The corporation is authorized to provide by resolution at one time or from time to time for issuance of turnpike revenue bonds in such amount as may be required to pay for all or part of the cost of any one or more turnpike projects. It is likewise authorized similarly to provide for the issuance of refunding bonds, to retire any bonds then outstanding at the principal amount thereof plus any redemption premium and accrued interest thereon; and to pay for all or part of the cost of future extensions, enlargements, or improvements of the project for which the bonds being refunded were issued.
The bonds to be so issued may be offered and sold by the corporation in such manner as is determined by the corporation to be most suitable and economical. The bonds shall be signed by the chairperson and vice chairperson of the corporation or by their facsimile signatures, and the official seal of the corporation shall be affixed thereto and attested by the secretary-treasurer of the corporation, and any coupons attached thereto shall bear the facsimile signature of the chairperson of the corporation. In case any officer whose signature or facsimile of whose signature appears on any bonds or coupons ceases to be such officer before the delivery of such bonds, such signature or such facsimile shall nevertheless be valid and sufficient, for all purposes the same as if that officer had remained in office until such delivery. All bonds issued under ss. 182.30
shall have and are hereby declared to have all the qualities and incidents of negotiable instruments under ch. 408
To the extent that the proceeds of any bonds sold exceed the cost of the project or projects for which such bonds were issued, those funds shall be applied to the credit of the sinking fund reserve or other reserve for such issue.
The corporation is authorized to take any action in connection with the mechanics of setting up and servicing the issuing of bonds which will provide proper and adequate protection for the purchasers, and which may be required by the circumstances then in force.
Turnpike revenue bonds and refunding bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
shall be payable solely from the funds pledged for their payment as herein authorized and shall not constitute a debt of the state or of any political subdivision of the state.
All expenses incurred by a turnpike corporation shall be payable solely from funds provided under the authority of ss. 182.30
and nothing contained in this act shall be construed to authorize a turnpike corporation to incur indebtedness or liability on behalf of or payable by the state or any political subdivision of the state.
Tolls and license fees authorized under s. 182.33 (2)
shall be so fixed and adjusted in respect of the aggregate of tolls of each turnpike project including any extension or section thereof in connection with which the bonds of any issue shall have been issued as to provide a fund sufficient, with other revenue from the turnpike project or extensions or sections thereof, if any, to do the following:
Pay the cost of maintaining, repairing and operating the turnpike project or extension or section thereof, including the legal liabilities of the corporation.
Pay the principal of and the interest on the bonds described in par. (a) (intro.)
as those bonds shall become due and payable.
The tolls described in par. (a) (intro.)
shall not be subject to supervision or regulation by any commission, board, bureau or agency of the state.
The tolls and all other revenues derived from each turnpike project or extensions or sections in connection with which the bonds of any issue shall have been issued, except the amount necessary to pay the costs described in par. (a) 1.
and to provide reserves therefor as may be provided for in the resolution authorizing the issuance of the bonds or in the trust agreement securing the bonds, shall be set aside in a sinking fund at regular intervals provided for in the resolution or trust agreement. The sinking fund shall be pledged to and charged with the payment of the principal of and the interest on the bonds as those bonds become due and the payment of the redemption price and the purchase price of bonds retired by call or purchase as provided for in the resolution or trust agreement.
The pledge of the sinking fund under par. (c)
shall be valid and binding from the time when the pledge is made. The tolls or other revenues or other moneys so pledged and thereafter received by the corporation shall immediately be subject to the lien of the pledge without any physical delivery thereof, or further act, and the lien of any such pledge shall be valid and binding as against all parties having claims of any kind in tort, contract or otherwise against the corporation. All trust agreements and all resolutions relating thereto shall be filed with the department of financial institutions and recorded in the records of the corporation.
All moneys received pursuant to the authority of ss. 182.30
, whether as proceeds from the sale of bonds, or as revenues, shall be deemed to be trust funds, to be held and applied solely as provided in ss. 182.30
. Such funds shall be kept in such depositories as are selected by the corporation.
Any holder of bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
or any of the coupons appertaining thereto, and the trustee under any trust agreement, except to the extent the rights herein given may be restricted by such trust agreement, may, either at law or in equity, by suit, action, mandamus or other proceedings, protect and enforce any and all rights under the laws of the state or granted hereunder or under such trust agreement or the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds, and may enforce and compel the performance of all duties required by ss. 182.30
or by such trust agreement or resolution to be performed by the corporation or by any officer thereof, including the fixing, charging and collecting of tolls.
The issuance of turnpike revenue bonds or turnpike revenue refunding bonds under the provisions of ss. 182.30
need not comply with the requirements of any other law applicable to the issuance of bonds.
History: 1993 a. 184
; 1995 a. 27
Acquisition of lands and interests therein. 182.35(1)(1)
Turnpike corporations may acquire by gift, devise, purchase or condemnation any lands determined by them to be necessary for establishing, laying out, widening, enlarging, extending, constructing, reconstructing, improving and maintaining its project including lands which may be necessary for toll houses and appropriate concessions and for any other purpose authorized by ss. 182.30
. Title may be acquired in fee simple and any other interest in lands may be acquired as may be deemed expedient or necessary by the corporation. Any lands determined to be unneeded by the corporation may be sold by the corporation at public or private sale with or without restrictions or reservations concerning the future use and occupation of such lands so as to protect the project and improvements and their environs and to preserve the view, appearance, light, air and usefulness of the project.
If the lands or interests therein cannot be purchased expeditiously for a reasonable price, the corporation may acquire the same by condemnation under ch. 32
Authority to construct grade separations and relocate public roads, streets, highways, railroads and public utilities. 182.36(1)(1)
It is declared that the construction of modern toll roads in this state is in the promotion of public and social welfare and for the benefit of public travel. It is recognized that in the construction of such highways, it will become necessary to make changes and adjustments in the lines and grades of public roads, streets, highways, railroads and public utility systems and, in some instances, to relocate the same.
In the furtherance of the public interest, the corporation is hereby granted the authority to construct grade separations at intersections of any turnpike project with public roads, streets, highways and railroads and to change and adjust the lines and grades of public roads, streets and highways, and, if necessary, to relocate the same. Such changes in public roads, streets and highways shall be made with the approval of the appropriate governmental highway or street authority. If the corporation and local authority cannot agree in any matter, such changes may be made with the consent of the department of transportation. The cost of the grade separations and changes and any damages incurred thereby shall be ascertained and paid by the turnpike corporation as a part of the cost of such turnpike project.
The corporation may enter into contracts with public utilities, including railroads, for the removal or change in location of the lines of such public utilities where the same is deemed necessary by the corporation in the construction of the project. Such contracts shall be for the payment of damages caused the utilities by the relocation of their lines. In the event the corporation and the utility are unable to reach an agreement, the public service commission shall direct the manner, location and time allowed for the change in the utility line and the corporation shall be liable for the reasonable costs of such change. In the event the public utility fails to comply with the order of the public service commission it shall be liable to the corporation for all damages occasioned by such failure.
History: 1977 c. 29
s. 1654 (8) (c)
Rights of public utilities.
All public utilities shall have the right to cross the lands or easements of the corporation with any lines at such reasonable place and in such reasonable manner, either over or under the project, as the corporation may direct upon payment of damages to the corporation. In cases of dispute, utilities shall have the right to condemn easements under ch. 32
but such easements shall not conflict with the planned operation, or operation of the project.
Entry upon lands.
The turnpike corporation by its authorized agents and employees may enter upon any lands in the state for the purpose of making such surveys and examinations as are necessary or proper for the purposes of ss. 182.30
. Such entry shall not be deemed a trespass nor entry under any kind of condemnation proceedings which may be then pending. The corporation shall make reimbursement for any actual damage resulting to such lands or premises and to private property located on the same as a result of such activities.
Use of state lands.
This state, subject to the approval of the governor, hereby consents to the use of all lands owned by it, including lands lying under water which are necessary or proper for the operation and construction of any turnpike project provided adequate compensation is made for such use.
Toll exemptions. 182.40(1)(1)
The following government agencies are to be exempt from the payment of tolls: All armed forces of the United States including the Wisconsin national guard and national guard units from other states; the Wisconsin state defense force; and civilian defense organizations.
When not traveling on an emergency mission the corporation shall have the power to designate the time of such use, the length and timing of convoys, serials and march units, rate of march, and intervals, and make such other requirements as may be necessary to properly control traffic in the interest of general safety and convenience of travel.
The corporation shall have the power to exempt law enforcement officers and those operating emergency vehicles from the payment of tolls upon such conditions as it may direct.
History: 1987 a. 63
; 1997 a. 35
Corporation to be nonprofit.
All turnpike corporations shall be nonprofit corporations, that is, corporations formed without capital stock, operated not for profit and exclusively for the purposes set forth in ss. 182.30
and which declare no dividend, benefit or pecuniary profit to be paid to or received by any of their members, directors or officers.
Not to be considered public utilities.
Turnpike corporations are not to be subject to regulations under ch. 196
as a public utility.
Wherever a turnpike project divides the land of one owner so as to prevent ingress to and egress from said lands, the corporation is authorized to provide an underpass or culvert sufficient to provide ingress and egress between said lands. Plans for the existence of an underpass shall be admissible in evidence in condemnation proceedings.
Limitations on powers.
Turnpike corporations shall not have the power to secure any of their obligations by mortgage or pledge of all or any of their properties, either real, personal or mixed, except the pledging of tolls as herein provided.
On or before the first day of February of each year, the corporation shall make an annual report of its activities for the preceding calendar year to the department of financial institutions. Each such report shall set forth a complete operating and financial statement covering its operations during the year. The corporation shall cause an audit of its books to be made at least once each year by certified public accountants and the cost thereof may be treated as a part of the cost of the construction or of operations of the project.
History: 1995 a. 27
The exercise of the powers granted by ss. 182.30
will be in all respects for the benefit of the people of this state, for the increase of their commerce and prosperity and for the improvement of their health and living conditions. Therefore the corporation shall not be required to pay any taxes or assessments upon any turnpike project or any property acquired or used by the corporation under the provisions of ss. 182.30
or upon the income therefrom, and the bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
, their transfer and the income from the bonds, including any profit made on the sale of the bonds, shall at all times be free from taxation within this state.
History: 1999 a. 83
Motor vehicle laws to apply. 182.47(1)(1)
The provisions of chs. 86
relative to the operation of motor vehicles on highways and the protection of public highways including the weight restriction laws shall be applicable to turnpikes and for the purpose of these laws, turnpikes shall be deemed to be public highways. Turnpikes shall be considered as class “A" highways under s. 348.15
and all limitations on the use of such class “A" highways shall be applicable. Turnpikes shall not be subject to traffic control by any local governmental ordinance or rule.
The corporation is authorized to hire suitable persons to enforce the statutes referred to in sub. (1)
, and, upon approval of the governor, they are vested for that purpose with the powers of state traffic officers. Such authority shall be evidenced by the governor's certificate of approval.
History: 1979 c. 333
State may acquire.
When all turnpike revenue bonds issued under the provisions of ss. 182.30
in connection with any turnpike project or extension or sections thereof and the interest thereon shall have been paid or a sufficient amount for the payment of all such bonds and the interest thereon to the maturity thereof shall have been set aside in trust for the benefit of the bondholders, such project or extension or sections thereof, shall become a part of the state trunk highway system and shall thereafter be maintained by the department of transportation and shall be free of tolls.
History: 1977 c. 29
s. 1654 (8) (c)
Establishment of foreign trade zones. 182.50(1)(1)
As used in this section:
“Act of congress" means the act of congress, entitled “An act to provide for the establishment, operation and maintenance of foreign trade zones in ports of entry of the United States, to expedite and encourage foreign commerce, and for other purposes" (19 USC 81
“Private corporation" means any corporation organized under ch. 180
for the purpose of establishing, operating and maintaining foreign trade zones under this section.
“Public corporation" means the state, or any county, town, city or village within the state, or any state or municipal authority or similar organization financed in whole or in part by public funds.
Establishment, operation and maintenance.
Any public or private corporation may make application for the privilege of establishing, operating and maintaining a foreign trade zone under the act of congress. Any public or private corporation, whose application is granted under the act of congress, may establish, operate and maintain a foreign trade zone subject to the conditions and restrictions of the act of congress and any amendments thereto, and under such rules and regulations and for the period of time that may be prescribed by the board established by the act of congress to carry out the provisions of such act.
History: 1977 c. 110
; 1983 a. 189
Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company. 182.70(1)(a)
“Capital invested" means capital actually paid in and the par value of all negotiable bonds or other obligations issued by the company.
“Commission" means the public service commission.
“Company" means the Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company, its successors and assigns.
“Department" means the department of natural resources.
The company shall produce as nearly a uniform flow of water as practicable in the Wisconsin and Tomahawk rivers by storing in reservoirs surplus water for discharge when the water supply is low to improve the usefulness of the rivers for all public purposes and to reduce flood damage.
If maintaining uniform flow in the Wisconsin River below and above the north line of Lincoln County at the same time is impracticable, the company shall give preference to maintaining uniform flow in portions of the river above this line.
Rights, powers and authority.
Subject to chs. 30
The company may create, acquire or lease an entire reservoir project or otherwise maintain, operate or control a system of water reservoirs located in or along the Wisconsin river. These reservoirs shall be located north of township 37 north in or along the Wisconsin River, and in or along any tributary of the Wisconsin River that discharges into the river at any point north of the south line of township 23 north. The company may create, acquire, maintain and operate waterways to divert flood waters from or to the Wisconsin River to or from reservoirs on other rivers. Diversion of flood waters shall be subject to approval by the department. The company may construct, acquire and maintain dams, booms and other structures in, along or across this portion of the Wisconsin River and its tributaries to accomplish the purposes of this section. The company may clean out, straighten, deepen or otherwise improve any tributary to improve navigation of the tributary or of the Wisconsin River, or to prevent injury to property bordering on the rivers.
The company may not exercise the authority granted in subd. 1.
on that part of the Eagle river and lakes lying between the point where the Eagle River enters Cranberry Lake, in section 31, township 40 north, range 11 east, and the Wisconsin River.
All franchises, other than corporate franchises, and all riparian rights and rights of flowage acquired by purchase or grant by any person or by any corporation organized to improve the navigation of the Wisconsin or Tomahawk river, or any of their tributaries may be assigned to the company.
The dam authorized by chapter 532, laws of 1887
, may be raised, or a new dam or dams may be constructed and maintained, in the Eagle River between Long and Cranberry lakes in townships 39 and 40 north, range 11 east, to raise the water in Long Lake 6 inches higher than the high water mark established by the dam authorized by chapter 532, laws of 1887
. Between May 1 and the succeeding November 1 the waters shall not be drawn down in Long Lake more than 18 inches below the high water mark. The company shall maintain the navigability of Eagle River between Long and Cranberry lakes for boats up to 50 feet in length with 12-foot beam and drawing 5 feet of water. If the construction, maintenance or operation of the new dam or dams requires the removal of the dam maintained under chapter 532, laws of 1887
, or impairs the use of the dam or its appurtenances as a bridge across the Eagle River, the company shall either:
Provide a suitable bridge for H 15 loading, as provided in the standard specifications for highway bridges, adopted by the American association of state highway and transportation officials (1977), with suitable approaches, for safe and convenient passage over the new dam, or if more than one dam is built, over the dam nearest to the dam maintained under chapter 532, laws of 1887
At its election provide a suitable new bridge and approaches across the river at a point that will conveniently connect with the highway crossing the river.
The company may collect uniform tolls for the passage of boats over the dam the company builds under par. (c)
, proportioned to the size of the boat. The total fees collected may not exceed the cost of the care, maintenance and operation of the means of passage.
The company may acquire by condemnation any property, interest in property or other right necessary to create, maintain or operate any reservoir, dam or other improvement, if the property cannot be purchased at an agreed price.
The commission shall appraise the damage caused by a taking or overflow of state lands occurring under this section. The company shall pay the amount appraised to the state treasury.
Any owner whose premises or access to the premises are injured by being divided, surrounded by water, flooded or waterlogged, or whose natural drainage is destroyed or injured by any dam or other construction built or operated by the company, may sue for damages or an injunction in the circuit court for the county where some part of the damaged lands are located. The injured party may choose a trial by jury.
If the company improves any navigable tributary of the Wisconsin River, except that part of the Eagle River designated in sub. (3) (a) 2.
, or acquires the improvements or control of the improvements of any river improvement company already operating on these tributaries, and operates the works to allow the driving of logs and other floatables to the mouth of the tributary, the company:
May charge uniform tolls for floatables driven on the tributary; and
Shall have all of the rights and remedies granted to river improvement companies by law.
If the company operates water reservoirs under this section capable of storing and discharging 2 billion cubic feet of water that would not be naturally stored, it may charge uniform tolls to the owners, lessees or operators of every improved and operated water power located upon the Wisconsin River or any of its tributaries below any of these reservoirs and benefited by the operation of these reservoirs. The sum of the tolls may not exceed the reasonable costs of operation and maintenance, including taxes and depreciation, plus a net return not exceeding 7 percent on the capital invested and a reasonable allowance for working capital. The tolls shall be a first lien, subject only to taxes, on the water power, dam, franchise and flowage rights of the person or corporation charged with the tolls. The company may sue to enforce the lien or for sale of the encumbered property.
The commission shall fix the tolls semiannually in proportion to the benefits received from the reservoir system by each improved and operated water power. A water power liable to tolls and operated 2 months or more during a 6-month toll period shall be subject to tolls for the entire period. A water power operating for less than 2 months during a 6-month period shall not be subject to a toll. The company shall employ hydraulic engineers to assist the company and the commission in determining the tolls to be charged. The expense of employing the engineers shall be a part of the cost of maintenance and operation of the works.
The owners or operators of the improved water power shall pay tolls charged under this subsection, unless the improved water power is operated by lessees under a contract made prior to October 6, 1939. In that case the lessees shall pay the tolls.
The commission shall provide notice to each water power operator to be charged with tolls. The commission shall determine and certify the amount of the tolls to be collected from each water power operator for the period under consideration. The tolls shall then be due the company.
A party aggrieved by the determination of tolls to be collected may petition for a hearing. A person whose substantial interests have been adversely affected by the commission's decision may seek judicial review under ss. 227.53
, in the circuit court in the county where the property affected is located.
Reports to the commission.
On or before June 30 and December 31 of each year, the company shall provide the commission with a statement showing:
All expenditures made or necessary to be made for the 6-month period preceding the next July 1 or January 1. Expenditures itemized shall include maintenance, operation and depreciation of the reservoir systems.