181.0707(4) (4)Limitations on record dates. Unless the bylaws of a corporation provide otherwise, a record date fixed under this section may not be more than 70 days before the meeting or action requiring a determination of members occurs.
181.0707(5) (5)Adjourned meetings. A determination of members entitled to notice of or to vote at a membership meeting is effective for any adjournment of the meeting unless the board fixes a new date for determining the right to notice or the right to vote, which it must do if the meeting is adjourned to a date more than 70 days after the record date for determining members entitled to notice of the original meeting.
181.0707(6) (6)Court-ordered adjournment. If a court orders a meeting adjourned to a date more than 120 days after the date fixed for the original meeting, it may provide that the original record date for notice or voting continues in effect or it may fix a new record date for notice or voting.
181.0707 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0708 181.0708 Action by written ballot.
181.0708(1m)(1m)Definition. In this section, “written ballot" includes a ballot transmitted or received by electronic means.
181.0708(1r) (1r)When permitted. If permitted by the articles of incorporation or bylaws, any action that may be taken at an annual, regular or special meeting of members may be taken without a meeting if the corporation delivers a written ballot to every member entitled to vote on the matter.
181.0708(2) (2)Ballot requirements. A written ballot shall set forth each proposed action and provide an opportunity to vote for or against each proposed action.
181.0708(3) (3)Voting requirements. Approval by written ballot under this section shall be valid only when the number of votes cast by ballot equals or exceeds the quorum required to be present at a meeting authorizing the action, and the number of approvals equals or exceeds the number of votes that would be required to approve the matter at a meeting at which the total number of votes cast was the same as the number of votes cast by ballot.
181.0708(4) (4)Solicitation requirements. A solicitation for votes by written ballot shall include all of the following:
181.0708(4)(a) (a) The number of responses needed to meet the quorum requirements.
181.0708(4)(b) (b) The percentage of approvals necessary to approve each matter other than election of directors.
181.0708(4)(c) (c) The time by which a ballot must be received by the corporation in order to be counted.
181.0708(5) (5)Revocation. Except as otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, a written ballot may not be revoked.
181.0708 History History: 1997 a. 79; 2003 a. 259.
181.0720 181.0720 Members' list for meeting.
181.0720(1)(1)List of members. After fixing a record date for a notice of a meeting, a corporation shall prepare an alphabetical list of the names of all of its members who are entitled to notice of the meeting. The list must show the address and number of votes each member is entitled to vote at the meeting. The corporation shall prepare on a current basis through the time of the membership meeting a list of members, if any, who are entitled to vote at the meeting, but not entitled to notice of the meeting. This list shall be prepared on the same basis as and be part of the list of members.
181.0720(2) (2)Inspection before meeting. The list of members must be available for inspection by any member for the purpose of communication with other members concerning the meeting, beginning 2 business days after notice is given of the meeting for which the list was prepared and continuing through the meeting, at the corporation's principal office or at a reasonable place identified in the meeting notice in the city where the meeting will be held. A member, a member's agent or a member's attorney is entitled on written demand to inspect and, subject to ss. 181.1602 (3) and 181.1605, to copy the list, at a reasonable time and at the member's expense, during the period it is available for inspection.
181.0720(3) (3)Inspection at meeting. The corporation shall make the list of members available at the meeting, and any member, a member's agent or a member's attorney is entitled to inspect the list at any time during the meeting or any adjournment.
181.0720(4) (4)Refusal to allow inspection. If the corporation refuses to allow a member, a member's agent or a member's attorney to inspect the list of members before or at the meeting or to copy the list as permitted under sub. (2), the circuit court for the county where a corporation's principal office, or if none in this state, its registered office, is located, on application of the member, may summarily order the inspection or copying at the corporation's expense and may postpone the meeting for which the list was prepared until the inspection or copying is complete and may order the corporation to pay the member's costs, including reasonable attorney fees, incurred to obtain the order.
181.0720(5) (5)Effect of noncompliance. Refusal or failure to prepare or make available the list of members does not affect the validity of action taken at the meeting.
181.0720 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0721 181.0721 Voting entitlement generally.
181.0721(1)(1)In general. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, each member is entitled to one vote on each matter voted on by the members.
181.0721(2) (2)Membership in the name of multiple persons. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, if a membership stands of record in the names of 2 or more persons, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect:
181.0721(2)(a) (a) If only one votes, such act binds all.
181.0721(2)(b) (b) If more than one votes, the vote shall be divided on a prorated basis.
181.0721 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0722 181.0722 Quorum requirements.
181.0722(1)(1)In general. Unless this chapter, the articles of incorporation, or bylaws provide for a higher or lower quorum, 10 percent of the votes entitled to be cast on a matter must be represented at a meeting of members to constitute a quorum on that matter.
181.0722(2) (2)Bylaw amendment to decrease quorum requirements. A bylaw amendment to decrease the quorum for any member action may be approved by the members or, unless prohibited by the bylaws, by the board.
181.0722(3) (3)Bylaw amendment to increase quorum requirements. A bylaw amendment to increase the quorum required for any member action must be approved by the members.
181.0722(4) (4)Quorum to take up additional matters. The only matters that may be voted upon at an annual or regular meeting of members are those matters that are described in the meeting notice, unless at least one of the following conditions is met:
181.0722(4)(a) (a) One-third or more of the voting power of the membership is present in person or by proxy.
181.0722(4)(b) (b) The meeting notice contains a general statement that matters other than those specifically described in the notice may be considered at the meeting.
181.0722 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0723 181.0723 Voting requirements.
181.0723(1)(1)In general. A majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the members present in person or represented by proxy at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be necessary for the adoption of any matter voted upon by the members, unless a greater proportion is required by this chapter, the articles of incorporation or the bylaws.
181.0723(2) (2)Amendment to change voting requirements. A bylaw amendment to increase or decrease the vote required for any member action must be approved by the members.
181.0723(3) (3)Votes by corporations and limited liability companies. A corporate member's vote may be cast by the president of the member corporation, or by any other officer or proxy appointed by the president of such corporation, in the absence of express notice of the designation of some other person by the board of directors or bylaws of the member corporation. A limited liability company member's vote may be cast by a manager of the member limited liability company.
181.0723 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0724 181.0724 Proxies.
181.0724(1)(1)Right to vote by proxy. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws prohibit or limit proxy voting, a member may appoint a proxy to vote or otherwise act for the member by signing an appointment form either personally or by an attorney-in-fact.
181.0724(2) (2)When effective. An appointment of a proxy is effective when received by the secretary or other officer or agent authorized to tabulate votes. An appointment is valid for 11 months unless a different period is expressly provided in the appointment form.
181.0724(3) (3)Effect of death or incapacity. The death or incapacity of the member appointing a proxy does not affect the right of the corporation to accept the proxy's authority unless notice of the death or incapacity is received by the secretary or other officer or agent authorized to tabulate votes before the proxy exercises authority under the appointment.
181.0724(4) (4)Revocability. An appointment of a proxy is revocable by the member unless the appointment form conspicuously states that it is irrevocable.
181.0724(5) (5)Methods of revocation. Appointment of a proxy is revoked by the person appointing the proxy in any of the following ways:
181.0724(5)(a) (a) Attending any meeting and voting in person.
181.0724(5)(b) (b) Signing and delivering to the secretary or other officer or agent authorized to tabulate proxy votes either a writing stating that the appointment of the proxy is revoked or a subsequent appointment form.
181.0724(6) (6)Acceptance by corporation. Subject to s. 181.0727 and any express limitation on the proxy's authority appearing on the face of the appointment form, a corporation is entitled to accept the proxy's vote or other action as that of the member making the appointment.
181.0724 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0725 181.0725 Cumulative voting for directors.
181.0725(1)(1)In general. If the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide for cumulative voting by members, members may so vote, by multiplying the number of votes the members are entitled to cast by the number of directors for whom they are entitled to vote, and cast the product for a single candidate or distribute the product among 2 or more candidates.
181.0725(2) (2)When not authorized. Cumulative voting is not authorized at a particular meeting unless any of the following occurs:
181.0725(2)(a) (a) The meeting notice or statement accompanying the notice states that cumulative voting will take place.
181.0725(2)(b) (b) A member gives notice during the meeting and before the vote is taken of the member's intent to cumulate votes, and if one member gives this notice all other members participating in the election are entitled to cumulate their votes without giving further notice.
181.0725(3) (3)Removal of directors. A director elected by cumulative voting may be removed by the members without cause if the requirements of s. 181.0808 are met unless the votes cast against removal, or not consenting in writing to such removal, would be sufficient to elect such director if voted cumulatively at an election at which the same total number of votes were cast, or, if such action is taken by written ballot, all memberships entitled to vote were voted, and the entire number of directors authorized at the time of the director's most recent election were then being elected.
181.0725(4) (4)Identical membership and directors. Members may not cumulatively vote if the directors and members are identical.
181.0725 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0726 181.0726 Other methods of electing directors. A corporation may provide in its articles of incorporation or bylaws for election of directors by members or delegates on the basis of chapter or other organizational unit; by region or other geographic unit; by preferential voting; or by any other reasonable method.
181.0726 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0727 181.0727 Acceptance of instruments showing member action.
181.0727(1)(1)When name corresponds to member. If the name signed on a vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment corresponds to the name of a member, the corporation if acting in good faith is entitled to accept the vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment and give it effect as the act of the member.
181.0727(2) (2)When name does not correspond to member. If the name signed on a vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment does not correspond to the record name of a member, the corporation if acting in good faith is nevertheless entitled to accept the vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment and give it effect as the act of the member if any of the following conditions exists:
181.0727(2)(a) (a) The member is an entity and the name signed purports to be that of an officer or agent of the entity.
181.0727(2)(b) (b) The name signed purports to be that of an attorney-in-fact of the member and if the corporation requests, evidence acceptable to the corporation of the signatory's authority to sign for the member has been presented with respect to the vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment.
181.0727(2)(c) (c) Two or more persons hold the membership as cotenants or fiduciaries and the name signed purports to be the name of at least one of the coholders and the person signing appears to be acting on behalf of all of the coholders.
181.0727(3) (3)When corporation is entitled to reject. The corporation is entitled to reject a vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment if the secretary or other officer or agent authorized to tabulate votes, acting in good faith, has reasonable basis for doubt about the validity of the signature on it or about the signatory's authority to sign for the member.
181.0727(4) (4)Liability. The corporation and its officer or agent who accepts or rejects a vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment in good faith and in accordance with the standards of this section are not liable in damages to the member for the consequences of the acceptance or rejection.
181.0727(5) (5)Validity of action. Corporate action based on the acceptance or rejection of a vote, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment under this section is valid unless a court of competent jurisdiction determines otherwise.
181.0727 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0730 181.0730 Voting agreements.
181.0730(1)(1)Permissible agreements. Unless prohibited by a corporation's articles of incorporation or bylaws, two or more members may provide for the manner in which they will vote by signing an agreement for that purpose.
181.0730(2) (2)Enforceability. A voting agreement created under this section is specifically enforceable.
181.0730 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0735 181.0735 Voting power. Voting power is determined by taking the total number of votes entitled to be cast for the election of directors at the time the determination of voting power is made, excluding a vote which is contingent upon the happening of a condition or event that has not occurred at the time. Where a class is entitled to vote as a class for directors, the determination of voting power of the class shall be based on the percentage of the number of directors the class is entitled to elect out of the total number of authorized directors.
181.0735 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0740 181.0740 Derivative proceedings; definition. In ss. 181.0740 to 181.0747, “derivative proceeding" means a civil suit in the right of a corporation or, to the extent provided in ss. 181.0741, 181.0743 and 181.0745 to 181.0747, in the right of a foreign corporation.
181.0740 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0741 181.0741 Derivative proceedings; standing. A derivative proceeding may be brought in the right of a corporation or foreign corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by one or more members having 5 percent or more of the voting power or by 50 members, whichever is less, if each of these members meets all of the following conditions:
181.0741(1) (1)Membership. The member was a member of the corporation at the time of the act or omission complained of or became a member through transfer by operation of law from a person who was a member at that time.
181.0741(2) (2)Representing corporation's interests. The member fairly and adequately represents the interests of the corporation in enforcing the right of the corporation.
181.0741 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0741 Annotation The purpose of the derivative action statute is to allow members, under certain conditions, to bring a claim they could not otherwise bring at all because the cause of action belongs to the association and not to them. Neither the statute nor the case law suggests an intent to limit the right a member has to bring a cause of action that belongs to him or her as an individual. Ewer v. Lake Arrowhead Association, Inc. 2012 WI App 64, 342 Wis. 2d 194, 817 N.W.2d 465, 11-0113.
181.0742 181.0742 Derivative proceedings; demand. No member may commence a derivative proceeding until all of the following occur:
181.0742(1) (1)Written demand. A written demand is made upon the corporation to take suitable action.
181.0742(2) (2)Expiration of 90-day period. Ninety days expire from the date on which a demand under sub. (1) was made, unless the member is notified before the expiration of the 90 days that the corporation has rejected the demand or unless irreparable injury to the corporation would result by waiting for the expiration of the 90-day period.
181.0742 History History: 1997 a. 79.
181.0743 181.0743 Derivative proceedings; stay of proceedings. If the corporation or foreign corporation commences an inquiry into the allegations made in the demand under s. 181.0742 (1) or in the complaint, the court may stay any derivative proceeding for the period that the court considers appropriate.
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2017-18 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2019 Wis. Act 186 and through all Supreme Court and Controlled Substances Board Orders filed before and in effect on August 1, 2020. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after August 1, 2020, are designated by NOTES. (Published 8-1-20)