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401.203(2) (2) A transaction in the form of a lease creates a security interest if the consideration that the lessee is to pay the lessor for the right to possession and use of the goods is an obligation for the term of the lease and is not subject to termination by the lessee, and if any of the following apply:
401.203(2)(a) (a) The original term of the lease is equal to or greater than the remaining economic life of the goods.
401.203(2)(b) (b) The lessee is bound to renew the lease for the remaining economic life of the goods or is bound to become the owner of the goods.
401.203(2)(c) (c) The lessee has an option to renew the lease for the remaining economic life of the goods for no additional consideration or for nominal additional consideration upon compliance with the lease agreement.
401.203(2)(d) (d) The lessee has an option to become the owner of the goods for no additional consideration or for nominal additional consideration upon compliance with the lease agreement.
401.203(3) (3) A transaction in the form of a lease does not create a security interest merely because of any of the following:
401.203(3)(a) (a) The present value of the consideration the lessee is obligated to pay the lessor for the right to possession and use of the goods is substantially equal to or is greater than the fair market value of the goods at the time the lease is entered into.
401.203(3)(b) (b) The lessee assumes risk of loss of the goods.
401.203(3)(c) (c) The lessee agrees to pay taxes, insurance, filing, recording, or registration fees, or service or maintenance costs with respect to the goods.
401.203(3)(d) (d) The lessee has an option to renew the lease or to become the owner of the goods.
401.203(3)(e) (e) The lessee has an option to renew the lease for a fixed rent that is equal to or greater than the reasonably predictable fair market rent for the use of the goods for the term of the renewal at the time the option is to be performed.
401.203(3)(f) (f) The lessee has an option to become the owner of the goods for a fixed price that is equal to or greater than the reasonably predictable fair market value of the goods at the time the option is to be performed.
401.203(4) (4) Additional consideration is nominal if it is less than the lessee's reasonably predictable cost of performing under the lease agreement if the option is not exercised. Additional consideration is not nominal if any of the following apply:
401.203(4)(a) (a) When the option to renew the lease is granted to the lessee, the rent is stated to be the fair market rent for the use of the goods for the term of the renewal determined at the time the option is to be performed.
401.203(4)(b) (b) When the option to become the owner of the goods is granted to the lessee, the price is stated to be the fair market value of the goods determined at the time the option is to be performed.
401.203(5) (5) The "remaining economic life of the goods" and "reasonably predictable" fair market rent, fair market value, or cost of performing under the lease agreement must be determined with reference to the facts and circumstances at the time the transaction is entered into.
401.203 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.204 401.204 Value. Except as otherwise provided in chs. 403, 404, and 405, a person gives value for rights if the person acquires them under any of the following circumstances:
401.204(1) (1) In return for a binding commitment to extend credit or for the extension of immediately available credit, whether or not drawn upon and whether or not a charge-back is provided for in the event of difficulties in collection.
401.204(2) (2) As security for, or in total or partial satisfaction of, a preexisting claim.
401.204(3) (3) By accepting delivery under a preexisting contract for purchase.
401.204(4) (4) In return for any consideration sufficient to support a simple contract.
401.204 History History: 2009 a. 320; 2011 a. 257.
401.205 401.205 Reasonable time; seasonableness.
401.205(1)(1) Whether a time for taking an action required by chs. 401 to 411 is reasonable depends on the nature, purpose, and circumstances of the action.
401.205(2) (2) An action is taken seasonably if it is taken at or within the time agreed or, if no time is agreed, at or within a reasonable time.
401.205 History History: 2009 a. 320.
subch. III of ch. 401 SUBCHAPTER III
TERRITORIAL APPLICABILITY AND GENERAL RULES
401.301 401.301 Territorial applicability; parties' power to choose applicable law.
401.301(1) (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, when a transaction bears a reasonable relation to this state and to another state or nation the parties may agree that the law either of this state or of such other state or nation shall govern their rights and duties.
401.301(2) (2) In the absence of an agreement under sub. (1), and except as provided in sub. (3), chs. 401 to 411 apply to transactions bearing an appropriate relation to this state.
401.301(3) (3) If one of the following provisions of chs. 401 to 411 specifies the applicable law, that provision governs and a contrary agreement is effective only to the extent permitted by the law so specified:
401.301(3)(a) (a) Section 402.402.
401.301(3)(b) (b) Sections 411.105 and 411.106.
401.301(3)(c) (c) Section 404.102.
401.301(3)(d) (d) Section 410.507.
401.301(3)(e) (e) Section 405.116.
401.301(3)(g) (g) Section 408.110.
401.301(3)(h) (h) Sections 409.301 through 409.307.
401.301 History History: 2009 a. 320; 2011 a. 257.
401.302 401.302 Variation by agreement.
401.302(1) (1) Except as otherwise provided in sub. (2) or elsewhere in chs. 401 to 411, the effect of provisions of chs. 401 to 411 may be varied by agreement.
401.302(2) (2) The obligations of good faith, diligence, reasonableness, and care prescribed by chs. 401 to 411 may not be disclaimed by agreement. The parties, by agreement, may determine the standards by which the performance of those obligations is to be measured if those standards are not manifestly unreasonable. Whenever chs. 401 to 411 require any action to be taken within a reasonable time, any time which is not manifestly unreasonable may be fixed by agreement.
401.302(3) (3) The presence in certain provisions of chs. 401 to 411 of the phrase "unless otherwise agreed," or words of similar import, does not imply that the effect of other provisions may not be varied by agreement under this section.
401.302 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.303 401.303 Course of performance, course of dealing, and usage of trade.
401.303(1)(1) A "course of performance" is a sequence of conduct between the parties to a particular transaction that exists if any of the following apply:
401.303(1)(a) (a) The agreement of the parties with respect to the transaction involves repeated occasions for performance by a party.
401.303(1)(b) (b) The other party, with knowledge of the nature of the performance and opportunity for objection to it, accepts the performance or acquiesces in it without objection.
401.303(2) (2) A "course of dealing" is a sequence of conduct concerning previous transactions between the parties to a particular transaction that is fairly to be regarded as establishing a common basis of understanding for interpreting their expressions and other conduct.
401.303(3) (3) A "usage of trade" is any practice or method of dealing having such regularity of observance in a place, vocation, or trade as to justify an expectation that it will be observed with respect to the transaction in question. The existence and scope of such a usage are to be proved as facts. If it is established that such a usage is embodied in a trade code or similar record, the interpretation of the record is a question of law.
401.303(4) (4) A course of performance or course of dealing between the parties or usage of trade in the vocation or trade in which they are engaged or of which they are or should be aware is relevant in ascertaining the meaning of the parties' agreement, may give particular meaning to specific terms of the agreement, and may supplement or qualify the terms of the agreement. A usage of trade applicable in the place in which part of the performance under the agreement is to occur may be so utilized as to that part of the performance.
401.303(5) (5) Except as otherwise provided in sub. (6), the express terms of an agreement and any applicable course of performance, course of dealing, or usage of trade must be construed whenever reasonable as consistent with each other. If such a construction is unreasonable, all of the following apply:
401.303(5)(a) (a) Express terms prevail over course of performance, course of dealing, and usage of trade.
401.303(5)(b) (b) Course of performance prevails over course of dealing and usage of trade.
401.303(5)(c) (c) Course of dealing prevails over usage of trade.
401.303(6) (6) Subject to s. 402.209, a course of performance is relevant to show a waiver or modification of any term inconsistent with the course of performance.
401.303(7) (7) Evidence of a relevant usage of trade offered by one party is not admissible unless that party has given the other party notice that the court finds sufficient to prevent unfair surprise to the other party.
401.303 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.303 Annotation A single incident does not constitute a "course of dealing" within the meaning of this section. Maritime-Ontario Freight Lines, LTD. v. STI Holdings, Inc. 481 F. Supp. 2d 963.
401.304 401.304 Obligation of good faith. Every contract or duty within chs. 401 to 411 imposes an obligation of good faith in its performance and enforcement.
401.304 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.304 AnnotationEconomic duress is discussed. Wurtz v. Fleischman, 97 Wis. 2d 100, 293 N.W.2d 155 (1980).
401.304 Annotation This section does not support an independent cause of action for failure to act in good faith under a contract. Hauer v. Union State Bank of Wautoma, 192 Wis. 2d 576, 532 N.W.2d 456 (Ct. App. 1995).
401.304 Annotation Good faith under the code. Eisenberg, 54 MLR 1.
401.305 401.305 Remedies to be liberally administered.
401.305(1)(1) The remedies provided by chs. 401 to 411 must be liberally administered to the end that the aggrieved party may be put in as good a position as if the other party had fully performed but neither consequential or special damages nor penal damages may be had except as specifically provided in chs. 401 to 411 or by other rule of law.
401.305(2) (2) Any right or obligation declared by chs. 401 to 411 is enforceable by action unless the provision declaring it specifies a different and limited effect.
401.305 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.306 401.306 Waiver or renunciation of claim or right after breach. A claim or right arising out of an alleged breach may be discharged in whole or in part without consideration by agreement of the aggrieved party in an authenticated record.
401.306 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.307 401.307 Prima facie evidence by 3rd-party documents. A document in due form purporting to be a bill of lading, policy or certificate of insurance, official weigher's or inspector's certificate, consular invoice, or any other document authorized or required by the contract to be issued by a 3rd party shall be prima facie evidence of its own authenticity and genuineness and of the facts stated in the document by the 3rd party.
401.307 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.308 401.308 Performance or acceptance under reservation of rights.
401.308(1)(1) A party that with explicit reservation of rights performs or promises performance or assents to performance in a manner demanded or offered by the other party does not thereby prejudice the rights reserved. Such words as "without prejudice," "under protest," or the like are sufficient.
401.308(2) (2)Subsection (1) does not apply to an accord and satisfaction.
401.308 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.308 Annotation This section does not apply to "full payment" checks. Three rules relating to consideration and accord and satisfaction are discussed. Flambeau Products v. Honeywell Systems, 116 Wis. 2d 95, 341 N.W.2d 655 (1984).
401.309 401.309 Option to accelerate at will. A term providing that one party or that party's successor in interest may accelerate payment or performance or require collateral or additional collateral "at will" or when the party "deems itself insecure," or words of similar import, means that the party has power to do so only if that party in good faith believes that the prospect of payment or performance is impaired. The burden of establishing lack of good faith is on the party against which the power has been exercised.
401.309 History History: 2009 a. 320.
401.310 401.310 Subordinated obligations. An obligation may be issued as subordinated to performance of another obligation of the person obligated, or a creditor may subordinate its right to performance of an obligation by agreement with either the person obligated or another creditor of the person obligated. Subordination does not create a security interest as against either the common debtor or a subordinated creditor.
401.310 History History: 2009 a. 320.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)