Property violating codes or health orders. 254.595(1)(1)
If real property is in violation of those provisions of a municipal building code that concern health or safety, the city, village, or town in which the property is located may commence an action to declare the property a nuisance. If real property is in violation of an order or a regulation of the local board of health, the city, village, or town in which the property is located may commence an action to declare the property a human health hazard. A tenant or class of tenants of property that is in violation of the municipal building code or of an order or regulation of the local board of health or any other person or class of persons whose health, safety or property interests are or would be adversely affected by property that is in violation of the municipal building code or of an order or regulation of the local board of health may file a petition with the clerk of the city, village, or town requesting the governing body to commence an action to declare the property a nuisance or human health hazard. If the governing body refuses or fails to commence an action within 20 days after the filing of the petition, a tenant, class of tenants, other person or other class of persons may commence the action directly upon the filing of security for court costs. The court before which the action of the case is commenced shall exercise jurisdiction in rem or quasi in rem over the property and the owner of record of the property, if known, and all other persons of record holding or claiming any interest in the property shall be made parties defendant and service of process may be had upon them as provided by law. Any change of ownership after the commencement of the action shall not affect the jurisdiction of the court over the property. At the time that the action is commenced, the municipality or other parties plaintiff shall file a lis pendens. If the court finds that a violation exists, it shall adjudge the property a nuisance or human health hazard and the entry of judgment shall be a lien upon the premises.
A property owner or any person of record holding or claiming any interest in the property shall have 60 days after entry of judgment to eliminate the violation. If, within 60 days after entry of judgment under sub. (1)
, an owner of the property presents evidence satisfactory to the court, upon hearing, that the violation has been eliminated, the court shall set aside the judgment. It may not be a defense to this action that the owner of record of the property is a different person, partnership or corporate entity than the owner of record of the property on the date that the action was commenced or thereafter if a lis pendens has been filed prior to the change of ownership. No hearing under this subsection may be held until notice has been given to the municipality and all the plaintiffs advising them of their right to appear. If the judgment is not so set aside within 60 days after entry of judgment, the court shall appoint a disinterested person to act as receiver of the property for the purpose of abating the nuisance or human health hazard.
Any receiver appointed under sub. (2)
shall collect all rents and profits accruing from the property, pay all costs of management, including all general and special real estate taxes or assessments and interest payments on first mortgages on the property, and make any repairs necessary to meet the standards required by the building code or the order or regulation of the local board of health. The receiver may, with the approval of the circuit court, borrow money against and encumber the property as security for the money, in the amounts necessary to meet the standards.
At the request of and with the approval of the owner, the receiver may sell the property at a price equal to at least the appraisal value plus the cost of any repairs made under this section for which the selling owner is or will become liable. The receiver shall apply moneys received from the sale of the property to pay all debts due on the property in the order set by law, and shall pay over any balance with the approval of the court, to the selling owner.
The receiver appointed under this section shall have a lien, for the expenses necessarily incurred to abate the nuisance or in the execution of the order, upon the premises upon or in respect of which the work required by the order has been done or expenses incurred. The municipality that sought the order declaring the property to be a nuisance or human health hazard may also recover its expenses and the expenses of the receiver under subs. (3) (a)
, to the extent that the expenses are not reimbursed under s. 632.103 (2)
from funds withheld from an insurance settlement, by maintaining an action against the property owner under s. 74.53
The court shall set the fees and bond of the receiver, and may discharge the receiver when the court deems appropriate.
Nothing in this section relieves the owner of any property for which a receiver has been appointed from any civil or criminal responsibility or liability otherwise imposed by law, except that the receiver shall be civilly and criminally responsible and liable for all matters and acts directly under his or her authority or performed by him or her or at his or her direction.
This section shall not apply to owner-occupied one or 2-family dwellings.
The commencement of an action by a tenant under this section is not just cause for eviction.
History: 1973 c. 306
; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 Wis. 2d 585, 762 (1975); Stats. 1975 s. 823.22; 1983 a. 476
; 1987 a. 378
; 1989 a. 347
; 1993 a. 27
; Stats. 1993 s. 254.595; 2001 a. 86
In an action alleging a public nuisance, it was sufficient to allege that the defendants knowingly caused the lowering of the ground water table from which the area residents drew water from private wells, which caused numerous citizens great hardship. State v. Michels Pipeline Construction, Inc. 63 Wis. 2d 278
, 217 N.W.2d 339
, 219 N.W.2d 308
SALE OR GIFT OF CIGARETTES OR
TOBACCO PRODUCTS TO MINORS
In this subchapter:
“Governmental regulatory authority" means the department, a local health department, a state agency or a state or local law enforcement agency; or a person with whom the local health department, state agency, or state or local law enforcement agency contracts to conduct investigations authorized under s. 254.916 (1) (a)
“Retail outlet" means a place of business from which cigarettes, nicotine products, or tobacco products are sold at retail to consumers.
“Tobacco vending machine" is any mechanical device that automatically dispenses cigarettes or tobacco products when money or tokens are deposited in the device in payment for the cigarettes or tobacco products.
“Tobacco vending machine operator" means a person who acquires tobacco products or stamped cigarettes from manufacturers, as defined in s. 134.66 (1) (e)
, or permittees, stores them and sells them through the medium of tobacco vending machines that he or she owns, operates or services and that are located on premises that are owned or under the control of other persons.
“Tobacco vending machine premises" means any area in which a tobacco vending machine is located.
A governmental regulatory authority may conduct unannounced investigations at retail outlets, including tobacco vending machine premises, to enforce compliance with s. 134.66 (2) (a)
or a local ordinance adopted under s. 134.66 (5)
. The department may contract with a local health department, a state agency, or a state or local law enforcement agency to conduct investigations authorized under this section, and a local health department, state agency, or state or local law enforcement agency may contract with any other person to conduct those investigations. A person who contracts to conduct investigations authorized under this section shall agree in the contract to train all individuals conducting investigations under the contract in accordance with the standards established under par. (b)
and to suspend from conducting any further investigations for not less than 6 months any individual who fails to meet the requirements of sub. (3) (a)
and the standards established by the department.
The department, in consultation with other governmental regulatory authorities and with retailers, shall establish standards for procedures and training for conducting investigations under this section.
No retailer may be subjected to an unannounced investigation more than twice annually unless the retailer is found to have violated s. 134.66 (2) (a)
, or a local ordinance adopted under s. 134.66 (5)
, during the most recent investigation.
With the permission of his or her parent or guardian, a person under 18 years of age, but not under 15 years of age, may buy, attempt to buy or possess any cigarette, nicotine product, or tobacco product if all of the following are true:
The person commits the act for the purpose of conducting an investigation under this section.
The person is directly supervised during the conducting of the investigation by an adult employee of a governmental regulatory authority.
The person has prior written authorization to commit the act from a governmental regulatory authority or a district attorney or from an authorized agent of a governmental regulatory authority or a district attorney.
All of the following, unless otherwise specified, apply in conducting investigations under this section:
If questioned about his or her age during the course of an investigation, the minor shall state his or her true age.
A minor may not be used for the purposes of an investigation at a retail outlet at which the minor is a regular customer.
The appearance of a minor may not be materially altered so as to indicate greater age.
A photograph or videotape of the minor shall be made before or after the investigation or series of investigations on the day of the investigation or series of investigations. If a prosecution results from an investigation, the photograph or videotape shall be retained until the final disposition of the case.
A governmental regulatory authority shall make a good faith effort to make known to the retailer or the retailer's employee or agent, within 72 hours after the occurrence of the violation, the results of an investigation, including the issuance of any citation by a governmental regulatory authority for a violation that occurs during the conduct of the investigation. This paragraph does not apply to investigations conducted under a grant received under 42 USC 300x-21
Except with respect to investigations conducted under a grant received under 42 USC 300x-21
, all of the following information shall be reported to the retailer within 10 days after the conduct of an investigation under this section:
The name and position of the governmental regulatory authority employee who directly supervised the investigation.
A reasonably detailed description of the circumstances giving rise to a violation, if any, or, if there is no violation, written notice to that effect.
No evidence obtained during or otherwise arising from the course of an investigation under this section that is used to prosecute a person for a violation of s. 134.66 (2) (a)
or a local ordinance adopted under s. 134.66 (5)
may be used in the prosecution of an alleged violation of s. 125.07 (3)
The department shall compile the results of investigations performed under this section and shall prepare an annual report that reflects the results for submission with the state's application for federal funds under 42 USC 300x-21
. The report shall be published for public comment at least 60 days before the beginning of negotiations under sub. (7)
The department shall strive annually to negotiate with the federal department of health and human services realistic and attainable interim performance targets for compliance with 42 USC 300x-26
A governmental regulatory agency that conducts an investigation under this section shall meet the requirements of sub. (3) (a)
and the standards established by the department.
The department shall provide education and training to governmental regulatory authorities to ensure uniformity in the enforcement of this subchapter.
This section does not limit the authority of the department to investigate establishments in jurisdictional areas of governmental regulatory authorities if the department investigates in response to an emergency, for the purpose of monitoring and evaluating the governmental regulatory authority's investigation and enforcement program or at the request of the governmental regulatory authority.
A person conducting an investigation under this section may not have a financial interest in a regulated cigarette and tobacco product retailer, a tobacco vending machine operator, a tobacco vending machine premises, or a tobacco vending machine that may interfere with his or her ability to properly conduct that investigation. A person who is investigated under this section may request the local health department or local law enforcement agency that contracted for the investigation to conduct a review under ch. 68
to determine whether the person conducting the investigation is in compliance with this subsection or, if applicable, may request the state agency or state law enforcement agency that contracted for the investigation to conduct a contested case hearing under ch. 227
to make that determination. The results of an investigation that is conducted by a person who is not in compliance with this subsection may not be used to prosecute a violation of s. 134.66 (2) (a)
or a local ordinance adopted under s. 134.66 (5)
Purchase or possession of cigarettes or tobacco products by person under 18 prohibited. 254.92(1)(1)
No person under 18 years of age may falsely represent his or her age for the purpose of receiving any cigarette, nicotine product, or tobacco product.
No person under 18 years of age may purchase, attempt to purchase, or possess any cigarette, nicotine product, or tobacco product except as follows:
A person under 18 years of age may purchase or possess cigarettes, nicotine products, or tobacco products for the sole purpose of resale in the course of employment during his or her working hours if employed by a retailer.
A person under 18 years of age, but not under 15 years of age, may purchase, attempt to purchase or possess cigarettes, nicotine products, or tobacco products in the course of his or her participation in an investigation under s. 254.916
that is conducted in accordance with s. 254.916 (3)
No person may purchase cigarettes, tobacco products, or nicotine products on behalf of, or to provide to, any person who is under 18 years of age. Any person who violates this subsection may be:
Required to forfeit not more than $500 if the person has not committed a previous violation within 30 months of the violation.
Fined not more than $500 or imprisoned for not more than 30 days or both if the person has committed a previous violation within 30 months of the violation.
Fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 90 days or both if the person has committed 2 previous violations within 30 months of the violation.
Fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 9 months or both if the person has committed 3 or more previous violations within 30 months of the violation.
A law enforcement officer shall seize any cigarette, nicotine product, or tobacco product that has been sold to and is in the possession of a person under 18 years of age.
A county, town, village, or city may enact an ordinance regulating the conduct regulated by this section only if the ordinance strictly conforms to this section. A county ordinance enacted under this subsection does not apply within a town, village, or city that has enacted or enacts an ordinance under this subsection.
The state regulatory scheme for tobacco sales preempts municipalities from adopting regulations that are not in strict conformity with those of the state. U.S. Oil, Inc. v. City of Fond du Lac, 199 Wis. 2d 333
, 544 N.W.2d 589
(Ct. App. 1995), 95-0213