No plan may be issued in this state unless the commissioner determines that:
The benefits and pattern of premiums do not mislead prospective policyholders or insureds; and
The benefits are substantially as favorable to policyholders and insureds as the minimum benefits required under this section.
The commissioner shall by rule adopt a method consistent with the principles of this section for determining the minimum cash surrender values and paid-up nonforfeiture benefits provided by a plan.
Any cash surrender value and any paid-up nonforfeiture benefit, available under the policy in the event of default in a premium payment due at any time other than on the policy anniversary, shall be calculated with allowance for the lapse of time and the payment of fractional premiums beyond the last preceding policy anniversary. All values under subs. (2)
may be calculated upon the assumption that any death benefit is payable at the end of the policy year of death. The net value of any paid-up additions, other than paid-up term additions, shall be not less than the amounts used to provide the additions. Notwithstanding sub. (2)
, additional benefits payable in the event of death or dismemberment by accident or accidental means, in the event of total and permanent disability, as reversionary annuity or deferred reversionary annuity benefits, as term insurance benefits provided by a rider or supplemental policy provision to which, if issued as a separate policy, this section would not apply, as term insurance on the life of a child or on the lives of children provided in a policy on the life of a parent of the child, if the term insurance expires before the child's age is 26, is uniform in amount after the child's age is one, and has not become paid up by reason of the death of a parent of the child, and as other policy benefits additional to life insurance and endowment benefits, and premiums for all of these additional benefits, shall be disregarded in ascertaining cash surrender values and nonforfeiture benefits required by this section, and none of these additional benefits may be required to be included in any paid-up nonforfeiture benefits.
This subsection applies to all policies issued on or after January 1, 1984. Any cash surrender value available under the policy in the event of default in a premium payment due on any policy anniversary shall be in an amount which does not differ by more than 0.2 percent of any uniform amount of insurance or 0.2 percent of the average amount of insurance at the beginning of each of the first 10 policy years, from the sum of the following:
The greater of zero and the basic cash value under par. (b)
on the policy anniversary.
The present value of any existing paid-up additions less the amount of any indebtedness to the company under the policy.
The basic cash value is the present value of the future guaranteed benefits which would have been provided for by the policy, excluding any existing paid-up additions and before deduction of any indebtedness to the company, if there had been no default, less the present value on the policy anniversary of the nonforfeiture factors under par. (c)
corresponding to premiums which would have fallen due on and after the policy anniversary. The effects on the basic cash value of supplemental life insurance or annuity benefits or of family coverage under subs. (2)
shall be the same as the effects under subs. (2)
on the cash surrender values under those subsections.
The nonforfeiture factor for each policy year is an amount equal to a percentage of the adjusted premium under subs. (4)
for the policy year. Except as provided under par. (d)
, the percentage:
Must be the same for each policy year between the 2nd policy anniversary and the later of the 5th policy anniversary and the first policy anniversary at which there is available a cash surrender value, before including any paid-up additions and before deducting any indebtedness, of at least 0.2 percent of any uniform amount of insurance or 0.2 percent of the average amount of insurance at the beginning of each of the first 10 policy years; and
Must apply to at least 5 consecutive policy years after the latest of the policy anniversaries under subd. 1.
No basic cash value may be less than the value which would be obtained if the adjusted premiums for the policy under sub. (6m)
were substituted for the nonforfeiture factors in the calculation of the basic cash value.
All adjusted premiums and present values under this subsection shall be calculated on the mortality and interest bases applicable to the policy under this section. The cash surrender values under this subsection include any endowment benefits provided by the policy.
Any cash surrender value available other than in the event of default in a premium payment due on a policy anniversary, and the amount of any paid-up nonforfeiture benefit available in the event of default in a premium payment shall be determined by methods consistent with the methods under subs. (1)
. The amounts of any cash surrender values and of any paid-up nonforfeiture benefits granted in connection with additional benefits the same or similar to those under sub. (7)
shall conform to the principles of this subsection.
Term policy of uniform amount which provides no guaranteed nonforfeiture or endowment benefits of 20 years or less expiring before age 71, for which uniform premiums are payable during the entire term of the policy.
Term policy of decreasing amount, which provides no guaranteed nonforfeiture or endowment benefits, on which each adjusted premium, calculated under subs. (4)
is less than the adjusted premium calculated under subs. (4)
on a term policy of uniform amount providing no guaranteed nonforfeiture or endowment benefits, issued at the same age and for the same initial amount of insurance and for a term of 20 years or less expiring before age 71, for which uniform premiums are payable during the entire term of the policy.
Policy providing no guaranteed nonforfeiture or endowment benefits, for which any cash surrender value or present value of any paid-up nonforfeiture benefit, at the beginning of any policy year, calculated under subs. (2)
, does not exceed 2.5 percent of the amount of insurance at the beginning of the same policy year.
Policy delivered outside this state through an agent or other representative of the company issuing the policy.
For purposes of this subsection, the age at expiry for a joint term life insurance policy is the age at expiry of the oldest life.
After May 22, 1943, any company may file with the commissioner a written notice of its intention to comply with the provisions hereof after a specified date before January 1, 1948. After the filing of such notice, then upon such specified date, this section shall become fully effective with respect to policies thereafter issued by such company and all previously existing provisions of law inconsistent with this section shall become inapplicable to such policies. Except as herein provided, this section shall become effective January 1, 1948, and shall from and after said date supersede all provisions of law inconsistent or in conflict therewith.
Standard nonforfeiture law for individual deferred annuities. 632.435(1)(1)
No contract of annuity shall be delivered or issued for delivery in this state unless it contains in substance the following provisions or corresponding provisions which in the opinion of the commissioner are at least as favorable to the contract holder:
Upon cessation of payment of considerations under a contract, or upon the written request of the contract owner, the company shall grant a paid-up annuity on a plan stipulated in the contract of such value as is specified in subs. (5)
If a contract provides for a lump sum settlement at maturity or at any other time, upon surrender of the contract at or prior to the commencement of any annuity payments, the company shall pay in lieu of any paid-up annuity benefit a cash surrender benefit of such amount as is specified in subs. (5)
, and (10)
. The company may reserve the right to defer the payment of such cash surrender benefit, for a period not exceeding 6 months after demand therefor with surrender of the contract, if the company receives written approval from the commissioner upon the company's written request, which shall address the deferral's necessity and equitability to all policyholders.
A statement of the mortality table, if any, and interest rates used in calculating any minimum paid-up annuity, cash surrender or death benefits that are guaranteed under the contract, together with sufficient information to determine the amounts of such benefits.
A statement that any paid-up annuity, cash surrender or death benefits that may be available under the contract are not less than the minimum benefits required by any statute of the state in which the contract is delivered and an explanation of the manner in which such benefits are altered by the existence of any additional amounts credited by the company to the contract, any indebtedness to the company on the contract or any prior withdrawals from or partial surrenders of the contract.
Notwithstanding the requirements of this subsection, any deferred annuity contract may provide that if no considerations have been received under a contract for a period of 2 years and the portion of the paid-up annuity benefit at maturity on the plan stipulated in the contract arising from considerations paid prior to such period would be less than $20 monthly, the company may terminate such contract by payment in cash of the then present value of such portion of the paid-up annuity benefit, calculated on the basis of the mortality table, if any, and interest rate specified in the contract for determining the paid-up annuity benefit, and by such payment shall be relieved of any further obligation under such contract.
In this subsection, “net considerations" means, for a given contract year, an amount equal to 87.5 percent of the gross considerations credited to the contract during that contract year.
The minimum nonforfeiture amount at or prior to the commencement of any annuity payments shall be equal to an accumulation up to such time, at one or more rates of interest as indicated in pars. (c)
, of the net considerations paid prior to such time, decreased by the sum of all of the following:
Any prior withdrawals from or partial surrenders of the contract accumulated at one or more rates of interest as indicated in pars. (c)
An annual contract charge of $50, accumulated at one or more rates of interest as indicated in pars. (c)
Any premium tax paid by the company for the contract, accumulated at one or more rates of interest as indicated in pars. (c)
The amount of any indebtedness to the company on the contract, including interest due and accrued.
The interest rate used to determine minimum nonforfeiture amounts shall be an annual rate of interest that is the lower of 3 percent and the higher of either of the following:
The 5-year constant maturity treasury rate reported by the federal reserve board as of a date, or average over a period, specified in the contract no longer than 15 months prior to the contract issue date or redetermination date under par. (d)
, less 125 basis points or, if the contract provides substantive participation in an equity indexed benefit during the period or term, the contract may increase the reduction by up to an additional 100 basis points to reflect the value of the equity index benefit, and rounded to the nearest one-twentieth of 1 percent.
The interest rate determined under par. (c)
shall apply for an initial period and may be redetermined for additional periods. The redetermination date, basis, and period, if any, shall be stated in the contract. The basis is the date or average over a specified period that produces the value of the 5-year constant maturity treasury rate to be used at each redetermination date. The method for determining the interest rate under par. (c)
shall be specified in the contract if the interest rate will be reset.
The present value at the contract issue date, and at each redetermination date, of the additional reduction under par. (c) 1.
for substantive participation in an equity index benefit may not exceed the market value of the benefit. The commissioner may require a demonstration that the present value of the additional reduction does not exceed the market value of the benefit. The commissioner may disallow or limit the additional reduction if the commissioner determines that the demonstration is unacceptable.
The commissioner may promulgate rules for the implementation of par. (e)
and to provide for further adjustments to the calculation of minimum nonforfeiture amounts for contracts that provide substantive participation in an equity index benefit and for other contracts for which the commissioner determines adjustments are justified.
Any paid-up annuity benefit available under a contract shall be such that its present value on the date annuity payments are to commence is at least equal to the minimum nonforfeiture amount on that date. Such present value shall be computed using the mortality table, if any, and the interest rate or rates specified in the contract for determining the minimum paid-up annuity benefits guaranteed in the contract.
For contracts which provide cash surrender benefits, such cash surrender benefits available prior to maturity shall not be less than the present value as of the date of surrender of that portion of the maturity value of the paid-up annuity benefit which would be provided under the contract at maturity arising from considerations paid prior to the time of cash surrender reduced by the amount appropriate to reflect any prior withdrawals from or partial surrenders of the contract, such present value being calculated on the basis of an interest rate not more than one percent higher than the interest rate specified in the contract for accumulating the net considerations to determine such maturity value, decreased by the amount of any indebtedness to the company on the contract, including interest due and accrued, and increased by any existing additional amounts credited by the company to the contract. No cash surrender benefit shall be less than the minimum nonforfeiture amount at that time. The death benefit under such contracts shall be at least equal to the cash surrender benefit.
For contracts which do not provide cash surrender benefits, the present value of any paid-up annuity benefit available as a nonforfeiture option at any time prior to maturity shall not be less than the present value of that portion of the maturity value of the paid-up annuity benefit provided under the contract arising from considerations paid prior to the time the contract is surrendered in exchange for, or changed to, a deferred paid-up annuity, such present value being calculated for the period prior to the maturity date on the basis of the interest rate specified in the contract for accumulating the net considerations to determine such maturity value, and increased by any existing additional amounts credited by the company to the contract. For contracts which do not provide any death benefits prior to the commencement of any annuity payments, such present values shall be calculated on the basis of such interest rate and the mortality table specified in the contract for determining the maturity value of the paid-up annuity benefit, but the present value of a paid-up annuity benefit shall be not less than the minimum nonforfeiture amount at that time.
For the purpose of determining the benefits calculated under subs. (6)
, in the case of annuity contracts under which an election may be made to have annuity payments commence at optional maturity dates, the maturity date shall be deemed to be the latest date for which election shall be permitted by the contract, but shall not be deemed to be later than the anniversary of the contract next following the annuitant's 70th birthday or the 10th anniversary of the contract, whichever is later.
Any contract which does not provide cash surrender benefits or does not provide death benefits at least equal to the minimum nonforfeiture amount prior to the commencement of any annuity payments shall include a statement in a prominent place in the contract that such benefits are not provided.
Any paid-up annuity, cash surrender or death benefits available at any time, other than on the contract anniversary under any contract with fixed scheduled considerations, shall be calculated with allowance for the lapse of time and the payment of any scheduled considerations beyond the beginning of the contract year in which cessation of payment of considerations under the contract occurs.
For any contract which provides within the same contract, by rider or supplemental contract provision, both annuity benefits and life insurance benefits that are in excess of the greater of cash surrender benefits or a return of the gross considerations with interest, the minimum nonforfeiture benefits shall be equal to the sum of the minimum nonforfeiture benefits for the annuity portion and the minimum nonforfeiture benefits, if any, for the life insurance portion computed as if each portion were a separate contract. Notwithstanding subs. (5)
, additional benefits payable in the event of total and permanent disability, as reversionary annuity or deferred reversionary annuity benefits or as other policy benefits additional to life insurance, endowment and annuity benefits, and considerations for all such additional benefits, shall be disregarded in ascertaining the minimum nonforfeiture amounts, paid-up annuity, cash surrender and death benefits that may be required by this section. The inclusion of such additional benefits shall not be required in any paid-up benefits, unless such additional benefits separately would require minimum nonforfeiture amounts, paid-up annuity, cash surrender and death benefits.
This section does not apply to any reinsurance, group annuity purchased under a retirement plan or plan of deferred compensation established or maintained by an employer (including a partnership or sole proprietorship), an employee organization or both (other than a plan providing individual retirement accounts or individual retirement annuities under section 408 of the U.S. internal revenue code, as now or hereafter amended), premium deposit fund, variable annuity, investment annuity, immediate annuity, deferred annuity contract after annuity payments have commenced, reversionary annuity or any contract which is delivered outside this state through an agent or other representative of the company issuing the contract.
Required provisions in life insurance. 632.44(1)(1)
Every life insurance policy shall specify separately each benefit promised in the policy.
Every life insurance policy other than a group policy shall contain a provision entitling the policyholder to a grace period of not less than 31 days for the payment of any premium due except the first, during which the death benefit shall continue in force.
Individual credit life insurance policies shall be for nonrenewable, nonconvertible, term insurance. This restriction does not apply when evidence of insurability is required nor when the credit transaction is for more than 5 years.
When the insured debtor has paid or has made an obligation to pay all or any part of the premium under an individual credit life insurance policy, the total charge to the debtor shall be shown in the policy issued to the insured debtor. However, the rate of charge to the debtor rather than the total charge may be shown where the indebtedness is variable from period to period and the premium is computed periodically on the outstanding balance. The policy shall contain provision for cancellation of insurance upon termination of indebtedness through prepayment and shall provide for a refund of any unearned charge to the debtor, computed on a formula filed with the commissioner.
The insurer shall fully control and be responsible for the settlement or adjustment of all claims.
History: 1975 c. 375
See also ss. Ins 2.05
, and 3.26
, Wis. adm. code.
Contracts providing variable benefits. 632.45(1)(1)
Any contract issued under s. 611.25
or under any section of chs. 600
incorporating s. 611.25
by reference which provides for payment of benefits in variable amounts shall contain a statement of the essential features of the procedure to be followed by the insurer in determining the dollar amount of the variable benefits. It shall contain appropriate nonforfeiture benefits in lieu of those under s. 632.43
and a grace provision appropriate to such a contract in lieu of the provision required by s. 632.44
. Any such individual contract and any such certificate issued under a group contract shall state that the dollar amount may decrease or increase and shall conspicuously display on its first page a statement that the benefits thereunder are on a variable basis, with a statement where in the contract the details of the variable provisions may be found.
Any contract under sub. (1)
shall state whether it may be amended as to investment policy, voting rights, and conduct of the business and affairs of any segregated account. Subject to any preemptive provision of federal law, any such amendment is subject to filing under s. 631.20
and approval by a majority of the policyholders in the segregated account.
Contracts under sub. (1)
, if they are not forms, may be issued only within the terms of a general marketing plan approved by the commissioner. The marketing plan shall be designed to protect the interests of the policyholders in regard to any voting rights and operation of the segregated account and amendment of the contract.
Incontestability and misstated age. 632.46(1)(1)
Incontestability of individual policies.
Except under sub. (3)
or for nonpayment of premiums, no individual life insurance policy may be contested after it has been in force from the date of issue for 2 years during the lifetime of the person whose life is at risk.
Incontestability of group policies.
Except under sub. (3)
or for nonpayment of premiums, no group life insurance policy may be contested after it has been in force for 2 years from its date of issue and no coverage of any insured thereunder may be contested on the basis of a statement made by the insured relative to his or her insurability after the coverage has been in force on the insured for 2 years during the lifetime of the insured. No such statement may be used to contest coverage unless contained in a written instrument signed by the insured person.
Subject to par. (b)
, if the age or sex of the person whose life is at risk is misstated in an application for a policy of life insurance and the error is not adjusted during the person's lifetime the amount payable under the policy is what the premium paid would have purchased if the age or sex had been stated correctly.
If the person whose life is at risk was, at the time the insurance was applied for, beyond the maximum age limit designated by the insurer, the insurer shall refund at least the amount of the premiums collected under the policy.
Disability coverages and additional accident benefits.
Despite subs. (1)
, disability coverages and additional accident benefits may be contested at any time on the ground of fraudulent misrepresentation.
History: 1975 c. 373
; 1979 c. 102
Assignment of life insurance rights. 632.47(1)(1)
Except as provided in sub. (3)
, the owner of any rights under a life insurance policy or annuity contract may assign any of those rights, including any right to designate a beneficiary and the rights secured under s. 632.57
or any other statute. An assignment valid under general contract law vests the assigned rights in the assignee subject, so far as reasonably necessary for the protection of the insurer, to any provisions in the insurance policy or annuity contract inserted to protect the insurer against double payment or obligation.
Relative rights of assignee and beneficiary.
The rights of a beneficiary under a life insurance policy or annuity contract are subordinate to those of an assignee, unless the beneficiary was effectively designated as an irrevocable beneficiary prior to the assignment.
Prohibition on assignment.
Assignment may be expressly prohibited by any of the following:
A group contract providing annuities as retirement benefits.
An annuity contract that is subject to transferability restrictions under any federal or state tax, employee benefit or securities law.
History: 1975 c. 373
; 1999 a. 30
Life insurance policy loans.