NR 812.12 Note Note: In some areas of Wisconsin the useable aquifer is contaminated throughout its entire vertical extent. In such areas, it may not be possible to obtain bacteriologically safe water.
NR 812.12(1)(c) (c) Wells will provide an adequate and contaminant free water supply, where the natural geologic and groundwater conditions allow.
NR 812.12(1)(d) (d) It will conserve groundwater.
NR 812.12(1)(e) (e) It will allow reconstruction, when necessary.
NR 812.12(2) (2) The construction of drilled wells shall comply with:
NR 812.12(2)(a) (a) The general and specific requirements outlined in ss. NR 812.13 to 812.16;
NR 812.12(2)(b) (b) The well casing pipe requirements of s. NR 812.17; and
NR 812.12(2)(c) (c) The requirements of Table I or II for low capacity potable wells, except school or wastewater treatment plant wells, but including noncommunity wells and nonpotable wells, or
NR 812.12(2)(d) (d) The requirements of Tables III and IV for potable high capacity, wastewater treatment plant and school wells.
NR 812.12(2)(e) (e) The well casing pipe depth requirements of ss. NR 812.13 to 812.16 and of Tables I to IV are such that the installed well casing pipe depth is referenced and measured from the ground surface, not from the top of the well casing pipe, at the time of completion of the well. A well is completed when all operations that require the use of drilling, driving or annular space sealing equipment have been completed.
NR 812.12 Note Note: The requirements of Tables I-IV are based on the geologic formation encountered at or near the ground surface, the geologic formation in which the well terminates, the type of drilling method used, the depth to which the upper enlarged drillhole extends into bedrock, for bedrock wells, and the static water level for unconsolidated formation wells. For specific requirements relating to percussion method drilling and rotary method drilling, see ss. NR 812.13 and 812.14, respectively.
NR 812.12(3) (3) A greater depth of well casing pipe shall be provided in special well casing pipe depth areas designated by the department where well histories show contamination extends to a greater depth. In some of these areas department approval shall be obtained for each well prior to construction.
NR 812.12 Note Note: A list of special well casing pipe depth areas and the required depths may be obtained from the department upon request. Greater depth of well casing pipe is recommended for wells constructed on high density tiered lots where possible contamination sources exist on neighboring up-slope lots. Additional requirements for more stringent well construction methods are found in sub. (15), regarding sites listed on the GIS Registry (formerly known as the GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites).
NR 812.12(4) (4) Steel well casing pipe shall meet the requirements of s. NR 812.17. Steel well casing pipe assembled with welded joints shall have beveled ends and all joints shall be welded according to the welding requirements outlined in s. NR 812.18.
NR 812.12(5) (5) A drive-shoe shall be welded or threaded to the bottom of any string of well casing pipe to be driven including driving to a firm seat in bedrock when well casing pipe is set in an upper enlarged drillhole, except when the upper enlarged drillhole extends 20 feet or more into bedrock and the annular space is cement grouted before the lower drillhole is constructed, the use of a drive-shoe is optional. A drive-shoe is not required for any temporary outer casing. Thermoplastic well casing pipe may not be driven.
NR 812.12(6) (6) The well driller or well constructor shall complete the well construction such that the well casing pipe extends at least 12 inches above the final ground grade, above a pumphouse or building floor or above any concrete or asphalt platform installed at or above the established ground surface. In addition, for wells in floodplains, the top of the well casing pipe shall terminate at least 2 feet above the regional flood elevation. A well may not be constructed in a floodway on property that is either undeveloped or on property that has buildings but no existing potable well.
NR 812.12(7) (7) Well plumbness and alignment shall conform to the requirements of s. NR 812.19.
NR 812.12(8) (8) Liners shall meet the requirements of s. NR 812.21.
NR 812.12(9) (9) Grouting and sealing requirements shall conform to s. NR 812.20.
NR 812.12(10) (10) The construction of flowing wells shall also comply with the construction requirements of s. NR 812.15.
NR 812.12(10m) (10m) Drilling fluid must be less dense than the grout to facilitate proper sealing of heat exchange drillholes.
NR 812.12(11) (11) Water used in the construction, reconstruction or redevelopment of wells shall be clear water obtained from an uncontaminated source. The water shall be disinfected with chlorine with a residual of 100 mg/l (parts per million) to reduce the effort involved in the final disinfection of the well and to reduce the possibility of groundwater contamination. The chlorine concentration may be mixed according to Table B in s. NR 812.22 (4) (d). The drilling fluid shall be maintained with a free-chlorine residual of 10 mg/l (parts per million) during drilling.
NR 812.12(12) (12) Well construction shall be interrupted for at least 12 hours following placement of cement grout in the annular space between the well casing pipe and the upper enlarged drillhole or between a liner pipe and a lower drillhole and the well casing pipe.
NR 812.12(13) (13) Nonpotable wells shall be constructed according to the requirements for low capacity potable wells, except that well casing pipe 12 inches in diameter and larger used for nonpotable wells may have a lesser wall thickness than is required by Table V for the diameter of the well casing pipe used provided the pipe has a minimum wall thickness of 0.250 inches and is adequate in strength to make the well structurally sound. The drilling mud requirements during well drilling and the sodium bentonite annular space sealing requirements do not apply to nonpotable high capacity wells constructed with reverse rotary methods.
NR 812.12(14) (14) Starter drillholes 10 feet deep or less are not upper enlarged drillholes. Starter drillholes need not meet the minimum requirements for upper enlarged drillholes.
NR 812.12(15) (15) More stringent well construction methods including but not limited to deeper well casing pipe depth settings are required by the department for wells constructed through formations where contaminant levels exceed the drinking water standards in s. NR 812.06, and may be required when there is groundwater contamination exceeding ch. NR 140 enforcement standards on a property that is listed on the department's geographic information system registry of closed remediation sites. When drilling in areas where there are contaminated formations, and on properties where the water well or heat exchange driller or well constructor has been notified that the property is listed on the department's geographic information system registry of closed remediation sites, consultation with the department is required. If required by the department, special well and drillhole construction methods shall be utilized when constructing or reconstructing wells or drillholes located on properties that are listed on the department 's geographic information system registry of closed remediation sites.
NR 812.12 Note Note: The GIS Registry of Closed Remediation Sites has been renamed the GIS Registry. It is now a layer on the map view, RR Sites Map. Information about a specific site can be found int he tracking system, BRRTS on the Web. Both these applications can be found at http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/Brownfields/clean.html. Information on a specific site can also be obtained by calling the nearest regional DNR office.
NR 812.12(16) (16) When a quarry is within 500 feet of any proposed water well, the upper enlarged drillhole and well casing pipe depth requirements shall be referenced from the bottom of the quarry and an additional 20 feet of upper enlarged drillhole, well casing pipe and cement grout shall be installed over the amount required in Table II and Table III. When the bottom of the quarry is or will be at an elevation higher than the elevation of the ground surface at the well site, this requirement does not apply. This requirement does not apply if the quarry is no longer used and is permanently filled with water.
NR 812.12(17) (17) When a sinkhole or an outcrop is within 250 feet of any proposed well, additional depth of the upper enlarged drillhole and well casing pipe may be necessary. Consultation by the well driller or well owner with the department is recommended.
NR 812.12(18) (18) Drill cutting samples from high capacity, school and wastewater treatment plant wells shall be collected at 5-foot depth intervals and at each change in geological formation. The samples shall be submitted to the Wisconsin geological and natural history survey for preparation of a certified log of the well.
NR 812.12(19) (19) When percussion drilling methods are used to construct a well as specified in s. NR 812.13 (2) or 812.14 (2), rotary air methods may be used to construct an upper enlarged drillhole in noncaving formations to a depth not to exceed 20 feet, or may be used to construct a drillhole to facilitate the driving of temporary outer casing providing the drillhole is the same or smaller diameter as the outside diameter of the temporary outer casing and does not extend deeper than the 40-foot depth.
NR 812.12(20) (20) When percussion drilling methods are to be used to construct a well as specified in s. NR 812.13 (2) or 812.14 (2), rotary-mud circulation techniques may be used to construct an upper enlarged drillhole below which the well casing pipe may be driven providing:
NR 812.12(20)(a) (a) The drillhole is at least 2 inches larger in diameter than the nominal well casing pipe diameter,
NR 812.12(20)(b) (b) The well casing pipe is assembled with welded joints, and
NR 812.12(20)(c) (c) The drillhole is kept full of drilling mud and cuttings while the well casing pipe is driven.
NR 812.12(21) (21) When using percussion methods for the construction of nonpotable high capacity wells and for low capacity wells except school and wastewater treatment plant wells, the minimum diameter of the upper enlarged drillhole may be reduced from 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe to 2 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe when:
NR 812.12(21)(a) (a) Steel well casing pipe assembled with welded joints is used, and
NR 812.12(21)(b) (b) The annular space sealing material is placed by using an approved pressure method.
NR 812.12 History History: Cr. Register, January, 1991, No. 421, eff. 2-1-91; am. (1) (c), (3), (13), (15), (16), Tables I and II, cr. (1) (e), Register, September, 1994, No. 465, eff. 10-1-94; CR 00-111: am. (15), Register October 2001 No. 550, eff. 11-1-01; CR 13-096: am. (title), (1), cr. (10m), am. (15), CR 13-099: cr. (2) (e), am. (16) Register September 2014 No. 705, eff. 10-1-14; correction in numbering in (10m) made under s. 13.92 (4) (b) 1., Stats., correction in (15) made under s. 35.17, Stats., Register September 2014 No. 705.
NR 812.13 NR 812.13Drilled wells terminating in unconsolidated formations, i.e., usually sand or gravel or both. Unconsolidated formation wells shall be constructed according to the requirements in s. NR 812.12 and as follows:
NR 812.13(1) (1)General requirements.
NR 812.13(1)(a)(a) The minimum diameter for all drilled wells in unconsolidated formations, based on nominal size of well casing pipe is:
NR 812.13(1)(a)1. 1. For nonpotable high capacity wells and for low capacity wells, except school and wastewater treatment plant wells, a minimum diameter of: 2 inches when steel well casing pipe is used, 4 inches when thermoplastic well casing pipe is used.
NR 812.13(1)(a)2. 2. For potable high capacity, school and for wastewater treatment plant wells a minimum diameter of 4 inches.
NR 812.13(1)(b) (b) The minimum well casing pipe depth for all drilled wells in unconsolidated formations, not including any screen, is:
NR 812.13(1)(b)1. 1. For nonpotable high capacity wells and for low capacity wells, except school and wastewater treatment plant wells, a minimum depth of 25 feet or 10 feet below the static water level, whichever is greater.
NR 812.13(1)(b)2. 2. For potable high capacity and school wells, and for wastewater treatment plant wells when there is no treatment pond or lagoon or sludge bed on the wastewater treatment plant property, a minimum depth of 60 feet below the ground surface or 20 below the static water level, whichever is greater.
NR 812.13(1)(b)3. 3. For wastewater treatment plant wells when there is a treatment pond or lagoon or sludge bed on the wastewater treatment plant property, a minimum depth of 100 feet below the ground surface or 20 feet below the static water level, whichever is greater.
NR 812.13(1)(c) (c) The pump intake shall be set at least 5 feet above the bottom of the well casing pipe and shall be set such that the pump does not break suction under normal operating conditions.
NR 812.13 Note Note: The department may grant variances to the 5 foot requirement in low permeability, low yielding formations.
NR 812.13(1)(d) (d) Steel and thermoplastic well casing pipe, as specified in s. NR 812.17, may be used for low capacity wells and for nonpotable high capacity wells, but not including school and wastewater treatment plant wells. Only steel well casing pipe may be used for potable high capacity, school and wastewater treatment plant wells.
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.1. An adequate screen shall be provided where necessary to prevent sand pumping conditions. The required types and materials for screens are:
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.a. a. For potable low capacity wells, a continuous-slot screen composed of stainless steel, everdur, monel, brass or approved polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Noncontinuous-slot screens may be used if approved.
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.aj. aj. Criteria on which noncontinuous-slot screen approvals are based includes, but is not limited to, type and composition of screen material, spacing and evenness of cuts of screen slots and cleanliness of the screen and screen slots.
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.ap. ap. Screen selection for driven-point wells is optional, except that screens having any lead content may not be used.
NR 812.13 Note Note: Louvered, shutter-type screens may be used for gravel-pack well construction as specified in s. NR 812.16 (3).
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.b. b. For nonpotable high capacity wells, not including dewatering wells, a continuous-slot screen meeting the requirements of subd. 1. a. or a low carbon steel or galvanized-steel, continuous-slot screen.
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.c. c. For potable high capacity wells, a continuous-slot screen, v-shaped, wire-wrap on a rod base type; composed of stainless steel, everdur, monel or brass. The brass may not have a lead content of more than 8%.
NR 812.13(1)(e)1.d. d. For nonpotable low capacity wells and dewatering wells, screens are not required; if used, screen selection is optional, except that screens having any lead content may not be used.
NR 812.13 Note Note: The department will review applications for approval of new types of screens and new materials for screens as such products are developed.
NR 812.13(1)(e)2. 2. Screen installation may be accomplished by permanently welding or threading the screen onto the bottom of the well casing pipe, by placement of the screen in the bottom of the well casing pipe and pulling back the casing (telescope method), by the wash-down method, the jetting method or the bail-down method. A small diameter drill stem, rod or bit or a small diameter pipe column may be used to hold the screen down with the telescope method.
NR 812.13(1)(e)3. 3. A riser pipe may be installed to extend upward from the top of the screen. The riser pipe material may be thermoplastic or metal providing the metal does not have a lead content in excess of 8%.
NR 812.13(1)(e)4. 4. A packer shall be used to provide a sand seal between the bottom of a well casing pipe and the top of a screen. Lead packers may not be used. Packers used to retain grout or reduce water flow shall be made of durable, nontoxic material. Burlap packers may not be used.
NR 812.13(1)(e)5. 5. Materials having a lead content greater than 8% by weight, may not be installed in a well. Component parts of manufactured products containing lead shall not have a lead content of more than 5% of the total product weight. “Lead wool" or other products containing more than 8% lead may not be used as seals in the bottom of open-ended well casing pipes or as screens terminating in coarse formations.
NR 812.13(1)(f) (f) Gravel-pack well construction shall comply with the additional requirements of s. NR 812.16.
NR 812.13(1)(g) (g) Wells constructed by auguring or jetting methods shall be constructed according to the requirements for percussion methods of sub. (2).
NR 812.13(2) (2)Percussion method requirements for drilled wells in unconsolidated formations.
NR 812.13(2)(a)(a) When steel well casing pipe is installed in a drilled unconsolidated formation well using percussion methods, the well shall be drilled as follows:
NR 812.13(2)(a)1. 1. An upper enlarged drillhole constructed by percussion methods shall be constructed to the minimum depth required in Tables I-IV. The well casing pipe may be driven from the surface without the use of an upper enlarged drillhole when there is a caving formation at the surface extending to 10 feet or deeper or when granular bentonite of the 8-mesh size is either mounded around the top of the well casing pipe or placed in a starter drillhole and allowed to follow the well casing pipe down during driving. If granular bentonite is not used, an upper enlarged drillhole shall be constructed when a noncaving material, usually clay, silt or hardpan, is encountered in the top 10 feet. Rotary-air methods as specified in s. NR 812.12 (19) may be used to construct the upper enlarged drillhole. It shall be at least 4-inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe for nonpotable high capacity wells and for low capacity wells, except school and wastewater treatment plant wells. When steel well casing pipe assembled with welded joints is used and the annular space sealing material is placed with an approved pressure method, the diameter may be reduced to 2 inches larger than the nominal well casing pipe diameter. The upper enlarged drillhole shall be 3 inches larger in diameter than the outside diameter of the permanent well casing pipe or casing couplings for potable high capacity, school and wastewater treatment plant wells. When the near surface material is of a caving nature, the upper enlarged drillhole shall be constructed by driving, while drilling, a temporary outer casing. The upper enlarged drillhole shall be kept filled up to within 10 feet of the ground surface with clay slurry or sodium bentonite slurry having a mud weight of at least 11 pounds per gallon or with granular bentonite throughout the driving of the permanent steel well casing pipe. If the upper enlarged drillhole extends below the 40-foot depth, the slurry shall be placed with a conductor pipe. If any of the annular space seal settles during development of the well, it shall be replaced following development.
NR 812.13(2)(a)2. 2. Following driving of the well casing pipe any upper enlarged drillhole shall be filled with clay or sodium bentonite slurry having a mud weight of a least 11 pounds per gallon or with neat cement grout, except only neat cement grout may be used for potable high capacity, school or wastewater treatment plant wells. Neat cement grout shall be placed according to s. NR 812.20. If the upper enlarged drillhole extends below the 40-foot depth and the annular space sealing material is clay or sodium bentonite slurry, the sealing material shall be placed with a conductor pipe. When temporary outer casing pipe is used, it shall be removed during or following the sealing process. If the upper enlarged drillhole extends below the 100-foot depth, the annular space sealing material shall be placed with an approved pressure method as specified in s. NR 812.20. If any of the annular space seal settles during or following development of the well, it shall be replaced.
NR 812.13(2)(a)3. 3. When using a rotary machine with hammer or a casing hammer for percussion methods, the drill cuttings inside and just below the well casing pipe may be removed with a rotary bit with the use of air.
NR 812.13(2)(b) (b) Thermoplastic well casing pipe may be used when percussion methods are used to drill wells in unconsolidated formations under the following conditions:
NR 812.13(2)(b)1. 1. Thermoplastic well casing pipe may only be used for nonpotable high capacity wells and for low capacity wells, developed in unconsolidated formations and constructed in accordance with line A or B of Table I but not including school or wastewater treatment plant wells.
NR 812.13(2)(b)2. 2. Thermoplastic well casing pipe may only be used for wells where the annular space is sealed with sodium bentonite or clay slurry. Cement grout may not be used. The thermoplastic well casing pipe shall be set in an upper enlarged drillhole constructed within a temporary outer steel well casing at least 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the permanent well casing pipe. The temporary outer casing and upper enlarged drillhole shall extend to the full depth of the well casing pipe if constructed with percussion methods. The temporary outer casing pipe shall be removed after setting the well casing pipe. During removal, the annular space shall be filled with clay or sodium bentonite and cuttings slurry with a mud weight of at least 11 pounds per gallon. The bottom of the temporary outer casing shall remain submerged in the slurry throughout the removal. If the upper enlarged drillhole extends below the 40-foot depth, the slurry shall be placed with a conductor pipe. If any of the annular space seal settles during development of the well, it shall be replaced following development.
NR 812.13(2)(b)3. 3. The well casing pipe may not be driven, pushed or forced into the formation or into the upper enlarged drillhole, but the well casing pipe may be pulled back to expose a screen.
NR 812.13(2)(b)4. 4. Drilling tools such as drill bits or stabilizers may not be placed in the well casing pipe nor may any drilling or reconstruction occur after placement of the well casing pipe in the well. This restriction does not preclude the installation or replacement of telescoping screens.
NR 812.13(2)(b)5. 5. Screens may be installed as specified in s. NR 812.13 (1) (e) 2. If a screen is not permanently attached, an approved packer shall be used to seal the space between the screen and the well casing pipe. A small diameter drill stem, bit or rod or a small diameter pipe column bearing on the screen bottom plate may be used to hold the screen down with the telescope method.
NR 812.13(2)(b)6. 6. If the thermoplastic well casing pipe extends above the frost line, the upper terminus of the well shall be contained in a well house or in a capped oversized steel well casing pipe. The pipe shall extend from the top of the thermoplastic well casing pipe to a depth below the frost level.
NR 812.13(3) (3)Rotary method requirements for drilled wells in unconsolidated formations.
NR 812.13(3)(a)(a) When steel well casing pipe is installed in a drilled unconsolidated formation well using rotary methods, the well shall be drilled as follows:
NR 812.13(3)(a)1. 1. An upper enlarged drillhole shall be constructed and maintained at full diameter by circulating drilling mud to the required depth of well casing pipe setting, as specified by Tables I to IV. The well casing pipe shall be set concentrically in the upper enlarged drillhole. The annular space between the upper enlarged drillhole and the permanent well casing pipe shall be permanently sealed with sodium bentonite and cuttings slurry having a mud weight of at least 11 pounds per gallon or with neat cement grout, except that only neat cement grout may be used for potable high capacity, school and wastewater treatment plant wells. If any of the annular space seal settles during or following development of the well, it shall be replaced so as to seal the entire annular space.
NR 812.13(3)(a)2. 2. The upper enlarged drillhole may be constructed less than 4 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe, but shall be at least 2 inches larger in diameter than the nominal diameter of the well casing pipe only if the following conditions are met:
NR 812.13(3)(a)2.a. a. The well is to be a nonpotable high capacity well or is to be a low capacity well, except a school or wastewater treatment plant well,
NR 812.13(3)(a)2.b. b. The required sealing material, according to Tables I to IV, is placed in the annular space between the upper enlarged drillhole and the well casing pipe using an approved pressure method according to the requirements of s. NR 812.20, and
NR 812.13(3)(a)2.c. c. The well casing pipe is assembled entirely with welded joints.
NR 812.13(3)(a)3. 3. For potable high capacity, school and wastewater treatment plant wells, an upper enlarged drillhole at least 3 inches larger in diameter than the outside diameter of the permanent well casing pipe or the outside diameter of the well casing couplings, if used, shall be constructed and maintained at full diameter by circulated drilling mud to the depth as required by Tables III and IV. The annular space shall be sealed with neat cement grout according to the requirements of s. NR 812.20.
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Published under s. 35.93, Stats. Updated on the first day of each month. Entire code is always current. The Register date on each page is the date the chapter was last published.