In this section, “assessments" means regular and special assessments for common expenses and charges, fines, or assessments against specific units or unit owners for damages to the condominium or for penalties for violations of the declaration, bylaws, or association rules.
Liability for assessments.
A unit owner shall be liable for all assessments, or installments thereof, coming due while owning a unit, including any assessments coming due during the pendency of any claim by the unit owner against the association or during any period in which the unit is not occupied by the unit owner or is leased or rented to any other person. In a voluntary grant, the grantee shall be jointly and severally liable with the grantor for all unpaid assessments against the grantor for his or her share of the common expenses up to the time of the voluntary grant for which a statement of condominium lien is recorded, without prejudice to the rights of the grantee to recover from the grantor the amounts paid by the grantee for such assessments. Liability for assessments may not be avoided by waiver of the use or enjoyment of any common element or by abandonment of the unit for which the assessments are made.
Assessments constitute lien.
All assessments, until paid, together with interest on them and actual costs of collection, constitute a lien on the units on which they are assessed, if a statement of lien is filed within 2 years after the date the assessment becomes due. The lien is effective against a unit at the time the assessment became due regardless of when within the 2-year period it is filed. A statement of condominium lien is filed with the clerk of circuit court of the county where the unit is located, stating the description of the unit, the name of the record owner, the amount due and the period for which the assessment was due. The clerk of circuit court shall index the statement of condominium lien under the name of the record owner in the judgment and lien docket. The statement of condominium lien shall be signed and verified by an officer or agent of the association as specified in the bylaws and then may be filed. On full payment of the assessment for which the lien is claimed, the unit owner shall be entitled to a satisfaction of the lien that may be filed with the clerk of circuit court.
Any grantee of a unit is entitled to a statement from the association or the executive board, setting forth the amount of unpaid assessments against the grantor. The grantee is not liable for, nor shall the unit conveyed be subject to a lien that is not filed under sub. (3)
for, any unpaid assessment against the grantor in excess of the amount set forth in the statement. If an association or a board of directors does not provide such a statement within 10 business days after the grantee's request, they are barred from claiming under any lien that is not filed under sub. (3)
prior to the request for the statement against the grantee.
Priority of lien.
A lien under this section is prior to all other liens except the following:
All sums unpaid on a first mortgage recorded prior to the making of the assessment.
Construction liens filed prior to the making of the assessment.
Interest on unpaid assessment.
Any assessment, or installment thereof, not paid when due shall bear interest, at the option of the association, from the date when due until paid at a rate not exceeding the highest rate permitted by law as stated in the bylaws.
Enforcement of lien.
A lien may be enforced and foreclosed by an association or any other person specified in the bylaws, in the same manner, and subject to the same requirements, as a foreclosure of mortgages on real property in this state. An association may recover costs and actual attorney fees. An association may, unless prohibited by the declaration, bid on the unit at foreclosure sale and acquire, hold, lease, mortgage and convey the unit. Suit to recover a money judgment for unpaid common expenses shall be maintainable without foreclosing or waiving the lien securing the same. Suit for any deficiency following foreclosure may be maintained in the same proceeding. No action may be brought to foreclose the lien unless brought within 3 years following the recording of the statement of condominium lien. No action may be brought to foreclose the lien except after 10 days' prior written notice to the unit owner given by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the address of the unit owner shown on the books of the association.
Form of statement of condominium lien.
A statement of condominium lien is sufficient for the purposes of this chapter if it contains the following information and is substantially in the following form:
Statement of Condominium Lien
This is to certify that .................... owner(s) of unit No. ..... in .................... Condominium (is) (are) indebted to the association in the amount of $.......... as of .........., .... (year) for (his) (her) (its) (their) (proportionate share of common expenses of the Condominium) (damages to the condominium) (penalties for violation of condominium declaration, bylaws, or rules) for the period from (date) to (date), plus interest thereon at the rate of ....%, costs of collection, and actual attorney fees.
Officer's title (or agent)
I hereby affirm under penalties of perjury that the information contained in the foregoing Statement of Condominium Lien is true and correct to the best of my knowledge, information, and belief.
Officer (or agent)
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 283
, which affected this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
A condominium land contract recorded before the making of an assessment lien has priority as a first mortgage under s. 703.16 (6) (b) [now sub. (5) (b)]. Towne Realty, Inc. v. Edwards, 156 Wis. 2d 344
, 456 N.W.2d 651
(Ct. App. 1990).
In a foreclosure action under s. 703.16 (8) [now sub. (7)] based on a failure to pay condominium fees, s. 846.10 (1) could not be applied sensibly to require a statement of installments to become due because monthly assessments were in varying amounts. The 12-month redemption period under s. 846.10 (2) is applicable to such foreclosures. Geneva National Community Ass'n v. Friedman, 228 Wis. 2d 572
, 598 N.W.2d 600
(Ct. App. 1999), 98-1010
Sub. (5) (b) does not mean that the first mortgage recorded is the only mortgage lien superior to a condominium lien when the terms of the first recorded mortgage clearly stated that it was subordinate to another mortgage and the condominium lien was recorded after both mortgages. Sub. (5) (b) states that “a" first mortgage recorded prior to a condominium assessment is the only mortgage lien superior to a condominium lien. The statute does not say “the" first mortgage recorded prior to a condominium assessment is the only mortgage lien that is superior to a condominium lien. U.S. Bank, N.A. v. Landa, 2011 WI App 135
, 337 Wis. 2d 179
, 804 N.W.2d 835
The language in sub. (2) pertaining to voluntary grants of property has no bearing on an involuntary grant, such as a sheriff's sale. In this case, the foreclosure judgment forever barred and foreclosed all right and interest of the condominium association in and to the property. A condominium association policy could not survive a foreclosure action to the extent it restricts a current owner's use of condominium facilities based on the failure of the prior owners to pay their debts. Such a policy ties the debts of the prior owners to the units, in violation of well-established foreclosure law. Walworth State Bank v. Abbey Springs Condominium Ass'n, 2016 WI 30
, 368 Wis. 2d 72
, 878 N.W.2d 170
An association shall obtain insurance for the property against loss or damage by fire and such other hazards for not less than full replacement value of the property insured and a liability policy covering all claims commonly insured against. Insurance coverage shall be written on the property in the name of the association as trustee for each of the unit owners in the percentages established in the declaration. Premiums shall be common expenses. Provisions for such insurance shall be without prejudice to the right of each unit owner to insure his or her own unit for personal benefit.
Insurance proceeds shall first be disbursed by the trustees for the repair or restoration of the damaged common elements, and the unit owners and mortgagees shall not be entitled to receive payment of any portion of the insurance proceeds unless the association has determined not to rebuild, or the court has ordered partition of the condominium property, or there is a surplus of insurance proceeds after the common elements have been completely repaired or restored.
History: 1977 c. 407
; 1985 a. 332
Repair or reconstruction. 703.18(1)(1)
A declaration shall provide for the repair or reconstruction of the common elements in the event of damage to all or part of the common elements of the condominium.
Unless otherwise provided in the declaration, in the event of damage to or destruction of common elements of a condominium, the association shall promptly undertake to repair or reconstruct it to a condition compatible with the remainder of the condominium. All cost of the repair or reconstruction in excess of available insurance proceeds shall be a common expense.
However, if a condominium is damaged to an extent more than the available insurance proceeds, the condominium shall be subject to an action for partition upon obtaining the written consent of the unit owners having 75 percent or more of the votes. In the case of partition, the net proceeds of sale together with any net proceeds of insurance shall be considered as one fund and shall be divided among all unit owners in proportion to their percentage interests in the common elements, and shall be distributed in accordance with the priority of interests in each unit.
History: 1977 c. 407
In this section, “taking under the power of eminent domain" includes any sale in settlement of any pending or threatened condemnation proceeding.
Allocation of award; provisions in declaration or bylaws.
A declaration or bylaws may provide for an allocation of any award for a taking under the power of eminent domain of all or part of the condominium. A declaration or bylaws also may provide for:
Reapportionment or other change of the percentage interests appurtenant to each unit remaining after any taking; and
Rebuilding, relocation or restoration of any improvements so taken in whole or in part.
Allocation of award; in absence of provisions in declaration or bylaws.
Unless otherwise provided for in a declaration or bylaws, any damages for a taking of all or part of a condominium shall be awarded as follows:
Every unit owner is entitled to the entire award for the taking of all or part of their respective unit and for consequential damages to their unit.
Any award for the taking of limited common elements shall be allocated to the unit owners of the units to which the use of those limited common elements is restricted in proportion to their respective percentage interests in the common elements.
In the event no reconstruction is undertaken, any award for the taking of common elements shall be allocated to all unit owners in proportion to their respective percentage interests in the common elements.
Reconstruction following taking.
Following the taking of all or a part of the common elements, an association shall promptly undertake to restore the improvements of the common elements to an architectural whole compatible with the existing structure. Any costs of such restoration in excess of the condemnation award shall be a common expense. However, if the taking under the power of eminent domain is to the extent where the remaining condominium portion has been diminished to the extent that reconstruction or restoration is not practical, a condominium shall be subject to an action for partition upon obtaining the written consent of the unit owners having 75 percent or more of the vote. In the case of partition, the net proceeds of sale, together with any net proceeds of the award for taking, shall be considered as one fund and shall be divided among all unit owners in proportion to their percentage interest in the common elements and shall be distributed in accordance with the priority of interests in each unit.
Adjustment of percentage interests following taking; effect of taking on votes appurtenant to unit.
Following the taking of all or a part of any unit, the percentage interests appurtenant to the unit shall be adjusted in proportion as provided in the condominium instruments or bylaws. The association promptly shall prepare and record an amendment reflecting the new percentage interests appurtenant to the unit. Subject to sub. (7)
, following the taking of part of a unit, the votes appurtenant to that unit shall be appurtenant to the remainder of that unit, and following the taking of all of a unit, the right to vote appurtenant to the unit shall terminate.
Priority in distribution of damages for each unit.
All damages for each unit shall be distributed in accordance with the priority of interests at law or in equity in each respective unit.
Taking not to include percentage interests or votes.
A taking of all or part of a unit may not include any of the percentage interests or votes appurtenant to the unit.
Preservation of the right of appeal.
The owner of each unit taken may appeal the necessity of the taking and the condemnation award made for the taking. A unit owner may appeal the necessity of the taking, and the condemnation award made for the taking, of the owner's interest in the common elements. The unit owners having an interest in the ownership of limited common elements may individually or as a group appeal the necessity of the taking or the condemnation award made for the taking of the limited common elements.
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 283
, which affected this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
Acquisition of common elements by condemnors. 703.195(1)(a)
“Acquire" means to obtain title to real property by purchase or condemnation.
“Common elements" means all of a condominium except its units and any limited common elements.
“Condemnor" means a person who has the authority to condemn property under ch. 32
This section applies to the acquisition by a condemnor of a portion of the common elements of a condominium that is created 6 months or more after November 1, 2004. This section is in addition to any applicable provision in ch. 32
Notice to unit owners and association.
A condemnor who seeks to acquire a portion of the common elements of a condominium and who wishes to negotiate with the association instead of with each unit owner shall notify the association and each unit owner of the proposed acquisition, in writing, at least 30 days before delivery of the appraisal required under s. 32.05 (2) (b)
or 32.06 (2) (b)
. The notice to the unit owners shall be sent by certified mail, requesting a return receipt signed by the addressee only. Notice is deemed complete on the date the addressee acknowledges receipt. The notice required under this subsection is in addition to any notice required under s. 32.05
and shall be provided simultaneously with the pamphlets that are prepared under s. 32.26 (6)
and provided under ss. 32.05 (2a)
and 32.06 (2a)
. The condemnor is responsible for the expense of sending the notice under this subsection.
Content of notice to unit owners.
The notice to the unit owners required under sub. (3)
shall, at a minimum, contain all of the following:
The legal description of the property to be acquired.
The public purpose for which the property is being acquired and a statement that the condemnor in good faith intends to use the property for that purpose.
The following statement in substantially identical language, in at least 12-point bold type, if printed, or in capital letters, if typewritten:
THIS NOTICE IS REQUIRED BY SECTION 703.195 OF THE WISCONSIN STATUTES. SECTION 703.195 OF THE WISCONSIN STATUTES PROVIDES THAT THE CONDOMINIUM ASSOCIATION OF WHICH YOU ARE A MEMBER MUST ACT AS YOUR AGENT TO CONVEY YOUR INTEREST IN THE AFFECTED PORTION OF THE CONDOMINIUM'S COMMON ELEMENTS IF YOU WISH. HOWEVER, YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE .... (NAME OF ACQUIRING AGENCY) ON YOUR OWN AND MAY REFUSE TO BE REPRESENTED BY THE ASSOCIATION.
IN ORDER FOR YOU TO PROCEED TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE .... (NAME OF ACQUIRING AGENCY) ON YOUR OWN, YOU MUST WITHIN 30 DAYS AFTER RECEIPT OF THIS NOTICE SIGN THIS DOCUMENT AT THE INDICATED LOCATION AND DEPOSIT IT IN THE UNITED STATES MAIL. .... (NAME OF ACQUIRING AGENCY) HAS ENCLOSED FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE A POSTAGE PRE-PAID, ADDRESSED ENVELOPE FOR THIS PURPOSE. FAILURE TO SIGN AND RETURN THIS NOTICE MEANS THAT YOU CONSENT TO THE ASSOCIATION ACTING AS YOUR AGENT TO NEGOTIATE AND CONVEY YOUR INTEREST IN THE AFFECTED PORTION OF THE CONDOMINIUM'S COMMON ELEMENTS.
IF THE ASSOCIATION ACTS AS YOUR AGENT, YOU WILL BE LEGALLY BOUND BY ANY DECISION OF THE ASSOCIATION'S BOARD OF DIRECTORS RELATING TO THE CONVEYANCE OF YOUR INTEREST IN THE AFFECTED PORTION OF THE CONDOMINIUM'S COMMON ELEMENTS. REGARDLESS OF WHETHER YOU CHOOSE TO NEGOTIATE ON YOUR OWN OR TO ALLOW THE ASSOCIATION OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY TO NEGOTIATE ON YOUR BEHALF, YOU WILL RETAIN ALL RIGHTS TO CHALLENGE THE RIGHT OF CONDEMNATION, THE NECESSITY OF CONDEMNATION, OR ANY AMOUNT OF COMPENSATION AVAILABLE TO YOU UNDER CHAPTER 32
OF THE WISCONSIN STATUTES.
A prominent place for the unit owner to sign his or her name to indicate the unit owner's objection to the association acting as the agent for the unit owner in the conveyance of the common elements at issue.
Method of objecting by unit owner.
A unit owner who objects to the association acting as the agent for the owner shall indicate the objection as provided on the form under sub. (4) (e)
and send the form, within 30 days after the notice under sub. (3)
is received, to the condemnor by U.S. mail to the address indicated on the notice. The objection is made when the completed form is mailed to the condemnor. Before initiating negotiations with the unit owner under s. 32.05 (2a)
or 32.06 (2a)
, the condemnor shall provide the association and those unit owners who have objected a written list of all of the unit owners who have objected.
No objection by unit owner; association as agent.
If a unit owner does not timely object under sub. (5)
, the unit owner is deemed to have consented to the association acting as the unit owner's agent in the conveyance of the common elements at issue and the association shall act as the agent for the unit owner in the conveyance to the condemnor of the unit owner's interest in the common elements at issue. Failure of the unit owner to object within the required time does not affect any other rights of the unit owner under ch. 32
Method of conveyance.
The association shall execute any conveyance under this section as the agent for each of the unit owners who did not timely object under sub. (5)
. Those unit owners shall be identified, by name, on the conveyance.
Objection by unit owner; unit owner retains rights.
A unit owner who timely objects under sub. (5)
retains all of his or her rights under ch. 32
with regard to the acquisition of the common elements at issue and to unit ownership.
History: 2003 a. 283
; 2015 a. 55
NOTE: 2003 Wis. Act 283
, which affected this section, contains extensive explanatory notes.
Association records; inspection by unit owners; financial audits. 703.20(1)(a)(a)
Minutes and records of action; condominium documents.
An association shall keep all of the following records:
Minutes of meetings of the association and of the board of directors of the association, which the association shall keep for at least 6 years.
Records of actions taken without a meeting by the unit owners on behalf of the association or by the board of directors of the association, which the association shall keep for at least 6 years.
The documents and information described under s. 703.33 (1)
that are adopted by the association, which the association shall keep as permanent records.
Except as provided under par. (c)
, an association shall maintain appropriate financial records for at least 6 years, including all of the following:
Detailed, accurate records using standard bookkeeping procedures of the receipts and expenditures affecting the common elements, specifying and itemizing the maintenance and repair expenses of the common elements and any other expenses incurred.
Bank statements and account statements, including statements for reserve accounts, created within the past 6 years.