WAGE PAYMENTS, CLAIMS AND COLLECTIONS
When wages payable; pay orders.
Mergers, liquidations, dispositions, relocations or cessation of operations affecting employees; advance notice required.
Cessation of health care benefits affecting employees, retirees and dependents; advance notice required.
Wage claims, collection.
Ch. 109 Note
NOTE: Ch. 380, laws of 1975, which created this chapter, contains explanatory notes. These notes also are in statutes prior to the 1983-84 edition.
As used in this chapter:
"Department" means the department of workforce development.
"Employee" means any person employed by an employer, except that "employee" does not include an officer or director of a corporation, a member or manager of a limited liability company, a partner of a partnership or a joint venture, the owner of a sole proprietorship, an independent contractor, or a person employed in a managerial, executive, or commissioned sales capacity or in a capacity in which the person is privy to confidential matters involving the employer-employee relationship.
Except as provided in ss. 109.07 (1) (d)
and 109.075 (1) (c)
, "employer" means any person engaged in any activity, enterprise or business employing one or more persons within the state, including the state and its political subdivisions and charitable, nonprofit or tax-exempt organizations and institutions.
"Wage" or "wages" mean remuneration payable to an employee for personal services, including salaries, commissions, holiday and vacation pay, overtime pay, severance pay or dismissal pay, supplemental unemployment benefit plan payments when required under a binding collective bargaining agreement, bonuses and any other similar advantages agreed upon between the employer and the employee or provided by the employer to the employees as an established policy.
"Wage deficiency" means the difference between the amount required by law to be paid and the amount actually paid to an employee.
"Wages" does not include salary owed under a fixed term contract to a discharged employee for the period from the discharge to the end of the contract. DILHR v. Coatings, Inc. 126 Wis. 2d 338
, 375 N.W.2d 834
When wages payable; pay orders. 109.03(1)
Required frequency of payments.
Every employer shall as often as monthly pay to every employee engaged in the employer's business, except those employees engaged in logging operations and farm labor, all wages earned by the employee to a day not more than 31 days prior to the date of payment. Employees engaged in logging operations and farm labor shall be paid all earned wages no less often than at regular quarterly intervals. Any employee who is absent at the time fixed for payment or who for any other reason is not paid at that time shall be paid thereafter at any time upon 6 days' demand. The required frequency of wage payments provided in this subsection does not apply to any of the following:
Employees covered under a valid collective bargaining agreement establishing a different frequency for wage payments, including deferred payments exercised at the option of employees.
School district and private school employees who voluntarily request payment over a 12-month period for personal services performed during the school year, unless such employees are covered under a valid collective bargaining agreement which precludes this method of payment.
Unclassified employees of the University of Wisconsin System.
Employees who receive compensatory time off under s. 103.025
in lieu of overtime compensation.
(2) Payment to discharged or resigned employees.
Any employee, except a sales agent employed on a commission basis, not having a written contract for a definite period, who quits employment or who is discharged from employment shall be paid in full by no later than the date on which the employee regularly would have been paid under the employer's established payroll schedule or the date of payment required under sub. (1)
, whichever is earlier.
(3) Payment upon death of employee. 109.03(3)(a)(a)
In case of the death of an employee to whom wages are due, the full amount of the wages due shall upon demand be paid by the employer to the spouse, children, or other dependent living with the employee at the time of death.
An employer may, not less than 5 days after the death of an employee and before the filing of a petition or application for administration of the decedent's estate, make payments of the wage due the deceased employee to the spouse, children, parents, or siblings of the decedent, giving preference in the order listed.
If none of the relatives listed in par. (b)
survives, the employer may apply the payment of the wage or so much of the wage as may be necessary to paying creditors of the decedent in the order of preference prescribed in s. 859.25
for satisfaction of debts by personal representatives.
The making of payment in the manner described in this subsection shall discharge and release the employer to the amount of the payment.
(4) Payment to certain separated employees.
Whenever an employee is separated from the payroll of an employer as a result of the employer merging, liquidating or otherwise disposing of the business, ceasing business operations in whole or in part, or relocating all or part of the business to another area within or without the state, the employer, or the successors in interest of the employer, shall pay all unpaid wages to the employee at the usual place of payment within 24 hours of the time of separation.
Except as provided in sub. (1)
, no employer may by special contract with employees or by any other means secure exemption from this section. Each employee shall have a right of action against any employer for the full amount of the employee's wages due on each regular pay day as provided in this section and for increased wages as provided in s. 109.11 (2)
, in any court of competent jurisdiction. An employee may bring an action against an employer under this subsection without first filing a wage claim with the department under s. 109.09 (1)
. An employee who brings an action against an employer under this subsection shall have a lien upon all property of the employer, real or personal, located in this state as described in s. 109.09 (2)
(6) Wage claim.
In an action by an employee or the department against the employer on a wage claim, no security for payment of costs is required. In any such proceeding the court may allow the prevailing party, in addition to all other costs, a reasonable sum for expenses. No person other than an employee or the department shall be benefited or otherwise affected by this subsection.
(7) Protection of employees. Section 111.322 (2m)
applies to discharge and other discriminatory acts arising in connection with any proceeding under this section.
The award of "expenses" under sub. (6) may include attorney fees. Jacobson v. American Tool Cos., Inc. 222 Wis. 2d 384
, 588 N.W.2d 67
(Ct. App. 1998).
The inclusion of "the state" in the definition of employer at s. 109.01 (2) and the creation of a private cause of action against employers under sub. (5) is a waiver of the state's sovereign immunity. Claims under statutes enumerated in s. 109.09 (1) may be enforced by a private action brought under sub. (5). German v. DOT, 223 Wis. 2d 525
, 589 N.W.2d 651
(Ct. App. 1998). Affirmed. 2000 WI 62, 235 Wis. 2d 576
, 612 N.W.2d 50
When an employer repudiates the contractual remedies of a collective bargaining agreement, employees are allowed to proceed under ch. 109 if they are seeking back pay. Beaudette v. Eau Claire Cty Sheriff's Department, 2003 WI App 153, 265 Wis. 2d 744
, 668 N.W.2d 133
Attorney fees are awardable under sub. (6). Jackman v. WMAC Inv. Corp. 610 F. Supp. 290
In determining a reasonable attorney fee under sub. (6), a court starts by determining a reasonable hourly rate and number of hours, then makes adjustments for other factors in SCR 20:1.5 (a)
or any other relevant factors. The court may use its own firsthand knowledge of the proceeding in determining the number of hours reasonably expended. The amount recovered in itself is not a reason to reduce a fee below an amount that represents a reasonable hourly rate. Lynch v. Crossroads Counseling Center, Inc. 2004 WI App 114, ___ Wis. 2d ___, ___ N.W.2d ___, 03-1344
Mergers, liquidations, dispositions, relocations or cessation of operations affecting employees; advance notice required. 109.07(1)(a)
"Affected employee" means an employee who loses, or may reasonably be expected to lose, his or her employment with an employer who is required to give notice under sub. (1m)
because of the business closing or mass layoff.
"Business closing" means a permanent or temporary shutdown of an employment site or of one or more facilities or operating units at an employment site or within a single municipality that affects 25 or more employees, not including new or low-hour employees.
"Employer" means any business enterprise that employs 50 or more persons in this state.
"Highest official" means the mayor of a city, town board chairperson or village president, except as follows:
For a city organized under subch. I of ch. 64
, "highest official" means both the president of the city council and the city manager.
For a village organized under subch. I of ch. 64
, "highest official" means both the president of the village board of trustees and the village manager.
"Mass layoff" means a reduction in an employer's work force that is not the result of a business closing and that affects the following numbers of employees at an employment site or within a single municipality, not including new or low-hour employees:
At least 25% of the employer's work force or 25 employees, whichever is greater; or
"Municipality" means a city, village or town.
"New or low-hour employee" means an employee who has been employed by an employer for fewer than 6 of the 12 months preceding the date on which a notice is required under sub. (1m)
or who averages fewer than 20 hours of work per week.
Subject to sub. (5)
, an employer who has decided upon a business closing or mass layoff in this state shall promptly notify the subunit of the department that administers s. 106.15
, any affected employee, any collective bargaining representative of any affected employee, and the highest official of any municipality in which the affected employment site is located, in writing of such action no later than 60 days prior to the date that the business closing or mass layoff takes place. The employer shall provide in writing all information concerning its payroll, affected employees and the wages and other remuneration owed to such employees as the department may require. The department may in addition require the employer to submit a plan setting forth the manner in which final payment in full shall be made to affected employees. The department shall promptly provide a copy of the notice required under this subsection to the department of commerce and to the office of the commissioner of insurance and shall cooperate with the department of commerce in the performance of its responsibilities under s. 560.15
and with the office of the commissioner of insurance in the performance of its responsibilities under s. 601.41 (7)
. This subsection does not apply to a business closing or mass layoff that is caused by a strike or lockout.
If an employer fails to give timely notice to an affected employee as required under sub. (1m)
, the affected employee may recover, as provided under sub. (4)
, all of the following: