. (1) and (4) (a) are not multiplicitous when both convictions arise from the same death. State v. Patterson, 2010 WI 130, 329 Wis. 2d 599, 790 N.W.2d 909, 08-1968.
948.40 Annotation Sub. (1) proscribes contributing to the delinquency of any child under the age of eighteen. The definition of "child" in s. 948.01 (1) excludes those over seventeen only for the "purposes of prosecuting" a person charged with violating this section and not that person's victim. State v. Patterson, 2010 WI 130, 329 Wis. 2d 599, 790 N.W.2d 909, 08-1968.
948.45 948.45 Contributing to truancy.
948.45(1) (1) Except as provided in sub. (2), any person 17 years of age or older who, by any act or omission, knowingly encourages or contributes to the truancy, as defined under s. 118.16 (1) (c), of a person 17 years of age or under is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor.
948.45(2) (2)Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who has under his or her control a child who has been sanctioned under s. 49.26 (1) (h).
948.45(3) (3) An act or omission contributes to the truancy of a child, whether or not the child is adjudged to be in need of protection or services, if the natural and probable consequences of that act or omission would be to cause the child to be truant.
948.45 History History: 1987 a. 285; 1989 a. 31 s. 2835m; Stats. 1989 s. 948.45; 1995 a. 27.
948.50 948.50 Strip search by school employee.
948.50(1) (1) The legislature intends, by enacting this section, to protect pupils from being strip searched. By limiting the coverage of this section, the legislature is not condoning the use of strip searches under other circumstances.
948.50(2) (2) In this section:
948.50(2)(a) (a) "School" means a public school, parochial or private school, or tribal school, as defined in s. 115.001 (15m), which provides an educational program for one or more grades between kindergarten and grade 12 and which is commonly known as a kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, junior high school, senior high school, or high school.
948.50(2)(b) (b) "Strip search" means a search in which a person's genitals, pubic area, buttock or anus, or a female person's breast, is uncovered and either is exposed to view or is touched by a person conducting the search.
948.50(3) (3) Any official, employee or agent of any school or school district who conducts a strip search of any pupil is guilty of a Class B misdemeanor.
948.50(4) (4) This section does not apply to a search of any person who:
948.50(4)(a) (a) Is serving a sentence, pursuant to a conviction, in a jail, state prison or house of correction.
948.50(4)(b) (b) Is placed in or transferred to a juvenile correctional facility, as defined in s. 938.02 (10p), or a secured residential care center for children and youth, as defined in s. 938.02 (15g).
948.50(4)(c) (c) Is committed, transferred or admitted under ch. 51, 971 or 975.
948.50(5) (5) This section does not apply to any law enforcement officer conducting a strip search under s. 968.255.
948.50 History History: 1983 a. 489; 1987 a. 332 s. 38; Stats. 1987 s. 948.50; 1995 a. 77; 2005 a. 344; 2009 a. 302.
948.51 948.51 Hazing.
948.51(1)(1) In this section "forced activity" means any activity which is a condition of initiation or admission into or affiliation with an organization, regardless of a student's willingness to participate in the activity.
948.51(2) (2) No person may intentionally or recklessly engage in acts which endanger the physical health or safety of a student for the purpose of initiation or admission into or affiliation with any organization operating in connection with a school, college or university. Under those circumstances, prohibited acts may include any brutality of a physical nature, such as whipping, beating, branding, forced consumption of any food, liquor, drug or other substance, forced confinement or any other forced activity which endangers the physical health or safety of the student.
948.51(3) (3) Whoever violates sub. (2) is guilty of:
948.51(3)(a) (a) A Class A misdemeanor if the act results in or is likely to result in bodily harm to another.
948.51(3)(b) (b) A Class H felony if the act results in great bodily harm to another.
948.51(3)(c) (c) A Class G felony if the act results in the death of another.
948.51 History History: 1983 a. 356; 1987 a. 332 s. 32; Stats. 1987 s. 948.51; 2001 a. 109.
948.53 948.53 Child unattended in child care vehicle.
948.53(1) (1) Definitions. In this section:
948.53(1)(a) (a) "Child care provider" means a child care center that is licensed under s. 48.65 (1), a child care provider that is certified under s. 48.651, or a child care program that is established or contracted for under s. 120.13 (14).
948.53(1)(b) (b) "Child care vehicle" means a vehicle that is owned or leased by a child care provider or a contractor of a child care provider and that is used to transport children to and from the child care provider.
948.53(2) (2)No child left unattended.
948.53(2)(a)(a) No person responsible for a child's welfare while the child is being transported in a child care vehicle may leave the child unattended at any time from the time the child is placed in the care of that person to the time the child is placed in the care of another person responsible for the child's welfare.
948.53(2)(b) (b) Any person who violates par. (a) is guilty of one of the following:
948.53(2)(b)1. 1. A Class A misdemeanor.
948.53(2)(b)2. 2. A Class I felony if bodily harm is a consequence.
948.53(2)(b)3. 3. A Class H felony if great bodily harm is a consequence.
948.53(2)(b)4. 4. A Class G felony if death is a consequence.
948.53 History History: 2005 a. 184; 2007 a. 80; 2009 a. 185.
948.55 948.55 Leaving or storing a loaded firearm within the reach or easy access of a child.
948.55(1) (1) In this section, "child" means a person who has not attained the age of 14 years.
948.55(2) (2) Whoever recklessly stores or leaves a loaded firearm within the reach or easy access of a child is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor if all of the following occur:
948.55(2)(a) (a) A child obtains the firearm without the lawful permission of his or her parent or guardian or the person having charge of the child.
948.55(2)(b) (b) The child under par. (a) discharges the firearm and the discharge causes bodily harm or death to himself, herself or another.
948.55(3) (3) Whoever recklessly stores or leaves a loaded firearm within the reach or easy access of a child is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor if all of the following occur:
948.55(3)(a) (a) A child obtains the firearm without the lawful permission of his or her parent or guardian or the person having charge of the child.
948.55(3)(b) (b) The child under par. (a) possesses or exhibits the firearm in a public place or in violation of s. 941.20.
948.55(4) (4)Subsections (2) and (3) do not apply under any of the following circumstances:
948.55(4)(a) (a) The firearm is stored or left in a securely locked box or container or in a location that a reasonable person would believe to be secure.
948.55(4)(b) (b) The firearm is securely locked with a trigger lock.
948.55(4)(c) (c) The firearm is left on the person's body or in such proximity to the person's body that he or she could retrieve it as easily and quickly as if carried on his or her body.
948.55(4)(d) (d) The person is a peace officer or a member of the armed forces or national guard and the child obtains the firearm during or incidental to the performance of the person's duties. Notwithstanding s. 939.22 (22), for purposes of this paragraph, peace officer does not include a commission warden who is not a state-certified commission warden.
948.55(4)(e) (e) The child obtains the firearm as a result of an illegal entry by any person.
948.55(4)(f) (f) The child gains access to a loaded firearm and uses it in the lawful exercise of a privilege under s. 939.48.
948.55(4)(g) (g) The person who stores or leaves a loaded firearm reasonably believes that a child is not likely to be present where the firearm is stored or left.
948.55(4)(h) (h) The firearm is rendered inoperable by the removal of an essential component of the firing mechanism such as the bolt in a breech-loading firearm.
948.55(5) (5)Subsection (2) does not apply if the bodily harm or death resulted from an accident that occurs while the child is using the firearm in accordance with s. 29.304 or 948.60 (3).
948.55 History History: 1991 a. 139; 1997 a. 248; 2007 a. 27.
948.60 948.60 Possession of a dangerous weapon by a person under 18.
948.60(1)(1) In this section, "dangerous weapon" means any firearm, loaded or unloaded; any electric weapon, as defined in s. 941.295 (1c) (a); metallic knuckles or knuckles of any substance which could be put to the same use with the same or similar effect as metallic knuckles; a nunchaku or any similar weapon consisting of 2 sticks of wood, plastic or metal connected at one end by a length of rope, chain, wire or leather; a cestus or similar material weighted with metal or other substance and worn on the hand; a shuriken or any similar pointed star-like object intended to injure a person when thrown; or a manrikigusari or similar length of chain having weighted ends.
948.60(2) (2)
948.60(2)(a)(a) Any person under 18 years of age who possesses or goes armed with a dangerous weapon is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
948.60(2)(b) (b) Except as provided in par. (c), any person who intentionally sells, loans or gives a dangerous weapon to a person under 18 years of age is guilty of a Class I felony.
948.60(2)(c) (c) Whoever violates par. (b) is guilty of a Class H felony if the person under 18 years of age under par. (b) discharges the firearm and the discharge causes death to himself, herself or another.
948.60(2)(d) (d) A person under 17 years of age who has violated this subsection is subject to the provisions of ch. 938 unless jurisdiction is waived under s. 938.18 or the person is subject to the jurisdiction of a court of criminal jurisdiction under s. 938.183.
948.60(3) (3)
948.60(3)(a)(a) This section does not apply to a person under 18 years of age who possesses or is armed with a dangerous weapon when the dangerous weapon is being used in target practice under the supervision of an adult or in a course of instruction in the traditional and proper use of the dangerous weapon under the supervision of an adult. This section does not apply to an adult who transfers a dangerous weapon to a person under 18 years of age for use only in target practice under the adult's supervision or in a course of instruction in the traditional and proper use of the dangerous weapon under the adult's supervision.
948.60(3)(b) (b) This section does not apply to a person under 18 years of age who is a member of the armed forces or national guard and who possesses or is armed with a dangerous weapon in the line of duty. This section does not apply to an adult who is a member of the armed forces or national guard and who transfers a dangerous weapon to a person under 18 years of age in the line of duty.
948.60(3)(c) (c) This section applies only to a person under 18 years of age who possesses or is armed with a rifle or a shotgun if the person is in violation of s. 941.28 or is not in compliance with ss. 29.304 and 29.593. This section applies only to an adult who transfers a firearm to a person under 18 years of age if the person under 18 years of age is not in compliance with ss. 29.304 and 29.593 or to an adult who is in violation of s. 941.28.
948.60 Annotation Sub. (2) (b) does not set a standard for civil liability, and a violation of sub. (2) (b) does not constitute negligence per se. Logarto v. Gustafson, 998 F. Supp. 998 (1998).
948.605 948.605 Gun-free school zones.
948.605(1) (1) Definitions. In this section:
948.605(1)(a) (a) "Encased" has the meaning given in s. 167.31 (1) (b).
948.605(1)(ac) (ac) "Firearm" does not include any beebee or pellet-firing gun that expels a projectile through the force of air pressure or any starter pistol.
948.605(1)(am) (am) "Motor vehicle" has the meaning given in s. 340.01 (35).
948.605(1)(b) (b) "School" has the meaning given in s. 948.61 (1) (b).
948.605(1)(c) (c) "School zone" means any of the following:
948.605(1)(c)1. 1. In or on the grounds of a school.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2013 Wis. Act 380 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before Oct. 4, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after Oct. 4, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 10-4-14)