Subject to the rules promulgated under s. 440.03 (1)
, the examining board may make investigations and conduct hearings in regard to any alleged action of any dentist, dental hygienist, or expanded function dental auxiliary, of a mobile dentistry program registrant, or of any other person it has reason to believe is engaged in or has engaged in the practice of dentistry or dental hygiene, or the operation of a mobile dentistry program, in this state, and may, on its own motion, or upon complaint in writing, reprimand any dentist, dental hygienist, or expanded function dental auxiliary who is licensed or certified under this chapter, or any mobile dentistry program registrant, or deny, limit, suspend, or revoke his or her license or certificate, or the registration of the mobile dentistry program registrant, if it finds that the dentist, dental hygienist, expanded function dental auxiliary, or mobile dentistry program registrant has done any of the following:
Engaged in unprofessional conduct or violated the standards of conduct established by the examining board under s. 447.02 (2) (g)
Made any false statement or given any false information in connection with an application for a license, certificate, or registration or for renewal or reinstatement of a license, certificate, or registration, or received a license, certificate, or registration through error.
Been adjudicated mentally incompetent by a court.
Directly or indirectly sent, for a purpose other than shade verification, impressions or measurements to a dental laboratory without a written work authorization on a form approved by the examining board and signed by the authorizing dentist, or directly or indirectly sent a patient, or an agent of a patient, to a dental laboratory for any purpose other than for shade verification. The examining board or its agents or employees may inspect dental offices and the work authorization records of dental laboratories to determine compliance with this paragraph.
Subject to ss. 111.321
, and 111.335
, been convicted of a crime, the circumstances of which substantially relate to the practice of dentistry or dental hygiene, the practice of an expanded function dental auxiliary, or the operation of a mobile dentistry program.
Violated this chapter or any federal or state statute or rule that relates to the practice of dentistry, dental hygiene, or an expanded function dental auxiliary, or the operation of a mobile dentistry program.
Subject to ss. 111.321
, practiced dentistry or dental hygiene or as an expanded function dental auxiliary while his or her ability was impaired by alcohol or other drugs.
Engaged in conduct that indicates a lack of knowledge of, an inability to apply or the negligent application of, principles or skills of dentistry or dental hygiene or the practice of an expanded function dental auxiliary.
Obtained or attempted to obtain compensation by fraud or deceit.
Employed, directly or indirectly, any unlicensed or uncertified person to perform any act requiring licensure or certification under this chapter.
Engaged in repeated irregularities in billing a 3rd party for services rendered to a patient. In this paragraph, “irregularities in billing" includes:
Reporting charges for the purpose of obtaining a total payment in excess of that usually received for the services rendered.
Reporting incorrect treatment dates for the purpose of obtaining payment.
Incorrectly reporting services rendered for the purpose of obtaining payment.
Abrogating the copayment provisions of a contract by agreeing to forgive any or all of the patient's obligation for payment under the contract.
Made a substantial misrepresentation in the course of practice, or in the operation of a mobile dentistry program, that was relied upon by a client.
Advertised by using a statement that tends to deceive or mislead the public.
The examining board may reinstate a license, certificate, or registration that has been voluntarily surrendered or revoked on terms and conditions that it considers appropriate. This subsection does not apply to a license or registration that is revoked under s. 440.12
In addition to or in lieu of a reprimand or denial, limitation, suspension, or revocation of a license, certificate, or registration under sub. (3)
, the examining board may assess against an applicant, licensee, certificate holder, or mobile dentistry program registrant a forfeiture of not more than $5,000 for each violation enumerated under sub. (3)
See also ch. DE 6
, Wis. adm. code.
Tort-based informed consent law requires a showing that a failure to disclose information caused actual injury. The standards of unprofessional conduct do not require such a showing. Unprofessional conduct includes practicing in a manner that substantially departs from the standard of care ordinarily exercised by a dentist that harms or could have harmed a patient. Painter v. Dentistry Examining Board, 2003 WI App 123
, 265 Wis. 2d 248
, 665 N.W.2d 397
The 5-pronged test of Gimenez, 203 Wis. 2d 349
, does not apply to cases in which fraud and misrepresentation are alleged. Gimenez
expressly limits the application of the test to cases in which the medical professional is charged with choosing a course of treatment that is dangerous or detrimental to his or her patient or the public. It does not apply to allegations of unprofessional conduct by perpetrating a fraud on a patient in an attempt to obtain compensation. Krahenbuhl v. Wisconsin Dentistry Examining Board, 2006 WI App 73
, 292 Wis. 2d 154
, 713 N.W.2d 152
Any person who violates this chapter may be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year in the county jail or both for the first offense and is guilty of a Class I felony for the 2nd or subsequent conviction within 5 years.
If it appears upon the complaint of any person to the examining board, or it is believed by the examining board that any person is violating this chapter, the examining board, or the district attorney of the proper county, may investigate such alleged violation, and may, in addition to or in lieu of any other remedies provided by law, bring action in the name and on behalf of the state against any such person to enjoin such violation. Between meetings of the examining board, its president and secretary, acting in its behalf, are empowered jointly to make such an investigation, and on the basis thereof to seek such relief. Investigations conducted by the examining board, or by its president and secretary, shall be conducted according to rules promulgated under s. 440.03 (1)
History: 1977 c. 418
Wisconsin Dental Association.
The Wisconsin Dental Association is continued with the general powers of a domestic nonstock corporation. It may take by purchase or gift and hold real and personal property. It may adopt, alter and enforce bylaws and rules for the admission and expulsion of members, the election of officers and the management of its affairs.
History: 1989 a. 349
County and district dental societies. 447.12(1)(1)
The dentists of any county who are licensed to practice dentistry under this chapter, provided there are at least 5 in the county, may organize a county dental society as a component of the Wisconsin Dental Association. When so organized it shall be a body corporate, and shall be designated as the dental society of the county, and shall have the general powers of a corporation and may take by purchase or gift and hold real and personal property. County dental societies now existing are continued with the powers and privileges conferred by this chapter. A county or district dental society that was in existence but unincorporated on September 29, 1963, is not required to incorporate unless that is the express wish of the majority of its members.
Persons who hold the degree of doctor of dental surgery, or its equivalent, and any other persons who have been licensed by the examining board to practice dentistry in this state, shall be eligible to meet for the organization of or to become members of a county dental society.
If there are not a sufficient number of dentists in a given county to form a dental society under sub. (1)
, those residing in the county may unite with those of adjoining counties and organize a multicounty or district dental society as a component of the Wisconsin Dental Association. The organizational meeting shall be held at the time and place agreed upon in writing by a majority of those eligible to belong.
A county or district dental society may adopt, alter and enforce articles and bylaws, or a constitution and bylaws for the admission and expulsion of members, the election of officers and the management of its affairs, but no instrument or action on the part of the society is valid if it is inconsistent with the articles, bylaws or policies of the Wisconsin Dental Association, or if it violates the autonomy of any other component of the Wisconsin Dental Association. Any county or district dental society which incorporates after September 29, 1963, shall file its articles as provided in ch. 181
History: 1989 a. 349
Service insurance corporations for dental care.
The Wisconsin Dental Association or, in a manner and to the extent approved by the Wisconsin Dental Association, a county or district dental society, may establish in one or more counties a service insurance corporation for dental care under ch. 613
History: 1975 c. 223
; 1989 a. 349
Definitions applicable to indemnification and insurance provisions.
In ss. 447.15
“Dental society" means a county or district dental society organized or continued under s. 447.12
“Director or officer" means any of the following:
A natural person who is or was a director or officer of a dental society.
A natural person who, while a director or officer of a dental society, is or was serving at the dental society's request as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member of any governing or decision-making committee, employee or agent of another dental society or corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
A natural person who, while a director or officer of a dental society, is or was serving an employee benefit plan because his or her duties to the dental society also imposed duties on, or otherwise involved services by, the person to the plan or to participants in or beneficiaries of the plan.
Unless the context requires otherwise, the estate or personal representative of a director or officer.
“Expenses" include fees, costs, charges, disbursements, attorney fees and any other expenses incurred in connection with a proceeding.
“Liability" includes the obligation to pay a judgment, settlement, forfeiture, or fine, including any excise tax assessed with respect to an employee benefit plan, plus costs, fees, and surcharges imposed under ch. 814
, and reasonable expenses.
“Party" means a natural person who was or is, or who is threatened to be made, a named defendant or respondent in a proceeding.
“Proceeding" means any threatened, pending or completed civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit, arbitration or other proceeding, whether formal or informal, which involves foreign, federal, state or local law and which is brought by or in the right of the dental society or by any other person.
History: 1987 a. 13
; 2003 a. 139
Mandatory indemnification. 447.17(1)(1)
A dental society shall indemnify a director or officer, to the extent he or she has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of a proceeding, for all reasonable expenses incurred in the proceeding if the director or officer was a party because he or she is a director or officer of the dental society.
In cases not included under sub. (1)
, a dental society shall indemnify a director or officer against liability incurred by the director or officer in a proceeding to which the director or officer was a party because he or she is a director or officer of the dental society, unless liability was incurred because the director or officer breached or failed to perform a duty he or she owes to the dental society and the breach or failure to perform constitutes any of the following:
A willful failure to deal fairly with the dental society or its members in connection with a matter in which the director or officer has a material conflict of interest.
A violation of criminal law, unless the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was lawful or no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.
A transaction from which the director or officer derived an improper personal profit.
Determination of whether indemnification is required under this subsection shall be made under s. 447.19
The termination of a proceeding by judgment, order, settlement or conviction, or upon a plea of no contest or an equivalent plea, does not, by itself, create a presumption that indemnification of the director or officer is not required under this subsection.
A director or officer who seeks indemnification shall make a written request to the dental society.
Indemnification under this section is not required to the extent limited by the dental society's articles, constitution or bylaws under s. 447.23
Indemnification under this section is not required if the director or officer has previously received indemnification or allowance of expenses from any person, including the dental society, in connection with the same proceeding.
History: 1987 a. 13
Cooperative indemnification. La Rowe and Weine. WBB Sept. 1988.
Determination of right to indemnification.
Unless otherwise provided by the articles, constitution or bylaws or by written agreement between the director or officer and the dental society, the director or officer seeking indemnification under s. 447.17 (2)
shall select one of the following means for determining his or her right to indemnification:
By majority vote of a quorum of the board of directors consisting of directors not at the time parties to the same or related proceedings. If a quorum of disinterested directors cannot be obtained, by majority vote of a committee duly appointed by the board of directors and consisting solely of 2 or more directors not at the time parties to the same or related proceedings. Directors who are parties to the same or related proceedings may participate in the designation of members of the committee.
By independent legal counsel selected by a quorum of the board of directors or its committee in the manner prescribed in sub. (1)
or, if unable to obtain such a quorum or committee, by a majority vote of the full board of directors, including directors who are parties to the same or related proceedings.
By a panel of 3 arbitrators consisting of one arbitrator selected by those directors entitled under sub. (2)
to select independent legal counsel, one arbitrator selected by the director or officer seeking indemnification and one arbitrator selected by the 2 arbitrators previously selected.
By an affirmative vote of a majority of members who are entitled to vote and who are present in person or represented by proxy at a meeting at which a quorum is present, if there are members having voting rights. Unless the articles, constitution or bylaws provide otherwise, members holding one-tenth of the votes entitled to be cast, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of members. Membership rights owned by, or voted under the control of, persons who are at the time parties to the same or related proceedings, whether as plaintiffs or defendants or in any other capacity, may not be voted in making the determination.
By any other method provided for in any additional right to indemnification permitted under s. 447.25
History: 1987 a. 13
Allowance of expenses as incurred.
Upon written request by a director or officer who is a party to a proceeding, a dental society may pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses as incurred if the director or officer provides the dental society with all of the following:
A written affirmation of his or her good faith belief that he or she has not breached or failed to perform his or her duties to the dental society.
A written undertaking, executed personally or on his or her behalf, to repay the allowance and, if required by the dental society, to pay reasonable interest on the allowance to the extent that it is ultimately determined under s. 447.19
that indemnification under s. 447.17 (2)
is not required and that indemnification is not ordered by a court under s. 447.27 (2) (b)
. The undertaking under this subsection shall be an unlimited general obligation of the director or officer and may be accepted without reference to his or her ability to repay the allowance. The undertaking may be secured or unsecured.
History: 1987 a. 13
Dental society may limit indemnification. 447.23(1)(1)
A dental society's obligations to indemnify under s. 447.17
may be limited as follows:
If the dental society is organized before June 13, 1987, except as provided in s. 447.12 (4)
, by an amendment to its articles, constitution or bylaws which becomes effective on or after June 13, 1987.
If the dental society is organized on or after June 13, 1987, except as provided in s. 447.12 (4)
, by its articles, constitution or bylaws, including any amendments to its articles, constitution or bylaws.
A limitation under sub. (1)
applies if the first alleged act of a director or officer for which indemnification is sought occurred while the limitation was in effect.
History: 1987 a. 13
Additional rights to indemnification and allowance of expenses. 447.25(1)(1)
Except as provided in sub. (2)
, ss. 447.17
do not preclude any additional right to indemnification or allowance of expenses that a director or officer may have under any of the following: