Prohibiting voting by certain unit owners.
The bylaws may contain a provision prohibiting any unit owner from voting at a meeting of the association if the association has recorded a statement of condominium lien on the person's unit and the amount necessary to release the lien has not been paid at the time of the meeting.
The bylaws may be amended by the affirmative vote of unit owners having 67 percent or more of the votes. Each particular set forth in sub. (2)
shall be expressed in the bylaws as amended.
Title to condominium units unaffected by bylaws.
Title to a condominium unit is not rendered unmarketable or otherwise affected by any provision of the bylaws or by reason of any failure of the bylaws to comply with the provisions of this chapter.
Because sub. (6) prohibits condominium bylaws from affecting the transfer of title to a condominium unit, a bylaw prohibiting the sale of any condominium unit to an owner who would not reside in the condominium unit could not be applied to prevent the confirmation of a foreclosure sale to the high bidder who admitted he would not occupy the premises. Bankers Trust Company of California, N.A. v. Bregant, 2003 WI App 86
, 261 Wis. 2d 855
, 661 N.W.2d 498
A condominium complex may prohibit the rental of condominium units through an amendment to the bylaws. Nothing in s. 703.09 (1) (g) or in any other section of this chapter requires that all restrictions on use must be identified in the declaration. Sub. (3) expressly authorizes the placement of additional use restrictions in condominium bylaws and does not contain limitations on the types of restrictions that can be implemented through bylaw amendments. As long as use restrictions do not conflict with the declaration or with state or federal law, they are valid and enforceable. Apple Valley Gardens Association, Inc. v. MacHutta, 2009 WI 28
, 316 Wis. 2d 85
, 763 N.W.2d 126
reaffirmed that the proscription contained within sub. (6) is a protection of the title and is not a vehicle for a finding of impairment. Apple Valley Gardens Association, Inc. v. MacHutta, 2009 WI 28
, 316 Wis. 2d 85
, 763 N.W.2d 126
Display of the United States flag and political signs. 703.105(1)(1)
No bylaw or rule may be adopted or provision included in a declaration or deed that prohibits a unit owner from respectfully displaying the United States flag.
No bylaw or rule may be adopted or provision included in a declaration or deed that prohibits a unit owner from displaying in his or her condominium a sign that supports or opposes a candidate for public office or a referendum question.
Notwithstanding subs. (1)
, bylaws or rules may be adopted that regulate the size and location of signs, flags and flagpoles.
History: 2003 a. 161
; 2005 a. 303
Condominium plat. 703.11(1)(1)
To be filed for record.
When any condominium instruments are recorded, the declarant shall file a condominium plat to be recorded in a separate plat book maintained for condominium plats or stored electronically in the register of deeds office.
A condominium plat may consist of one or more sheets, shall be produced on media that is acceptable to the register of deeds, and shall contain at least the following particulars:
The name of the condominium and county in which the property is located on each sheet of the plat. The name of the condominium must be unique in the county in which the condominium is located. If there is more than one sheet, each sheet shall be consecutively numbered and show the relation of that sheet number to the total number of sheets.
A blank space at least 3 inches by 3 inches in size in the upper right corner on the first sheet for recording use by the register of deeds.
A survey of the property described in the declaration complying with minimum standards for property surveys adopted by the examining board of architects, landscape architects, professional engineers, designers and professional land surveyors and showing the location of any unit or building located or to be located on the property.
Plans that show the location of each building located or to be located on the property and, if there are units in a building, that show the perimeters, approximate dimensions, approximate square footage, and location of each unit in the building. Common elements shall be shown graphically to the extent feasible.
All survey maps and floor plans submitted for filing shall be legibly prepared with a binding margin of 1.5 inches on the left side and a one-inch margin on all other sides on durable white media that is 14 inches long by 22 inches wide with a permanent nonfading black image. The maps and plans shall be drawn to a convenient scale.
Designation of units.
Every unit shall be designated on the condominium plat by the unit number. Unit numbers may not contain more than 8 numerals and must be unique throughout the condominium.
Professional land surveyor's certificate.
A condominium plat is sufficient for the purposes of this chapter if there is attached to or included in it a certificate of a professional land surveyor that the plat is a correct representation of the condominium described and the identification and location of each unit and the common elements can be determined from the plat.
Except as provided in s. 703.265
, amendment of a condominium plat by an addendum that is not included as part of an amendment to the declaration shall be accomplished in the same manner as an amendment to the declaration under s. 703.09 (2)
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 283
, which affected this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
Local review of condominium instruments. 703.115(1)(1)
A county may adopt an ordinance to require the review of condominium instruments before recording by persons employed by the county of recording or by a city, village or town that is located in whole or in part in the county of recording if the ordinance does all of the following:
Requires the review to be completed within 10 working days after submission of the condominium instrument and provides that, if the review is not completed within this period, the condominium instrument is approved for recording.
If the person performing the review approves the condominium instrument, requires the person to certify approval in writing, accompanied by his or her signature and title.
An ordinance adopted under this section may authorize the county to charge a fee that reflects the actual cost of performing the review.
History: 1997 a. 333
; 2013 a. 358
Description of units.
A description in any deed or other instrument affecting title to any unit, including a conveyance, as defined in s. 706.01 (4)
, that makes reference to the letter or number or other appropriate designation of the unit on the condominium plat together with a reference to the condominium instruments and the name of the condominium as it appears in the declaration shall be a good and sufficient description for all purposes.
History: 1977 c. 407
; 2017 a. 333
The requirements of ch. 236 may not be used to legally describe condominium units. 75 Atty. Gen. 94
Percentage interests. 703.13(1)(1)
Undivided percentage interest in common elements.
Every unit owner owns an undivided percentage interest in the common elements equal to that set forth in the declaration. Except as specifically provided in this chapter, all common elements shall remain undivided. Except as provided in this chapter, no unit owner, nor any other person, may bring a suit for partition of the common elements and any covenant or provision in any declaration, bylaws or other instrument to the contrary is void.
Rights to common surpluses.
Common surpluses shall be disbursed as provided under s. 703.16 (1)
Liability for common expenses.
Except for the specially assessed common expenses, the amount of all common expenses shall be assessed as provided under s. 703.16 (2)
Change in percentage interest.
The percentage interests shall have a permanent character and, except as specifically provided by this chapter, may not be changed without the written consent of all of the unit owners and their mortgagees. Any change shall be evidenced by an amendment to the declaration and recorded among the appropriate land records. The percentage interests may not be separated from the unit to which they appertain. Any instrument, matter, circumstance, action, occurrence or proceeding in any manner affecting a unit also shall affect, in like manner, the percentage interests appurtenant to the unit.
A unit owner may make any improvements or alterations within his or her unit that do not impair the structural integrity or lessen the support of any portion of the condominium and that do not create a nuisance substantially affecting the use and enjoyment of other units or the common elements. A unit owner may not change the exterior appearance of a unit or of any other portion of the condominium without permission of the board of directors of the association.
Except to the extent prohibited by the condominium instruments, and subject to any restrictions and limitation specified therein, a unit owner acquiring an adjoining or adjoining part of an adjoining unit, may remove all or any part of any intervening partition or create doorways or other apertures therein, even if the partition may in whole or in part be a common element, if those acts do not impair the structural integrity or lessen the support of any portion of the condominium. The creation of doorways or other apertures is not deemed an alteration of boundaries.
Improvements to limited common elements. 703.13(5m)(a)
If permitted by the condominium instruments and subject to par. (b)
and to any restrictions or limitations specified in the condominium instruments, a unit owner may improve, including the enclosure of, the limited common elements appurtenant exclusively to that owner's unit if all of the following conditions are met:
A statement describing the improvement, including a description of the project, the materials to be used, and the project's proposed impact on the appearance of the condominium, and identifying the project contractor is submitted to the board of directors of the association.
The improvement will not interfere with the use and enjoyment of the units of other unit owners or the common elements or limited common elements of the condominium.
The improvement will not impair the structural integrity of the condominium.
Any change to the exterior appearance of the condominium is approved by the board of directors of the association.
All costs and expenses of an improvement under this subsection and any increased costs of maintenance and repair of the limited common elements resulting from the improvement are the obligation of the unit owner. The unit owner shall protect the association and other unit owners from liens on property of the association or of other unit owners that otherwise might result from the improvement.
If any condominium instruments expressly permit a relocation of boundaries between adjoining units, those boundaries may be relocated in accordance with this section and any restrictions and limitations which the condominium instruments may specify.
If any unit owners of adjoining units whose mutual boundaries may be relocated desire to relocate those boundaries, the principal officer of the unit owners association, upon written application from those unit owners and after 30 days' written notice to all other unit owners, shall prepare and execute appropriate instruments.
An amendment to a declaration shall identify the units involved and shall state that the boundaries between those units are being relocated by agreement of the unit owners thereof. The amendment shall contain words of conveyance between those unit owners, and when recorded shall also be indexed in the name of the grantor and grantee. If the adjoining unit owners have specified in their written application the reallocation between their units of the aggregate undivided interest in the common elements appertaining to those units, the amendment to the declaration shall reflect that reallocation. An amendment to a declaration under this paragraph shall be adopted, at the option of the adjoining unit owners, either under s. 703.09 (2)
or by the written consent of the owners of the adjoining units involved and the mortgagees of the adjoining units.
If the adjoining unit owners have specified in their written application a reasonable reallocation, as determined by the board of directors, of the number of votes in the association or liabilities for future common expenses not specially assessed, appertaining to their units, an amendment to the condominium instruments shall reflect those reallocations. An amendment to a declaration under this paragraph shall be adopted in the manner specified in par. (c)
Plats and plans showing the altered boundaries and the dimensions thereof between adjoining units, and their identifying numbers or letters, shall be prepared. The plats and plans shall be certified as to their accuracy in compliance with this subsection by a professional land surveyor.
After appropriate instruments have been prepared and executed, they shall be delivered promptly to the adjoining unit owners upon payment by them of all reasonable charges for the preparation thereof. Those instruments are effective when the adjoining unit owners have executed them and they are recorded in the name of the grantor and grantee. The recordation thereof is conclusive evidence that the relocation of boundaries did not violate the condominium instruments.
If any condominium instruments expressly permit the separation of a unit into 2 or more units, a separation shall be made in accordance with this section and any restrictions and limitations which the condominium instruments may specify.
The principal officer of the association, upon written application of a person proposing the separation of a unit (separator) and after 30 days' written notice to all other unit owners shall promptly prepare and execute appropriate instruments under this subsection. An amendment to the condominium instruments shall assign a new identifying number to each new unit created by the separation of a unit, shall allocate to those units, on a reasonable basis acceptable to the separator and the executive board all of the undivided interest in the common element and rights to use the limited common elements and the votes in the association formerly appertaining to the separated unit. The amendment shall reflect a proportionate allocation to the new units of the liability for common expenses and rights to common surpluses formerly appertaining to the subdivided unit.
Plats and plans showing the boundaries and dimensions separating the new units together with their other boundaries and their new identifying numbers or letters shall be prepared. The plats and plans shall be certified as to their accuracy and compliance with this subsection by a professional land surveyor.
After appropriate instruments have been prepared and executed, they shall be delivered promptly to the separator upon payment by him or her of all reasonable cost for their preparation. Those instruments are effective when the separator has executed them and they are recorded. The recording of the instruments is conclusive evidence that the separation did not violate any restrictions or limitation specified by the condominium instruments and that any reallocations made under this subsection were reasonable.
If any condominium instruments expressly permit the merger of 2 or more adjoining units into one unit, a merger shall be made in accordance with this subsection and any restrictions and limitations specified in the condominium instruments.
If the unit owners of adjoining units that may be merged desire to merge the units, the unit owners, after 30 days' written notice to all other unit owners, shall prepare and execute appropriate instruments under this subsection. An amendment to the condominium instruments shall assign a new identifying number to the new unit created by the merger of the units and shall allocate to the new unit all of the undivided interest in the common elements and rights to use the limited common elements and the votes in the association formerly appertaining to the separate units. The amendment shall reflect an allocation to the new unit of the liability for common expenses and rights to common surpluses formerly appertaining to the separate units. An amendment to a declaration under this paragraph shall be adopted either under s. 703.09 (2)
or by the written consent of the owners of the units to be merged, the mortgagees of those units, if any, and the board of directors of the association.
Plats and plans showing the boundaries and dimensions of the new unit together with the new identifying number or letter shall be prepared. The plats and plans shall be certified as to their accuracy and compliance with this subsection by a professional land surveyor.
After appropriate instruments have been prepared and executed, they shall be delivered promptly to the owner or owners of the merged unit upon payment by the owner or owners of all reasonable costs for their preparation. Those instruments are effective when executed by the owner or owners of the merged unit and recorded in the office of the register of deeds of the county where the property is located. The recording of the instruments is conclusive evidence that the merger did not violate any restriction or limitation specified by the condominium instruments and that any reallocations made under this subsection were reasonable.
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 283
, which affected this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
An amendment of a condominium declaration that changed a common area to a limited common area but did not change the owners' percentage interests in the common areas did not require unanimous approval of all owners and was valid. Any reduction in value due to the change from common area was recoverable under s. 703.09 (3) (a) by the owners whose condominium value decreased due to the change. Newport Condominium Association v. Concord-Wisconsin, 205 Wis. 2d 577
, 556 N.W.2d 775
(Ct. App. 1996), 95-0869
Use of common elements. 703.14(1)(1)
The common elements may be used only for the purposes for which they were intended and, except as provided in the condominium instruments or bylaws, the common elements are subject to mutual rights of support, access, use and enjoyment by all unit owners. However, any portion of the common elements designated as limited common elements may be used only by the unit owner of the unit to which their use is limited in the condominium instruments and bylaws.
The declaration or bylaws may allow any unit owner of a unit to which the use of any limited common element is restricted to grant by deed, subject to the rights of any existing mortgagee, the use of the limited common element to any other unit owner. Thereafter, the grantor has no further right to use the limited common element.
History: 1977 c. 407
Association of unit owners. 703.15(1)(1)
The affairs of every condominium shall be governed by an association that, even if unincorporated, is constituted a legal entity for all purposes. Except for matters reserved to the association members or unit owners by this chapter, the declaration, or the bylaws, all policy and operational decisions of the association, including interpretation of the condominium instruments, bylaws, rules, and other documents relating to the condominium or the association, shall be made by its board of directors. This subsection does not affect the deference accorded to, or the standard of review of, an action of the board of directors by a court.
Every declarant shall establish an association to govern the condominium not later than the date of the first conveyance of a unit to a purchaser. The association shall be organized as a profit or nonprofit corporation or as an unincorporated association. After it is organized, the membership of the association shall at all times consist exclusively of all of the unit owners.
Power and responsibility prior to establishment.
Until an association is established, a declarant has the power and responsibility to act in all instances where this chapter, any other provision of the law, or the declaration require action by the association or its officers.
Except as provided in par. (d)
, a declarant may authorize the declarant or persons designated by him or her to appoint and remove the officers of the association or to exercise the powers and responsibilities otherwise assigned by the declaration or this chapter to the association or its officers. A declaration may not authorize any declarant control of the association for a period exceeding the earlier of any of the following:
Thirty days after the conveyance of 75 percent of the common element interest to purchasers.
The period of declarant control begins on the date that the first condominium unit is conveyed by a declarant to any person other than the declarant. If there is any other unit owner other than a declarant, a declaration may not be amended to increase the scope or the period of the declarant control.
Meeting to elect directors.
Prior to the conveyance of 25 percent of the common element interest to purchasers, an association shall hold a meeting and the unit owners other than the declarant shall elect at least 25 percent of the directors of the executive board. Prior to the conveyance of 50 percent of the common element interest to purchasers, an association shall hold a meeting and the unit owners other than the declarant shall elect at least 33 1/3 percent of the directors of the executive board.
Calculation of percentage.
The calculation of the percentage of common element interest conveyed to purchasers under pars. (c)
shall be based on the percentage of undivided interest appertaining to each unit which has been conveyed assuming that all the units to be completed are included in the condominium.
Elections after expiration of declarant control.
Not later than 45 days after the expiration of any period of declarant control, an association shall hold a meeting and the unit owners shall elect an executive board of at least 3 directors and officers of the association. The directors and officers shall take office upon election.