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346.452 346.452 Owner's liability for vehicle illegally crossing at a railroad crossing.
346.452(1) (1) Subject to s. 346.01 (2), the owner of a vehicle involved in a violation of s. 346.44 or 346.45 shall be liable for the violation as provided in this section.
346.452(2) (2) A railroad employee who observes a violation of s. 346.44 or 346.45 may prepare a written report indicating that a violation has occurred. If possible, the report shall contain the following information:
346.452(2)(a) (a) The violation alleged.
346.452(2)(b) (b) The time and the approximate location at which the violation occurred.
346.452(2)(c) (c) The license number and color of the vehicle involved in the violation.
346.452(2)(d) (d) Identification of the vehicle as an automobile, station wagon, motor truck, motor bus, motorcycle, or other type of vehicle.
346.452(3) (3) Within 24 hours after observing the violation, the railroad employee may deliver the report to a traffic officer of the county or municipality in which the violation occurred. A report which does not contain all of the information in sub. (2) shall nevertheless be delivered and shall be maintained by the county or municipality for statistical purposes.
346.452(4) (4)
346.452(4)(a)(a) Within 48 hours after receiving a report containing all of the information in sub. (2) and after verifying the information provided under sub. (2) (c) and (d), the traffic officer may prepare a uniform traffic citation under s. 345.11 and may personally serve it upon the owner of the vehicle.
346.452(4)(b) (b) If with reasonable diligence the owner cannot be served under par. (a), service may be made by leaving a copy of the citation at the owner's usual place of abode within this state in the presence of a competent member of the family at least 14 years of age, who shall be informed of the contents thereof.
346.452(4)(c) (c) If with reasonable diligence the owner cannot be served under par. (a) or (b) or if the owner lives outside of the jurisdiction of the issuing authority, service may be made by certified mail addressed to the owner's last-known address.
346.452(4)(d) (d) In addition to serving the person with the citation under par. (a), (b), or (c), the serving agency shall include a notice that informs the person that he or she may petition the court for a change of venue; of the court costs required for petitioning for a change of venue; and of the procedures for petitioning the court for a change of venue.
346.452(4m) (4m) The venue for the action shall be in the county where the violation occurred, except that the venue shall be in the county where the person is a resident if he or she is a resident of the state and he or she petitions the court for a change of venue to his or her county of residence.
346.452(5) (5)
346.452(5)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), it shall be no defense to a violation of this section that the owner was not operating the vehicle at the time of the violation.
346.452(5)(b) (b) The following are defenses to a violation of this section:
346.452(5)(b)1. 1. That a report that the vehicle was stolen was given to a traffic officer before the violation occurred or within a reasonable time after the violation occurred.
346.452(5)(b)2. 2. If the owner of the vehicle provides a traffic officer with the name and address of the person operating the vehicle at the time of the violation and the person so named admits operating the vehicle at the time of the violation, then the person operating the vehicle and not the owner shall be charged under this section.
346.452(5)(b)3. 3. If the vehicle is owned by a lessor of vehicles and at the time of the violation the vehicle was in the possession of a lessee, and the lessor provides a traffic officer with the information required under s. 343.46 (3), then the lessee and not the lessor shall be charged under this section.
346.452(5)(b)4. 4. If the vehicle is owned by a dealer as defined in s. 340.01 (11) (intro.) but including the persons specified in s. 340.01 (11) (a) to (d), and at the time of the violation the vehicle was being operated by any person on a trial run, and if the dealer provides a traffic officer with the name, address, and operator's license number of the person operating the vehicle, then the person operating the vehicle, and not the dealer, shall be charged under this section.
346.452 History History: 2003 a. 209.
346.455 346.455 Vehicles to stop at fire station.
346.455(1) (1) The operator of a motor vehicle approaching an authorized emergency vehicle shall stop not less than 30 feet from that vehicle and shall remain stopped, if all of the following apply:
346.455(1)(a) (a) The authorized emergency vehicle is about to be or is being driven backwards into a driveway entrance to a fire station.
346.455(1)(b) (b) The authorized emergency vehicle is giving visual signal by means of at least one flashing, oscillating or rotating red light or by a member of the fire department or fire patrol standing on the roadway in a position that is visible to approaching traffic and directing traffic to stop.
346.455(2) (2) The operator of a motor vehicle required to stop under sub. (1) shall remain stopped until a member of the fire department or fire patrol directs the operator to proceed or until the visual signal under sub. (1) (b) is terminated and all members of the fire department or fire patrol have left the roadway.
346.455 History History: 1995 a. 424.
346.457 346.457 Owner's liability for vehicle illegally passing fire truck.
346.457(1)(1) Subject to s. 346.01 (2), the owner of a vehicle involved in a violation of s. 346.455 (1) or (2) shall be liable for the violation as provided in this subsection.
346.457(2) (2) A member of the fire department or fire patrol who observes a violation of s. 346.455 (1) or (2) may prepare a written report indicating that a violation has occurred. The report shall contain the following information:
346.457(2)(a) (a) The time and location at which the violation occurred.
346.457(2)(b) (b) The license number and color of the vehicle involved in the violation.
346.457(2)(c) (c) Identification of the vehicle as an automobile, motor truck, motor bus, motorcycle or other type of vehicle.
346.457(3) (3) Within 24 hours after observing the violation, the member of the fire department or fire patrol may deliver the report to a traffic officer of the political subdivision in which the violation occurred. A report which does not contain all of the information in sub. (2) may nevertheless be delivered and shall be maintained by the political subdivision for statistical purposes.
346.457(4) (4)
346.457(4)(a)(a) Within 48 hours after receiving a report containing all of the information in sub. (2) and after conducting an investigation, the traffic officer may prepare a uniform traffic citation under s. 345.11 for the violation and may personally serve it upon the owner of the vehicle.
346.457(4)(b) (b) If with reasonable diligence the owner of the vehicle cannot be served under par. (a) or if the owner lives outside of the jurisdiction of the issuing authority, service may be made by certified mail addressed to the owner's last-known address.
346.457(5) (5)
346.457(5)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), it is not a defense to a violation of s. 346.455 (1) or (2) that the owner of the vehicle was not in control of the vehicle at the time of the violation.
346.457(5)(b) (b) The following are defenses to a violation of s. 346.455 (1) or (2):
346.457(5)(b)1. 1. That a report that the vehicle was stolen was given to a traffic officer before the violation occurred or within a reasonable time after the violation occurred.
346.457(5)(b)2. 2. That the owner of the vehicle provides a traffic officer with the name and address of the person who was in control of the vehicle at the time of the violation and the person so named admits having the vehicle under his or her control at the time of the violation. In such a case, that person and not the owner shall be charged with the violation.
346.457(5)(b)3. 3. That the vehicle is owned by a lessor of vehicles and at the time of the violation the vehicle was in the possession of a lessee, and the lessor provides a traffic officer with the information required under s. 343.46 (3). In such a case, the lessee and not the lessor shall be charged with the violation.
346.457(5)(b)4. 4. That the vehicle is owned by a dealer as defined in s. 340.01 (11) (intro.) but including the persons specified in s. 340.01 (11) (a) to (d), and at the time of the violation the vehicle was under the control of a person on a trial run and the dealer provides a traffic officer with the name, address and operator's license number of that person. In such a case, that person and not the dealer shall be charged with the violation.
346.457 History History: 1995 a. 424; 1997 a. 27; 1999 a. 80.
346.46 346.46 Vehicles to stop at stop signs and school crossings.
346.46(1)(1) Except when directed to proceed by a traffic officer or traffic control signal, every operator of a vehicle approaching an official stop sign at an intersection shall cause such vehicle to stop before entering the intersection and shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles which have entered or are approaching the intersection upon a highway which is not controlled by an official stop sign or traffic signal.
346.46(2) (2) Stops required by sub. (1) shall be made in the following manner:
346.46(2)(a) (a) If there is a clearly marked stop line, the operator shall stop the vehicle immediately before crossing such line.
346.46(2)(b) (b) If there is no clearly marked stop line, the operator shall stop the vehicle immediately before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection.
346.46(2)(c) (c) If there is neither a clearly marked stop line nor a marked or unmarked crosswalk at the intersection or if the operator cannot efficiently observe traffic on the intersecting roadway from the stop made at the stop line or crosswalk, the operator shall, before entering the intersection, stop the vehicle at such point as will enable the operator to efficiently observe the traffic on the intersecting roadway.
346.46(2m) (2m) Every operator of a motor vehicle approaching a school crossing which is controlled by an adult school crossing guard appointed under s. 120.13 (31) or 349.215 shall follow the directions of the school crossing guard. If directed by the school crossing guard to stop, the operator shall stop the vehicle not less than 10 feet nor more than 30 feet from the school crossing and shall remain stopped until the school crossing guard directs the operator to proceed.
346.46(3) (3) Every operator of a vehicle approaching an official stop sign at a railroad crossing shall, before proceeding on or over such crossing, stop the vehicle not less than 10 nor more than 30 feet from the nearest rail.
346.46(4) (4)
346.46(4)(a)(a) Every operator of a vehicle approaching an official stop sign or official temporary stop sign erected mid-block on or in the roadway by local authorities under s. 349.07 (6) shall cause such vehicle to stop not less than 10 nor more than 30 feet from such official sign except when directed to proceed by a traffic officer.
346.46(4)(b) (b) As used in this subsection "mid-block" has the meaning given it in s. 346.33 (3).
346.46 Annotation A violation of sub. (1) constitutes negligence per se, but a violation may be excused through the application of the emergency doctrine, which provides that a person faced with an emergency that the person did not create is not negligent for failing to avoid the threatened disaster if compelled to act instantly. Totsky v. Riteway Bus Service, Inc. 2000 WI 29, 233 Wis. 2d 371, 607 N.W.2d 637, 97-0530.
346.465 346.465 Owner's liability for vehicle illegally crossing controlled school crossing.
346.465(1) (1) Subject to s. 346.01 (2), the owner of a vehicle involved in a violation of s. 346.46 (2m) shall be liable for the violation as provided in this section.
346.465(2) (2) An adult school crossing guard who observes a violation of s. 346.46 (2m) may prepare a written report indicating that a violation has occurred. If possible, the report shall contain the following information:
346.465(2)(a) (a) The time and the approximate location at which the violation occurred.
346.465(2)(b) (b) The license number and color of the vehicle involved in the violation.
346.465(2)(c) (c) Identification of the vehicle as an automobile, motor truck, motor bus, motorcycle or other type of vehicle.
346.465(3) (3) Within 24 hours after observing the violation, the school crossing guard may deliver the report to a traffic officer of the county or municipality in which the violation occurred. A report which does not contain all the information in sub. (2) shall nevertheless be delivered and shall be maintained by the county or municipality for statistical purposes.
346.465(4) (4)
346.465(4)(a)(a) Within 48 hours after receiving a report containing all the information in sub. (2), the traffic officer may prepare a uniform traffic citation under s. 345.11 and may personally serve it upon the owner of the vehicle.
346.465(4)(b) (b) If with reasonable diligence the owner cannot be served under par. (a), service may be made by leaving a copy of the citation at the owner's usual place of abode within this state in the presence of a competent member of the family at least 14 years of age, who shall be informed of the contents thereof.
346.465(4)(c) (c) If with reasonable diligence the owner cannot be served under par. (a) or (b) or if the owner lives outside of the jurisdiction of the issuing authority, service may be made by certified mail addressed to the owner's last-known address.
346.465(5) (5)
346.465(5)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b), it shall be no defense to a violation of this section that the owner was not operating the vehicle at the time of the violation.
346.465(5)(b) (b) The following are defenses to a violation of this section:
346.465(5)(b)1. 1. That a report that the vehicle was stolen was given to a traffic officer before the violation occurred or within a reasonable time after the violation occurred.
346.465(5)(b)1m. 1m. If the owner of the vehicle provides a traffic officer with the name and address of the person operating the vehicle at the time of the violation and the person so named admits operating the vehicle at the time of the violation, then the person operating the vehicle and not the owner shall be charged under this section.
346.465(5)(b)2. 2. If the vehicle is owned by a lessor of vehicles and at the time of the violation the vehicle was in the possession of a lessee, and the lessor provides a traffic officer with the information required under s. 343.46 (3), then the lessee and not the lessor shall be charged under this section.
346.465(5)(b)3. 3. If the vehicle is owned by a dealer as defined in s. 340.01 (11) (intro.) but including the persons specified in s. 340.01 (11) (a) to (d), and at the time of the violation the vehicle was being operated by any person on a trial run, and if the dealer provides a traffic officer with the name, address and operator's license number of the person operating the vehicle, then the person operating the vehicle, and not the dealer, shall be charged under this section.
346.465 History History: 1985 a. 186; 1997 a. 27; 1999 a. 80.
346.47 346.47 When vehicles using alley or nonhighway access to stop.
346.47(1)(1) The operator of a vehicle emerging from an alley or about to cross or enter a highway from any point of access other than another highway shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to moving on to the sidewalk or on to the sidewalk area extending across the path of such vehicle and shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian, bicyclist, or rider of an electric personal assistive mobility device, and upon crossing or entering the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on such roadway.
346.47(2) (2) The operator of a vehicle on an alley shall stop such vehicle immediately before crossing or entering an intersecting alley, whether or not such intersecting alley crosses the alley on which the vehicle is being operated.
346.47(3) (3) The operator of a vehicle about to cross or enter a highway from a point of access other than another highway is not required to stop in compliance with sub. (1) if a traffic control officer or official traffic control device directs or permits otherwise.
346.47 History History: 1975 c. 229; 1985 a. 69; 2001 a. 90.
346.475 346.475 Human service vehicles; loading or unloading children with disabilities. No person who operates a human service vehicle may stop to load or unload passengers who are children with disabilities unless the vehicle is entirely off the traveled portion of the roadway in an area where stopping, standing or parking is not prohibited and the children do not have to cross the roadway in order to be loaded or unloaded.
346.475 History History: 1983 a. 175 s. 28; Stats. 1983 s. 346.475; 1997 a. 164.
346.48 346.48 Vehicles to stop for school buses displaying flashing lights.
346.48(1)(1) The operator of a vehicle which approaches from the front or rear any school bus which has stopped on a street or highway when the bus is equipped according to s. 347.25 (2) and when it is displaying flashing red warning lights, shall stop the vehicle not less than 20 feet from the bus and shall remain stopped until the bus resumes motion or the operator extinguishes the flashing red warning lights. The operator of any school bus which approaches from the front or rear any school bus which has stopped and is displaying flashing red warning lights shall display its flashing red lights while stopped. This subsection does not apply to operators of vehicles proceeding in the opposite direction on a divided highway.
346.48(2) (2)
346.48(2)(a)(a) Except as provided in par. (b) the operator of a school bus equipped with flashing red warning lights as specified in s. 347.25 (2) shall actuate such lights at least 100 feet before stopping to load or unload pupils or other authorized passengers, and shall not extinguish such lights until loading or unloading is completed and persons who must cross the highway are safely across. Where the curb and sidewalk are laid on one side of the road only, the operator shall use the flashing red warning lights when loading or unloading passengers from either side.
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