Except as provided in sub. (13h)
, "retailer engaged in business in this state", unless otherwise limited by federal statute, for purposes of the use tax, means any of the following:
Any retailer owning any real property in this state or leasing or renting out any tangible personal property located in this state or maintaining, occupying or using, permanently or temporarily, directly or indirectly, or through a subsidiary, or agent, by whatever name called, an office, place of distribution, sales or sample room or place, warehouse or storage place or other place of business in this state.
Any retailer having any representative, agent, salesperson, canvasser or solicitor operating in this state under the authority of the retailer or its subsidiary for the purpose of selling, delivering or the taking of orders for any tangible personal property or taxable services.
"Retailer engaged in business in this state", notwithstanding sub. (13g)
, beginning on the applicable date does not include a foreign corporation that is the publisher of printed materials the only activities of which in this state do not exceed the storage of its raw materials for any length of time in this state in or on property owned by a person other than the foreign corporation and the delivery of its raw materials to another person in this state if that storage and delivery are for printing by that other person, and the purchase from a printer of a printing service or of printed materials in this state for the publisher and the storage of the printed materials for any length of time in this state in or on property owned by a person other than the publisher and do not exceed maintaining, occupying and using, directly or by means of another person, a place that is in this state, that is not owned by the publisher and that is used for the distribution of printed materials. In this subsection, "applicable date" for publishers of books and periodicals other than catalogs means January 1, 1980, and for all other publishers means January 1, 1990. In this subsection "raw materials" means tangible personal property which becomes an ingredient or component part of the printed materials or which is consumed or destroyed or loses its identity in the printing of the printed materials.
Any person purchasing from a retailer as defined in sub. (13)
shall be deemed the consumer of the tangible personal property or services purchased.
"Sale", "sale, lease or rental", "retail sale", "sale at retail", or equivalent terms include any one or all of the following: the transfer of the ownership of, title to, possession of, or enjoyment of tangible personal property or services for use or consumption but not for resale as tangible personal property or services and includes:
Any sale at an auction in respect to tangible personal property which is sold to a successful bidder. The proceeds from the sale of property sold at auction which is bid in by the seller and on which title does not pass to a new purchaser shall be deducted from the gross proceeds of the sale and the tax paid only on the net proceeds.
The furnishing or distributing of tangible personal property or taxable services for a consideration by social clubs and fraternal organizations to their members or others.
A transaction whereby the possession of tangible personal property is transferred but the seller retains the title as security for the payment of the price.
The delivery in this state of tangible personal property by an owner or former owner thereof or by a factor, or agent of such owner, former owner or factor, if the delivery is to a consumer or person for redelivery to a consumer, pursuant to a retail sale made by a retailer not engaged in business in this state. The person making the delivery shall include the retail selling price of the property in that person's gross receipts.
The furnishing, preparing or serving for consideration of food, meals, confections or drinks.
A sale of tangible personal property to a contractor or subcontractor for use in the performance of contracts with the United States or its instrumentalities for the construction of improvements on or to real property.
A transfer for a consideration of the title or possession of tangible personal property which has been produced, fabricated or printed to the special order of the customer or of any publication.
Sales of building materials, supplies and equipment to owners, contractors, subcontractors or builders for the erection of buildings or structures or the alteration, repair or improvement of real property. Such transactions are deemed retail sales in whatsoever quantity sold.
The granting of possession of tangible personal property by a lessor to a lessee, or to another person at the direction of the lessee. Such a transaction is deemed a continuing sale in this state by the lessor for the duration of the lease as respects any period of time the leased property is situated in this state, irrespective of the time or place of delivery of the property to the lessee or such other person.
Any sale of tangible personal property to a purchaser even though such property may be used or consumed by some other person to whom such purchaser transfers the tangible personal property without valuable consideration, such as gifts, and advertising specialties distributed gratis apart from the sale of other tangible personal property or service.
Transfers by a service provider of tangible personal property in conjunction with but not incidental to the selling, performing or furnishing of any service, and transfers by a service provider selling, performing or furnishing services under s. 77.52 (2) (a) 7.
This subsection does not apply to sub. (2)
The transfer of property to a corporation upon its organization solely in consideration for the issuance of its stock;
The contribution of property to a newly formed partnership solely in consideration for a partnership interest therein;
The contribution of property to a limited liability company upon its organization solely in consideration for a membership interest;
The transfer of property to a corporation, solely in consideration for the issuance of its stock, pursuant to a merger or consolidation;
The transfer of property to a limited liability company, solely in consideration for a membership interest, pursuant to a merger;
The distribution of property by a corporation to its stockholders as a dividend or in whole or partial liquidation;
The distribution of property by a partnership to its partners in whole or partial liquidation;
The distribution of property by a limited liability company to its members in whole or partial liquidation;
Repossession of property by the seller from the purchaser when the only consideration is cancellation of the purchaser's obligation to pay the remaining balance of the purchase price;
The transfer of property in a reorganization as defined in section 368
of the internal revenue code in which no gain or loss is recognized for franchise or income tax purposes; or
Any transfer of all or substantially all the property held or used by a person in the course of an activity requiring the holding of a seller's permit, if after the transfer the real or ultimate ownership of the property is substantially similar to that which existed before the transfer. For the purposes of this section, stockholders, bondholders, partners, members or other persons holding an interest in a corporation or other entity are regarded as having the real or ultimate ownership of the property of the corporation or other entity. In this paragraph, "substantially similar" means 80% or more of ownership.
A sale or purchase involving transfer of ownership of property shall be deemed to have been completed at the time and place when and where possession is transferred by the seller or the seller's agent to the purchaser or the purchaser's agent, except that for purposes of this subsection a common carrier or the U.S. postal service shall be deemed the agent of the seller, regardless of any f.o.b. point and regardless of the method by which freight or postage is paid.
"Sales price" means the total amount for which tangible personal property is sold, leased or rented, valued in money, whether paid in money or otherwise, without any deduction on account of any of the following:
The cost of the materials used, labor or service cost, losses or any other expenses;
The cost of transportation of the property prior to its purchase;
Any tax included in or added to the purchase price including the taxes imposed by ss. 78.01
and the federal motor fuel tax and including also any manufacturers' or importers' excise tax; but not including any tax imposed by the United States, any other tax imposed by this state, or any tax imposed by any municipality of this state upon or with respect to retail sales whether imposed on the retailer or consumer, if that federal, state or municipal tax is measured by a stated percentage of sales price or gross receipts, and not including the federal communications tax imposed upon the services set forth in s. 77.52 (2) (a) 5.
For the purpose of this subdivision, a tax shall be deemed "imposed upon or with respect to retail sales" only if the retailer is the person who is required to make the payment of the tax to the governmental unit levying the tax.
"Sales price" shall not include any of the following:
The amount charged for property returned by customers when that entire amount is refunded either in cash or credit;
Transportation charges separately stated, if the transportation occurs after the purchase of the property is made.
In all transactions in which an article of tangible personal property is traded toward the purchase of an article of greater value, the sales price shall be only that portion of the purchase price represented by the difference between the full purchase price of the article of greater value and the amount allowed for the article traded.
Thirty-five percent of the total amount for which a new mobile home that is a primary housing unit under s. 340.01 (29)
is sold. No credit may be allowed for trade-ins under subd. 4.
or sub. (4) (b) 3.
This subdivision does not apply to lease or rental.
"Sales price" includes all of the following:
Any services that are a part of the sale of tangible personal property, including any fee, service charge, labor charge or other addition to the price charged a customer by the retailer which represents or is in lieu of a tip or gratuity.
The amount charged for labor or services rendered in installing or applying tangible personal property sold, except the price received for installing or applying property which, when installed or applied, will constitute an addition or capital improvement of real property and provided such amount is separately set forth from the amount charged for the tangible personal property.
"Seller" includes every person selling, leasing or renting tangible personal property or selling, performing or furnishing services of a kind the gross receipts from the sale, lease, rental, performance or furnishing of which are required to be included in the measure of the sales tax.
"Service address" means the location of the telecommunications equipment from which telecommunications services are originated or at which telecommunications services are received by a buyer. If this is not a defined location; as in the case of mobile phones, paging systems, maritime systems, air-to-ground systems and the like; "service address" means the location where a buyer makes primary use of the telecommunications equipment as defined by telephone number, authorization code or location where bills are sent.
"Storage" includes any keeping or retention in this state of tangible personal property purchased from a retailer for any purpose except the following:
Keeping, retaining or exercising any right or power over raw materials by a publisher or printer of printed materials for processing or fabricating or for manufacturing into, attachment to or incorporation into printed materials to be transported, and thereafter used solely, outside this state.
"Tangible personal property" means all tangible personal property of every kind and description and includes electricity, natural gas, steam and water and also leased property affixed to realty if the lessor has the right to remove the property upon breach or termination of the lease agreement, unless the lessor of the property is also the lessor of the realty to which the property is affixed. "Tangible personal property" also includes coins and stamps of the United States sold or traded as collectors' items above their face value and computer programs except custom computer programs.
"Taxpayer" means the person required to pay, collect, account for or who is otherwise directly interested in the taxes imposed by this subchapter.
"Telecommunications services" means sending messages and information transmitted through the use of local, toll and wide-area telephone service; channel services; telegraph services; teletypewriter; computer exchange services; cellular mobile telecommunications service; specialized mobile radio; stationary two-way radio; paging service; or any other form of mobile and portable one-way or two-way communications; or any other transmission of messages or information by electronic or similar means between or among points by wire, cable, fiber optics, laser, microwave, radio, satellite or similar facilities. "Telecommunications services" does not include sending collect telecommunications that are received outside of the state.
"Use" includes the exercise of any right or power over tangible personal property or taxable services incident to the ownership, possession or enjoyment of the property or services, or the results produced by the services, including installation or affixation to real property and including the possession of, or the exercise of any right or power over tangible personal property by a lessee under a lease, except that "use" does not include the activities under sub. (18) (a)
In this subsection "enjoyment" includes a purchaser's right to direct the disposition of property, whether or not the purchaser has possession of the property. "Enjoyment" also includes, but is not limited to, having shipped into this state by an out-of-state supplier printed material which is designed to promote the sale of property or services, or which is otherwise related to the business activities, of the purchaser of the printed material or printing service.
History: 1973 c. 333
; 1975 c. 39
; 1975 c. 413
; 1977 c. 29
; 1979 c. 1
; 1979 c. 174
; 1981 c. 20
; 1981 c. 79
; 1983 a. 23
; 1983 a. 189
, 329 (12)
; 1983 a. 510
; 1983 a. 544
, 47 (1) (b)
; 1985 a. 29
; 1987 a. 27
; 1989 a. 31
; 1991 a. 39
; 1993 a. 16
Tax on personal property assets upheld since seller had permit under sub. (10) (a), 1983 stats. [now sub. (9) (a)]. Ramrod, Inc. v. Dept. of Revenue, 64 W (2d) 499, 219 NW (2d) 604.
Under sub. (18), 1983 stats. [now sub. (2)], building materials includes sale of assembly kit to dealers for construction of Harvestore silo and such dealers are contractors. Where Harvestore was erected on owned land, it is real property for purposes of this section. Dept. of Revenue v. Smith Harvestore Products, 72 W (2d) 60, 240 NW (2d) 357.
Retail sale within meaning of sub. (4), 1983 stats. [now sub. (14)] is the final and ultimate employment of the property which results in its withdrawal from the marketplace. See note to s. 77.52, citing Dept. of Revenue v. Milw. Refining Corp. 80 W (2d) 44, 257 NW (2d) 855.
Provisions of UCC as to time title passes are inapplicable to sales tax law. Application of 77.51 subsections discussed. Harold W. Fuchs Agency, Inc. v. Dept. of Revenue, 91 W (2d) 283, 282 NW (2d) 625 (Ct. App. 1979).
Sale of business assets of taxpayer which held seller's permit was not exempted as "occasional sale" under sub. (10) (a), 1983 stats. [now sub. (9) (a)]. Constitutionality discussed. Midcontinent Broadcasting Co. v. Dept. of Revenue, 98 W (2d) 379, 297 NW (2d) 191 (1980).
Manhole fabricator was not engaged in real property construction activities under (2). Advance Pipe & Supply v. Revenue Dept. 128 W (2d) 431, 383 NW (2d) 502 (Ct. App. 1986).
Photocopying expenses billed to law firm's clients are not subject to sales tax. Frisch, Dudek & Slattery v. Rev. Dept., 133 W (2d) 444, 396 NW (2d) 355 (Ct. App. 1986).
Imposition of retail sales tax. 77.52(1)
For the privilege of selling, leasing or renting tangible personal property, including accessories, components, attachments, parts, supplies and materials, at retail a tax is imposed upon all retailers at the rate of 5% of the gross receipts from the sale, lease or rental of tangible personal property, including accessories, components, attachments, parts, supplies and materials, sold, leased or rented at retail in this state.
The sales tax applies to the receipts of operators of vending machines located on army, navy or air force installations in this state and dispensing tangible personal property. This subsection shall not be deemed to require payment of sales tax measured by receipts of such operators who lease the machines to exchanges of the army, air force, navy or marine corps which acquire title to and sell the merchandise through the machines to authorized purchasers from such exchanges. The term "operator" as used in this subsection, means any person who owns or possesses vending machines and who controls the operations of the machines as by placing the merchandise therein or removing the coins therefrom, and who has access thereto for any purpose connected with the sale of merchandise through the machines, and whose compensation is based, in whole or in part, upon receipts from sales made through such machines.
For the privilege of selling, performing or furnishing the services described under par. (a)
at retail in this state to consumers or users, a tax is imposed upon all persons selling, performing or furnishing the services at the rate of 5% of the gross receipts from the sale, performance or furnishing of the services.
The tax imposed herein applies to the following types of services:
The furnishing of rooms or lodging to transients by hotelkeepers, motel operators and other persons furnishing accommodations that are available to the public, irrespective of whether membership is required for use of the accommodations, including the furnishing of rooms or lodging through the sale of a time-share property, as defined in s. 707.02 (32)
, if the use of the rooms or lodging is not fixed at the time of sale as to the starting day or the lodging unit. In this subdivision, "transient" means any person residing for a continuous period of less than one month in a hotel, motel or other furnished accommodations available to the public. In this subdivision, "hotel" or "motel" means a building or group of buildings in which the public may obtain accommodations for a consideration, including, without limitation, such establishments as inns, motels, tourist homes, tourist houses or courts, lodging houses, rooming houses, summer camps, apartment hotels, resort lodges and cabins and any other building or group of buildings in which accommodations are available to the public, except accommodations, including mobile homes as defined in s. 66.058 (1) (d)
, rented for a continuous period of more than one month and accommodations furnished by any hospitals, sanatoriums, or nursing homes, or by corporations or associations organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable or educational purposes provided that no part of the net earnings of such corporations and associations inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
The sale of admissions to amusement, athletic, entertainment or recreational events or places, the sale, rental or use of regular bingo cards, extra regular cards, special bingo cards and the sale of bingo supplies to players and the furnishing, for dues, fees or other considerations, the privilege of access to clubs or the privilege of having access to or the use of amusement, entertainment, athletic or recreational devices or facilities, including, in connection with the sale or use of time-share property, as defined in s. 707.02 (32)
, the sale or furnishing of use of recreational facilities on a periodic basis or other recreational rights, including but not limited to membership rights, vacation services and club memberships.
The sale of telecommunications services that originate in this state and are charged to a service address in this state, regardless of the location where that charge is billed or paid.
Laundry, dry cleaning, pressing and dyeing services, except when performed on raw materials or goods in process destined for sale, except when performed on cloth diapers by a diaper service and except when the service is performed by the customer through the use of coin-operated, self-service machines.
Photographic services including the processing, printing and enlarging of film as well as the service of photographers for the taking, reproducing and sale of photographs.
Parking or providing parking space for motor vehicles and aircraft for a consideration and docking or providing storage space for boats for a consideration.
Except for installing or applying tangible personal property which, when installed or applied, will constitute an addition or capital improvement of real property, the repair, service, alteration, fitting, cleaning, painting, coating, towing, inspection and maintenance of all items of tangible personal property unless, at the time of such repair, service, alteration, fitting, cleaning, painting, coating, towing, inspection or maintenance, a sale in this state of the type of property repaired, serviced, altered, fitted, cleaned, painted, coated, towed, inspected or maintained would have been exempt to the customer from sales taxation under this subchapter, other than the exempt sale of a motor vehicle or truck body to a nonresident under s. 77.54 (5) (a)
and other than nontaxable sales under s. 77.51 (14r)
. For purposes of this paragraph, the following items shall be deemed to have retained their character as tangible personal property, regardless of the extent to which any such item is fastened to, connected with or built into real property: furnaces, boilers, stoves, ovens, including associated hoods and exhaust systems, heaters, air conditioners, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, refrigerators, coolers, freezers, water pumps, water heaters, water conditioners and softeners, clothes washers, clothes dryers, dishwashers, garbage disposal units, radios and radio antennas, incinerators, television receivers and antennas, record players, tape players, jukeboxes, vacuum cleaners, furniture and furnishings, carpeting and rugs, bathroom fixtures, sinks, awnings, blinds, gas and electric logs, heat lamps, electronic dust collectors, grills and rotisseries, bar equipment, intercoms, recreational, sporting, gymnasium and athletic goods and equipment including by way of illustration but not of limitation bowling alleys, golf practice equipment, pool tables, punching bags, ski tows and swimming pools; office, restaurant and tavern type equipment including by way of illustration but not of limitation lamps, chandeliers, and fans, venetian blinds, canvas awnings, office and business machines, ice and milk dispensers, beverage-making equipment, vending machines, soda fountains, steam warmers and tables, compressors, condensing units and evaporative condensers, pneumatic conveying systems; laundry, dry cleaning, and pressing machines, power tools, burglar alarm and fire alarm fixtures, electric clocks and electric signs. "Service" does not include services performed by veterinarians.
The producing, fabricating, processing, printing or imprinting of tangible personal property for a consideration for consumers who furnish directly or indirectly the materials used in the producing, fabricating, processing, printing or imprinting. This subdivision does not apply to the printing or imprinting of tangible personal property which will be subsequently transported outside the state for use outside the state by the consumer for advertising purposes.
The sale of cable television system services including installation charges.
The sale of landscaping and lawn maintenance services including landscape planning and counseling, lawn and garden services such as planting, mowing, spraying and fertilizing and shrub and tree services.
For purposes of par. (a) 12.
"cable television system" means any facility which, for a fee, regularly amplifies and transmits by wire, coaxial cable, lightwave or microwave, simultaneously to 50 or more subscribers, programs broadcast by television or radio stations or originated by themselves or any other party. "Cable television system" does not include a master antenna system which serves one residential, commercial or government building or complex of buildings under common ownership or control if that facility does not provide any broadcast signals other than those which may be viewed in that facility.
With respect to the services subject to tax under sub. (2)
, no part of the charge for the service may be deemed a sale or rental of tangible personal property if the property transferred by the service provider is incidental to the selling, performing or furnishing of the service, except as provided in par. (b)
With respect to the services subject to tax under sub. (2) (a) 7.
, all property physically transferred to the customer in conjunction with the selling, performing or furnishing of the service is a sale of tangible personal property separate from the selling, performing or furnishing of the service.
The taxes imposed by this section may be collected from the consumer or user.
It is unlawful for any retailer to advertise or hold out or state to the public or to any customer, directly or indirectly, that the tax or any part thereof will be assumed or absorbed by the retailer or that it will not be added to the selling price of the property sold or that if added it, or any part thereof, will be refunded. Any person who violates this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor.
The department may by rule provide that the amount collected by the retailer from the consumer or user in reimbursement of the retailer's tax be displayed separately from the list price, the price advertised in the premises, the marked price, or other price on the sales check or other proof of sale.
A retailer is relieved from liability for sales tax insofar as the measure of the tax is represented by accounts which have been found to be worthless and charged off for income or franchise tax purposes. If the retailer has previously paid the tax, the retailer may, under rules prescribed by the department, take as a deduction from the measure of the tax the amount found worthless and charged off for income or franchise tax purposes. If any such accounts are thereafter collected in whole or in part by the retailer, the amount as collected shall be included in the first return filed after such collection and the tax paid with the return.