347.15 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ss. Trans 305.09, 305.43, and 305.55, Wis. adm. code.
347.16 347.16 Clearance lamps and reflectors.
347.16(1) (1) No person shall operate on a highway during hours of darkness any vehicle, except automobiles, having a width at any part in excess of 80 inches unless such vehicle is equipped with:
347.16(1)(a) (a) Two clearance lamps mounted on the front of the vehicle so as to be visible from the front; and
347.16(1)(b) (b) Two clearance lamps mounted on the rear of the vehicle so as to be visible from the rear; and
347.16(1)(c) (c) Two reflectors mounted on the rear of the vehicle in such a manner as to indicate as nearly as possible the extreme width of the vehicle.
347.16(2) (2) No person shall operate any of the following vehicles on a highway during hours of darkness unless such vehicles are equipped as indicated:
347.16(2)(a) (a) Every truck tractor shall carry on the front 2 clearance lamps, one at each side.
347.16(2)(b) (b) Every trailer or semitrailer shall carry on the rear 2 reflectors, one on each side.
347.16(3) (3) Reflectorized material extending across the full width of the vehicle and otherwise meeting the mounting and visibility specifications for reflectors may be used in lieu of the reflectors required by this section.
347.16 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also s. Trans 305.14, and 305.55, Wis. adm. code.
347.17 347.17 Color of clearance and marker lamps and reflectors. Whenever a vehicle is equipped with clearance lamps, sidemarker lamps or reflectors:
347.17(1) (1) Those clearance and marker lamps and reflectors mounted on the front or on the side near the front of the vehicle shall display or reflect an amber color;
347.17(2) (2) Those clearance lamps and marker lamps and reflectors mounted on the rear or on the sides near the rear of the vehicle, or on both, shall display or reflect a red color.
347.17 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ss. Trans 305.14 and 305.55, Wis. adm. code.
347.18 347.18 Mounting of clearance lamps and reflectors.
347.18(1)(1) Whenever s. 347.16 requires any reflector to be displayed upon a vehicle, each such reflector shall be mounted at a height not less than 16 inches nor more than 60 inches above the ground on which the vehicle stands. On vehicles which are more than 80 inches wide, the front and rear reflectors shall be mounted so as to indicate as nearly as possible the extreme width of the vehicle. Any required red reflector on the rear of a vehicle may be incorporated with the tail lamp but such reflector shall meet all the other reflector requirements of this chapter.
347.18(2) (2) Whenever this chapter requires a vehicle to be equipped with clearance lamps, such lamps shall be mounted in such a manner as to indicate the extreme width of the vehicle and as near to the top thereof as practicable except that when rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of the vehicle, rear clearance lamps may be mounted at optional heights.
347.18 History History: 1975 c. 121.
347.18 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ss. Trans 305.14 and 305.55, Wis. adm. code.
347.19 347.19 Visibility of clearance lamps and reflectors.
347.19(1)(1) Every reflector required by s. 347.16 to be displayed upon a vehicle shall be of such size and characteristics and so maintained as to be readily visible during the hours of darkness from all distances within 500 feet to 50 feet from the vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps.
347.19(2) (2) Front and rear clearance lamps when lighted shall be capable of being seen and distinguished under normal atmospheric conditions during hours of darkness at a distance of 500 feet from the front and rear, respectively, of the vehicle.
347.19 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ss. Trans 305.14, 305.43, and 305.55, Wis. adm. code.
347.20 347.20 Lamp or flag on projecting load or fixture.
347.20(1)(1) No person shall operate on a highway during hours of darkness any vehicle with a load or fixture thereon extending more than 4 feet beyond the rear of the bed or body thereof unless there is displayed at the extreme rear end of the load or fixture a red light or lantern plainly visible from a distance of at least 500 feet to the sides and rear. The red light or lantern shall be in addition to any tail lamp or clearance lamp which the vehicle is required to carry.
347.20(2) (2) No person shall operate on a highway, at times other than hours of darkness, any vehicle with a load or fixture thereon extending more than 4 feet beyond the rear of the bed or body thereof unless there is displayed at the extreme rear end of such load or fixture a red flag or cloth not less than 12 inches square and so hung that the entire area is visible to the operator of a vehicle approaching from the rear.
347.20(3) (3) This section does not apply to vehicles loaded with loose hay or straw.
347.20 History History: 1981 c. 176.
347.21 347.21 Lamps and flags on trains of agricultural vehicles.
347.21(1)(1) No person shall operate on a highway during hours of darkness any train of vehicles authorized by s. 348.08 (1) (d) unless there is mounted on each side of every vehicle in such train, including farm tractors and implements of husbandry, at least one lamp emitting a red or amber light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the side of the vehicle on which mounted or, in lieu thereof, at least one red or amber reflector or, notwithstanding s. 347.245, one slow moving vehicle emblem visible from all distances within 500 feet to 50 feet of the side of the vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps.
347.21(1m) (1m) No person shall operate on a highway during hours of darkness any train of vehicles authorized by s. 348.08 (1) (b) unless there is mounted on each side of every vehicle in such train, including farm tractors and implements of husbandry, at least one lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the side of the vehicle on which mounted or, in lieu thereof, at least one red reflector visible from all distances within 500 feet to 50 feet of the side of the vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (1m) is amended eff. 11-1-15 by 2013 Wis. Act 377 to read:
Effective date text (1m) No person shall operate on a highway during hours of darkness any train of vehicles authorized by s. 348.08 (1) (b) unless there is mounted on each side of every vehicle in such train at least one lamp emitting a red or amber light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the side of the vehicle on which mounted or, in lieu thereof, at least one red or amber reflector visible from all distances within 500 feet to 50 feet of the side of the vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps.
347.21(2) (2) No person shall operate on a highway, at times other than hours of darkness, any train of agricultural vehicles authorized by s. 348.08 (1) (b) unless there is displayed a red flag at least 12 inches square on each rear corner of the rearmost vehicle in the train.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is repealed eff. 11-1-15 by 2013 Wis. Act 377.
347.22 347.22 Lamps on farm tractors, self-propelled farm implements, and lightweight utility vehicles.
347.22(1) (1) No person shall operate or park a farm tractor, self-propelled farm implement, or lightweight utility vehicle, as defined in s. 346.94 (21) (a) 2., upon a highway during hours of darkness unless such tractor, implement, or lightweight utility vehicle carries the lighted headlamps and tail lamps which would be required of other motor vehicles under similar circumstances.
347.22(2) (2) No person shall operate or park a farm tractor, self-propelled farm implement, or lightweight utility vehicle, as defined in s. 346.94 (21) (a) 2., upon a highway during hours of darkness with any lamp thereon showing any light to the rear other than red in color.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (2) is amended eff. 11-1-15 by 2013 Wis. Act 377 to read:
Effective date text (2) Except as provided in s. 347.25 (2g), no person shall operate or park a farm tractor, self-propelled farm implement, or lightweight utility vehicle, as defined in s. 346.94 (21) (a) 2., upon a highway during hours of darkness with any lamp thereon showing any light to the rear other than red or amber in color.
347.22 History History: 2009 a. 157; 2013 a. 377.
347.23 347.23 Lamps on highway maintenance equipment.
347.23(1)(1) No person shall operate upon a highway during hours of darkness any road machinery or motor vehicle used in highway construction or maintenance unless such vehicle or road machinery is equipped either as prescribed by par. (a) or (b):
347.23(1)(a) (a) A red light visible from a distance of 500 feet shall be displayed on each side of the front and on each side of the rear to give adequate warning of the presence of such vehicle or machinery and to show safe clearance for passing or overtaking vehicles; or
347.23(1)(b) (b) In lieu of the red lights prescribed by par. (a), 2 amber floodlamps may be used, one to be mounted on each side of the vehicle or machinery so as to illuminate its sides and its attachments, if any, to show safe clearance for passing or overtaking vehicles. Such floodlamps shall display an amber light of sufficient illuminating power to indicate safe clearance from a distance of 200 feet to the front and rear of such vehicle or machinery.
347.23(2) (2) The lights specified in sub. (1) need not be displayed upon motor vehicles used in highway construction or maintenance work when such vehicles are traveling along the highway at their normal operating speed in the ordinary course of traffic.
347.23(4) (4) No person shall operate upon the left-hand side of a highway during hours of darkness any road machinery or motor vehicle used in highway construction or maintenance, including snow and ice control, unless such vehicle or machinery is equipped with an auxiliary lamp or lamps projecting a flashing amber light visible from all directions for a 360-degree lens (beehive type lamp) or revolving type lamp and visible front and rear for reflectorized stationary directional type lamps. For flashing type lamps the number of flashes per minute shall be between 60 and 90. For revolving type lamps the revolutions per minute shall be between 45 and 90. The lenses of such auxiliary lamps shall not be less than 6 inches in diameter for the reflectorized stationary directional type lamp; 3-3/4 inches minimum diameter and 5-inch minimum height for the 360-degree lens (beehive type lamp); and 3-3/4 inches minimum width and 4-5/8 inches minimum height for the revolving type lamp. The lamps shall be equipped with bulbs of 50 candlepower minimum. The lamps shall be mounted approximately midway between the transverse extremities of the vehicle or machinery and at the highest practicable point.
347.24 347.24 Lamps and reflectors on nonmotor vehicles and equipment.
347.24(1)(1)
347.24(1)(a)(a) Except as provided under pars. (b) and (c), no person may operate on a highway during hours of darkness any implement of husbandry or any other vehicle not specifically required by law to be equipped with lamps or other lighting devices unless such implement or vehicle is equipped with at least 2 lighted lamps or lanterns exhibiting a white light visible from a distance of 500 feet ahead and 2 lighted lamps or lanterns exhibiting a red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear or, as an alternative to the red lamps or lanterns, 2 red reflectors mounted as specified in s. 347.18 and meeting the visibility requirements of s. 347.19 may be displayed on the rear of such vehicle or implement of husbandry.
347.24(1)(am) (am) No person may operate on a highway during hours of darkness any implement of husbandry that extends 4 feet or more to the left of the center line of its towing vehicle unless the implement is equipped with an amber reflector meeting the visibility requirements of s. 347.19 and mounted on the left side, facing forward, so as to mark the extreme width of the implement to drivers of oncoming vehicles.
347.24(1)(b) (b) Any implement of husbandry or any other vehicle not specifically required by law to be equipped with lamps or other lighting device and which was manufactured on or before January 1, 1984, shall comply with the lamp requirements of s. 347.24 (1), 1981 stats.
347.24(1)(c) (c) An implement of husbandry which is an all-terrain vehicle or utility terrain vehicle need only comply with the lamp requirements established under s. 23.33 (6).
347.24(2) (2) No person may operate on a highway during hours of darkness a vehicle drawn by an animal unless the vehicle is equipped with at least one lighted lamp or lantern exhibiting a white light visible from a distance of 500 feet ahead and 2 lighted lamps or lanterns exhibiting red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear and mounted in such a manner as to indicate the extreme width of the vehicle.
347.24(3) (3)
347.24(3)(a)(a) In this subsection, "wide implement of husbandry" means any implement of husbandry that has a total width in excess of 15 feet or that partly extends, when operated primarily on the right half of the roadway, over the center of the roadway into any lane intended for travel in the opposite direction.
347.24(3)(b) (b) Except as provided in par. (bm), no person may operate on a highway any wide implement of husbandry manufactured before January 1, 2014, unless it is equipped with all of the following and any lamp or light required under this paragraph is lighted and visible at the time of operation:
347.24(3)(b)1. 1. At least 2 amber flashing warning lamps, visible from both the front and rear of the implement of husbandry. When lighted, these lamps shall be capable of being seen and distinguished under normal atmospheric conditions during hours of darkness at a distance of 500 feet from the front and rear of the implement of husbandry. These lamps shall be mounted, as nearly as practicable, to indicate the extreme width of the implement of husbandry, but not more than 16 inches from the lateral extremities of the implement of husbandry.
347.24(3)(b)2. 2. Red retroreflective conspicuity material, visible to the rear and mounted within 25 inches of, respectively, the extreme left and extreme right of the implement of husbandry and spaced as evenly as practicable. This conspicuity material shall be of such size and characteristics and so maintained as to be readily visible during the hours of darkness from all distances within 500 feet to 50 feet from the implement of husbandry when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps.
347.24(3)(b)3. 3. At least 2 strips of yellow retroreflective conspicuity material visible to the front of the implement of husbandry. On the left and right sides of the implement of husbandry, the outer edge of at least one strip of this material shall be mounted within 16 inches of, respectively, the extreme left and extreme right of the implement of husbandry. This conspicuity material shall be of such size and characteristics and so maintained as to be readily visible during the hours of darkness from all distances within 500 feet to 50 feet from the implement of husbandry when directly in front of lawful upper beams of headlamps.
347.24(3)(b)4. 4. Subject to ss. 347.06 (1) and (3), 347.13 (2), and 347.22 (1), at least 2 red tail lamps mounted symmetrically to the rear of the implement of husbandry, or as close to the rear as practicable. These tail lamps are not required to be wired to light when headlamps or other lamps light. When lighted, these tail lamps shall be capable of being seen and distinguished under normal atmospheric conditions during hours of darkness at a distance of 500 feet from the rear of the implement of husbandry.
347.24(3)(bm) (bm) A person may operate on a highway, at times other than hours of darkness, a wide implement of husbandry manufactured before January 1, 2014, that does not comply with par. (b) if all of the following apply:
347.24(3)(bm)1. 1. The wide implement of husbandry is accompanied by an escort vehicle operating with hazard lights activated.
347.24(3)(bm)2. 2. Two orange or red flags, not less than 12 inches square, are attached to the rear of the wide implement of husbandry, or as close to the rear as practicable, in a manner that is clearly visible to the operator of a vehicle approaching from the rear and that marks the extreme left and extreme right of the implement of husbandry.
347.24(3)(c) (c) In addition to any applicable requirement under par. (b) or (bm), if a wide implement of husbandry has a total width in excess of 22 feet, no person may operate the implement of husbandry on a highway unless the implement of husbandry is accompanied by an escort vehicle operating with hazard lights activated. If the implement of husbandry is being operated on a highway with only one lane for travel in each direction, the escort vehicle shall be operated ahead of the implement of husbandry on the highway. If the implement of husbandry is being operated on a highway with more than one lane for travel in each direction or on a 3-lane highway, the escort vehicle shall be operated behind the implement of husbandry on the highway. This paragraph does not apply to an implement of husbandry that is traveling between fields or between a farm and a field and is operated on the highway for a distance of 0.5 miles or less.
347.24(3)(d) (d) No person may operate on a highway any implement of husbandry manufactured on or after January 1, 2014, unless it is equipped with all lighting and marking devices with which the implement of husbandry was originally equipped by the manufacturer and all such lighting and marking devices are in good working order and visible at the time of operation.
347.24(3)(e) (e) The requirements under this subsection apply in addition to any applicable requirements under subs. (1) and (2) and ss. 347.21, 347.22, and 347.27.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (3) is created eff. 11-1-15 by 2013 Wis. Act 377.
347.245 347.245 Identification emblem on certain slow moving vehicles.
347.245(1)(1) After January 1, 1970, no person may operate on a highway, day or night, any vehicle or equipment, any animal-drawn vehicle, or any other machinery, including all road machinery, that usually travels at speeds of less than 25 miles per hour or any vehicle operated under a special restricted operator's license issued under s. 343.135 or any lightweight utility vehicle, as defined in s. 346.94 (21) (a) 2., unless there is displayed on the most practicable visible rear area of the vehicle or combination of vehicles, a slow moving vehicle (SMV) emblem as described in and displayed as provided in sub. (2). Any towed vehicle or machine is exempt from this provision if the towing vehicle is visible from the rear and is in compliance with this section. All road machinery is excluded when it is engaged in actual construction or maintenance work either guarded by a flagman or clearly visible warning signs. Except as provided in s. 347.21 (1), the requirement of the emblem shall be in addition to any lighting devices required or permitted by law. Mopeds and motor bicycles are excluded from the provisions of this section unless they are operated under a special restricted operator's license issued under s. 343.135. Electric personal assistive mobility devices are excluded from the provisions of this section. The SMV emblem need not be displayed on vehicles moving directly across the highway.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (1) is amended eff. 11-1-15 by 2013 Wis. Act 377 to read:
Effective date text (1) After January 1, 1970, no person may operate on a highway, day or night, any vehicle or equipment, any animal-drawn vehicle, or any other machinery, including all road machinery, that usually travels at speeds of less than 25 miles per hour or any vehicle operated under a special restricted operator's license issued under s. 343.135 or any lightweight utility vehicle, as defined in s. 346.94 (21) (a) 2., or any wide implement of husbandry, as defined in s. 347.24 (3) (a), that is manufactured before January 1, 2014, unless there is displayed on the most practicable visible rear area of the vehicle or combination of vehicles, a slow moving vehicle (SMV) emblem as described in and displayed as provided in sub. (2). Any towed vehicle or machine is exempt from this provision if the towing vehicle is visible from the rear and is in compliance with this section. All road machinery is excluded when it is engaged in actual construction or maintenance work either guarded by a flagman or clearly visible warning signs. Except as provided in s. 347.21 (1), the requirement of the emblem shall be in addition to any lighting devices required or permitted by law. Mopeds and motor bicycles are excluded from the provisions of this section unless they are operated under a special restricted operator's license issued under s. 343.135. Electric personal assistive mobility devices are excluded from the provisions of this section. The SMV emblem need not be displayed on vehicles moving directly across the highway.
347.245(2) (2) Standards and specifications for the design and position of mounting of the SMV emblem shall be established by rule by the secretary. Except as provided in s. 347.21 (1), the standards and specifications for SMV emblems shall correlate with and, so far as possible, conform with those approved by the American society of agricultural engineers. The secretary shall submit such standards and specifications, and any subsequent changes therein, to the assembly and senate committees having jurisdiction over transportation matters as determined by the speaker of the assembly and the president of the senate acting jointly for their approval.
347.245(3) (3) No person shall display such emblem on a roadway, except as provided in sub. (1), nor on roadside stationary objects such as mailboxes or signposts and no such emblem shall be used as a clearance marker for wide vehicles. No slow moving vehicle actually engaged in construction or maintenance guarded by a flagman or clearly visible warning signs need remove the slow moving vehicle emblem.
347.245(4) (4) Except as provided in s. 347.21 (1), no person shall display such emblem on any vehicle or equipment not specified in sub. (1).
347.245(5) (5) This section does not apply to any vehicle or combination of vehicles to the left rear of which is attached a yellow or amber flashing light at least 4 inches in diameter.
Effective date note NOTE: Sub. (5) is amended eff. 11-1-15 by 2013 Wis. Act 377 to read:
Effective date text (5) This section does not apply to any vehicle or combination of vehicles to the left rear of which is attached a yellow or amber flashing light at least 4 inches in diameter, except to a wide implement of husbandry, as defined in s. 347.24 (3) (a), that is manufactured before January 1, 2014.
347.245 Cross-reference Cross-reference: See also ch. Trans 304, Wis. adm. code.
347.245 Annotation As applied to Amish appellants, requiring slow moving vehicle signs on buggies unconstitutionally infringed on religious liberties. State v. Miller, 202 Wis. 2d 56, 549 N.W.2d 235 (1996), 94-0159.
347.25 347.25 Special warning lamps on vehicles.
347.25(1) (1) Except as provided in subs. (1m) (a), (1n), (1r), and (1s), an authorized emergency vehicle may be equipped with one or more flashing, oscillating, or rotating red lights, except that ambulances, fire department equipment, privately owned motor vehicles under s. 340.01 (3) (d), (dg), or (dm) being used by personnel of a full-time or part-time fire department, by members of a volunteer fire department or rescue squad, or by an organ procurement organization or any person under an agreement with an organ procurement organization, and privately owned motor vehicles under s. 340.01 (3) (dh) being used to transport or pick up medical devices or equipment, may be equipped with red or red and white lights, and shall be so equipped when the operator thereof is exercising the privileges granted by s. 346.03 or 346.215 (2) (a). The lights shall be so designed and mounted as to be plainly visible and understandable from a distance of 500 feet both during normal sunlight and during hours of darkness. No operator of an authorized emergency vehicle may use the warning lights except when responding to an emergency call or when in pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law, when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, when transporting an organ for human transplantation, when transporting medical personnel for the purpose of performing human organ harvesting or transplantation immediately after the transportation, when necessarily parked in a position which is likely to be hazardous to traffic, or as authorized under s. 346.215 (2) (a).
347.25(1m) (1m)
347.25(1m)(a)(a) A police vehicle under s. 340.01 (3) (a) may be equipped with a blue light and a red light which are flashing, oscillating or rotating.
347.25(1m)(b) (b) If the vehicle is so equipped, the lights shall be illuminated as required under s. 346.03 or 346.215 (2) (a) when the operator of the police vehicle is exercising the privileges granted under s. 346.03 or 346.215 (2) (a). On a marked police vehicle, the blue light shall be mounted on the passenger side of the vehicle and the red light shall be mounted on the driver side of the vehicle. When in use on an unmarked police vehicle, the blue light shall be displayed on the passenger side of the vehicle and the red light shall be displayed on the driver side of the vehicle. The lights shall be designed and displayed so as to be plainly visible and understandable from a distance of 500 feet during normal sunlight and during hours of darkness. No operator of a police vehicle may use the warning lights except when responding to an emergency call or when in pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law, when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, when necessarily parked on a highway in a position which is likely to be hazardous to traffic using the highway, or as authorized under s. 346.215 (2) (a).
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2013-14 Wisconsin Statutes updated through 2015 Wis. Act 54 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before July 3, 2015. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after July 3, 2015 are designated by NOTES. (Published 7-3-15)