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148.07 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.09 148.09 Medical society may limit indemnification.
148.09(1)(1) A medical society's obligations to indemnify under s. 148.05 may be limited as follows:
148.09(1)(a) (a) With respect to the state medical society or, except as provided in s. 148.02 (4), a county medical society organized under s. 148.02 (1) before June 13, 1987, by an amendment to its constitution or bylaws which becomes effective on or after June 13, 1987.
148.09(1)(b) (b) With respect to a county medical society organized under s. 148.02 (1) on or after June 13, 1987, except as provided in s. 148.02 (4), by its constitution or bylaws, including any amendments to its constitution or bylaws.
148.09(2) (2) A limitation under sub. (1) applies if the first alleged act of a director or officer for which indemnification is sought occurred while the limitation was in effect.
148.09 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.11 148.11 Additional rights to indemnification and allowance of expenses.
148.11(1)(1) Except as provided in sub. (2), ss. 148.05 and 148.07 do not preclude any additional right to indemnification or allowance of expenses that a director or officer may have under any of the following:
148.11(1)(a) (a) The constitution or bylaws.
148.11(1)(b) (b) A written agreement between the director or officer and the medical society.
148.11(1)(c) (c) A resolution of the board of directors.
148.11(1)(d) (d) A resolution, after notice, adopted by a majority vote of members who are entitled to vote.
148.11(2) (2) Regardless of the existence of an additional right under sub. (1), the medical society may not indemnify a director or officer, or permit a director or officer to retain any allowance of expenses unless it is determined by or on behalf of the medical society that the director or officer did not breach or fail to perform a duty he or she owes to the medical society which constitutes conduct under s. 148.05 (2) (a) 1., 2., 3. or 4. A director or officer who is a party to the same or related proceeding for which indemnification or an allowance of expenses is sought may not participate in a determination under this subsection.
148.11(3) (3)Sections 148.04 to 148.17 do not affect a medical society's power to pay or reimburse expenses incurred by a director or officer in any of the following circumstances:
148.11(3)(a) (a) As a witness in a proceeding to which he or she is not a party.
148.11(3)(b) (b) As a plaintiff or petitioner in a proceeding because he or she is or was an employee, agent, director or officer of the medical society.
148.11 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.13 148.13 Court-ordered indemnification.
148.13(1) (1) Except as provided otherwise by written agreement between the director or officer and the medical society, a director or officer who is a party to a proceeding may apply for indemnification to the court conducting the proceeding or to another court of competent jurisdiction. Application shall be made for an initial determination by the court under s. 148.06 (5) or for review by the court of an adverse determination under s. 148.06 (1), (2), (3), (4) or (6). After receipt of an application, the court shall give any notice it considers necessary.
148.13(2) (2) The court shall order indemnification if it determines any of the following:
148.13(2)(a) (a) That the director or officer is entitled to indemnification under s. 148.05 (1) or (2). If the court also determines that the medical society unreasonably refused the director's or officer's request for indemnification, the court shall order the medical society to pay the director's or officer's reasonable expenses incurred to obtain the court-ordered indemnification.
148.13(2)(b) (b) That the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification in view of all the relevant circumstances, regardless of whether indemnification is required under s. 148.05 (2).
148.13 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.15 148.15 Indemnification and allowance of expenses of employees and agents. A medical society may indemnify and allow reasonable expenses of an employee or agent who is not a director or officer to the extent provided by the constitution or bylaws, by general or specific action of the board of directors or by contract.
148.15 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.17 148.17 Insurance. A medical society may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of an individual who is an employee, agent, director or officer of the medical society against liability asserted against and incurred by the individual in his or her capacity as an employee, agent, director or officer, or arising from his or her status as an employee, agent, director or officer, regardless of whether the medical society is required or authorized to indemnify or allow expenses to the individual against the same liability under ss. 148.05, 148.07, 148.11 and 148.15.
148.17 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.19 148.19 Reliance by directors or officers. Unless the director or officer has knowledge that makes reliance unwarranted, a director or officer, in discharging his or her duties to the medical society, may rely on information, opinions, reports or statements, any of which may be written or oral, formal or informal, including financial statements and other financial data, if prepared or presented by any of the following:
148.19(1) (1) An officer or employee of the medical society whom the director or officer believes in good faith to be reliable and competent in the matters presented.
148.19(2) (2) Legal counsel, certified public accountants licensed or certified under ch. 442, or other persons as to matters the director or officer believes in good faith are within the person's professional or expert competence.
148.19(3) (3) In the case of reliance by a director, a committee of the board of directors of which the director is not a member if the director believes in good faith that the committee merits confidence.
148.19 History History: 1987 a. 13; 2001 a. 16.
148.21 148.21 Consideration of interests in addition to members' interests. In discharging his or her duties to the medical society and in determining what he or she believes to be in the best interests of the medical society, a director or officer may, in addition to considering the effects of any action on members, consider the following:
148.21(1) (1) The effects of the action on employees, suppliers and customers of the medical society.
148.21(2) (2) The effects of the action on communities in which the medical society operates.
148.21(3) (3) Any other factors the director or officer considers pertinent.
148.21 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.23 148.23 Limited liability of directors and officers.
148.23(1)(1) Except as provided in subs. (2) and (3), a director or officer is not liable to the medical society, its members or creditors, or any person asserting rights on behalf of the medical society, its members or creditors, or any other person, for damages, settlements, fees, fines, penalties or other monetary liabilities arising from a breach of, or failure to perform, any duty resulting solely from his or her status as a director or officer, unless the person asserting liability proves that the breach or failure to perform constitutes any of the following:
148.23(1)(a) (a) A willful failure to deal fairly with the medical society or its members in connection with a matter in which the director or officer has a material conflict of interest.
148.23(1)(b) (b) A violation of criminal law, unless the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was lawful or no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.
148.23(1)(c) (c) A transaction from which the director or officer derived an improper personal profit.
148.23(1)(d) (d) Willful misconduct.
148.23(2) (2) Except as provided in sub. (3), this section does not apply to any of the following:
148.23(2)(a) (a) A civil or criminal proceeding brought by or on behalf of any governmental unit, authority or agency.
148.23(2)(b) (b) A proceeding brought by any person for a violation of state or federal law where the proceeding is brought pursuant to an express private right of action created by state or federal statute.
148.23(3) (3)Subsection (2) does not apply to a proceeding brought by a governmental unit, authority or agency in its capacity as a private party or contractor.
148.23 History History: 1987 a. 13.
148.23 Annotation Cooperative indemnification. La Rowe and Weine. WBB Sept. 1988.
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