The attorney designated under sub. (6) (a)
who receives a referral under s. 48.299 (7)
or 938.299 (7)
may bring an action under this section on behalf of the state and may give priority to the referral and notify the referring court in the same manner as is required under par. (a)
when a matter is referred under s. 48.299 (6) (a)
or 938.299 (6) (a)
Clerk to provide document.
The clerk of court shall provide without charge to each person bringing an action under this section, except to the state under sub. (1) (g)
, a document setting forth the percentage standard established by the department under s. 49.22 (9)
and listing the factors that a court may consider under s. 767.511 (1m)
History: 1979 c. 352
; 1981 c. 20
s. 2202 (20) (m)
; 1983 a. 447
; 1985 a. 29
; 1987 a. 27
; 1989 a. 31
; 1993 a. 326
; 1995 a. 27
s. 9126 (19)
; 1995 a. 68
; 1997 a. 191
; 1999 a. 9
; 2001 a. 61
; 2005 a. 443
; Stats. 2005 s. 767.80; 2007 a. 97
; 2009 a. 321
; 2015 a. 82
; 2017 a. 334
See also ch. DCF 151
, Wis. adm. code.
Under the facts of the case, the nonbiological father was not equitably estopped from denying paternity or child support. Marriage of A. J. N. & J. M. N. 141 Wis. 2d 99
, 414 N.W.2d 68
(Ct. App. 1987).
A posthumous paternity action is allowable if it is brought by the putative father's personal representative. Le Fevre v. Schreiber, 167 Wis. 2d 733
, 482 N.W.2d 904
A paternity action may not be used to challenge paternity previously decided in a divorce action. That paternity was not challenged in the divorce is irrelevant if it could have been litigated. Paternity of Nathan T. 174 Wis. 2d 352
, 497 N.W.2d 740
(Ct. App. 1993).
The full faith and credit clause of the U.S. Constitution did not bar a petition to determine paternity when a paternity decree of another state would have been subject to collateral attack in that state. Paternity of R.L.L. 176 Wis. 2d 224
, N.W.2d (Ct. App. 1993).
Because a child has a right to bring an independent action for paternity under sub. (1) (a), if the child was not a party to an earlier paternity action, it would be a violation of the child's due process rights to preclude the child from litigating the paternity issue. Mayonia M.M. v. Kieth N. 202 Wis. 2d 460
, 551 N.W.2d 34
(Ct. App. 1996), 95-2838
An alleged father has a statutory right to a determination of paternity. A hearing to determine whether the child's best interests would be served by a paternity proceeding is not authorized by statute. Thomas M.P. v. Kimberly J.L. 207 Wis. 2d 388
, 558 N.W.2d 897
(Ct. App. 1996), 96-0697
Section 893.88, limiting only an action for the establishment of paternity, does not preclude a motion for the purpose of determining paternity in a probate proceeding. DiBenedetto v. Jaskolski, 2003 WI App 70
, 261 Wis. 2d 723
, 661 N.W.2d 869
Construing the discretionary authority of a personal representative under sub. (1) (e) in a way that allows preventing the definitive determination of heirs would undermine the principle that property of intestate deceased persons should descend to kindred of the blood and defeat a court's responsibility under s. 863.23 that persons who are the heirs of the decedent shall be determined by the court. DiBenedetto v. Jaskolski, 2003 WI App 70
, 261 Wis. 2d 723
, 661 N.W.2d 869
In order for a putative biological father to have the necessary foundation for a constitutionally protected liberty interest in his putative paternity, he must have taken affirmative steps to assume his parental responsibilities for the child. Randy A. J. v. Norma I. J. 2004 WI 41
, 270 Wis. 2d 384
, 677 N.W.2d 630
The competing interests of finality and fairness coalesce when considering sub. (1) (h) and principles of res judicata. Res judicata and collateral estoppel are founded on principles of fundamental fairness and should not deprive a party of the opportunity to have a full and fair determination of an issue. When the record demonstrated that an adjudicated father never had an opportunity for a full and fair determination of the question of paternity, res judicata should not have barred relief. Shanee Y. v. Ronnie J. 2004 WI App 58
, 271 Wis. 2d 242
, 677 N.W.2d 684
Sub. (1) does not permit a man alleging he is the father to bring a paternity action for the sole purpose of establishing paternity of a stillborn so that he may bring a wrongful death action. The proper vehicle for determining parentage is a motion by the father under s. 885.23 for a determination of parentage within the pending wrongful death action. Shannon E. T. v. Alicia M. V.M. 2007 WI 29
, 299 Wis. 2d 601
, 728 N.W.2d 636
Sub. (1) utilizes mandatory language requiring the state to initiate a paternity action when, as provided in sub. (6m), no father's name was listed on the birth certificate. Thus, according to the clear language of this statute, the state was obligated to commence a paternity action. A presumption of paternity under s. 891.41 does not alleviate the state of its obligations under sub. (1). State v. Robin M. W. 2008 WI App 60
, 310 Wis. 2d 786
, 750 N.W.2d 957
The standard of review for best-interest determinations in paternity proceedings requires that the appellate court accept the circuit court's factual findings unless clearly erroneous but determine the child's best interest de novo. Douglas L. v. Arika B. 2015 WI App 80
, 365 Wis. 2d 257
, 872 N.W.2d 357
Determination of marital children.
If the father and mother of a nonmarital child enter into a lawful marriage or a marriage which appears and they believe is lawful, except where the parental rights of the mother were terminated before either of these circumstances, the child becomes a marital child, is entitled to a change in birth record under s. 69.15 (3) (b)
, and shall enjoy all of the rights and privileges of a marital child as if he or she had been born during the marriage of the parents. This section applies to all cases before, on, or after its effective date, but no estate already vested shall be divested by this section and ss. 765.05
. The children of all marriages declared void under the law are nevertheless marital children.
History: 1979 c. 32
, 92 (2)
; Stats. 1979 s. 765.25; 1979 c. 352
; Stats. 1979 s. 767.60; 1981 c. 314
; 1983 a. 447
; 1985 a. 315
; 2005 a. 443
; Stats. 2005 s. 767.803; 2017 a. 334
Voluntary acknowledgment of paternity. 767.805(1)(1)
Conclusive determination of paternity.
A statement acknowledging paternity that is on file with the state registrar under s. 69.15 (3) (b) 3.
after the last day on which a person may timely rescind the statement, as specified in s. 69.15 (3m)
, is a conclusive determination, which shall be of the same effect as a judgment, of paternity.
Minor parent may not sign.
A minor may not sign a statement acknowledging paternity.
A statement acknowledging paternity that is filed with the state registrar under s. 69.15 (3) (b) 3.
may be rescinded as provided in s. 69.15 (3m)
by a person who signed the statement as a parent of the child who is the subject of the statement.
If a statement acknowledging paternity is timely rescinded as provided in s. 69.15 (3m)
, a court may not enter an order specified in sub. (4)
with respect to the male who signed the statement as the father of the child unless the male is adjudicated the child's father using the procedures set forth in this subchapter, except for this section.
Actions when paternity acknowledged. 767.805(3)(a)
Unless the statement acknowledging paternity has been rescinded, an action affecting the family concerning custody, child support or physical placement rights may be brought with respect to persons who, with respect to a child, jointly signed and filed with the state registrar under s. 69.15 (3) (b) 3.
as parents of the child a statement acknowledging paternity.
Except as provided in s. 767.407
, in an action specified in par. (a)
the court may appoint a guardian ad litem for the child.
Orders when paternity acknowledged.
In an action under sub. (3) (a)
, if the persons who signed and filed the statement acknowledging paternity as parents of the child had notice of the hearing, the court shall make an order that contains all of the following provisions:
Orders for the legal custody of and periods of physical placement with the child, determined in accordance with s. 767.41
An order requiring either or both of the parents to contribute to the support of any child of the parties who is less than 18 years old, or any child of the parties who is less than 19 years old if the child is pursuing an accredited course of instruction leading to the acquisition of a high school diploma or its equivalent, determined in accordance with s. 767.511
A determination as to which parent, if eligible, shall have the right to claim the child as an exemption for federal tax purposes under 26 USC 151
(c), or as an exemption for state tax purposes under s. 71.07 (8) (b)
An order establishing the amount of the father's obligation to pay or contribute to the reasonable expenses of the mother's pregnancy and the child's birth. The amount established may not exceed one-half of the total actual and reasonable pregnancy and birth expenses. The order also shall specify the court's findings as to whether the father's income is at or below the poverty line established under 42 USC 9902
(2), and shall specify whether periodic payments are due on the obligation, based on the father's ability to pay or contribute to those expenses.
If the order does not require periodic payments because the father has no present ability to pay or contribute to the expenses, the court may modify the judgment or order at a later date to require periodic payments if the father has the ability to pay at that time.
An order requiring either or both parties to pay or contribute to the costs of the guardian ad litem fees and other costs.
An order requiring either party to pay or contribute to the attorney fees of the other party.
Subject to par. (b)
, liability for past support of the child shall be limited to support for the period after the day on which the petition, motion or order to show cause requesting support is filed in the action for support under sub. (3) (a)
, unless a party shows, to the satisfaction of the court, all of the following:
That he or she was induced to delay commencing the action by any of the following:
Actions, promises or representations by the other party upon which the party relied.
That, after the inducement ceased to operate, he or she did not unreasonably delay in commencing the action.
In no event may liability for past support of the child be imposed for any period before the birth of the child.
A determination of paternity that arises under this section may be voided at any time upon a motion or petition stating facts that show fraud, duress or a mistake of fact. Except for good cause shown, any orders entered under sub. (4)
shall remain in effect during the pendency of a proceeding under this paragraph.
If a court in a proceeding under par. (a)
determines that the male is not the father of the child, the court shall vacate any order entered under sub. (4)
with respect to the male. The court or the county child support agency under s. 59.53 (5)
shall notify the state registrar, in the manner provided in s. 69.15 (1) (b)
, to remove the male's name as the father of the child from the child's birth record. No paternity action may thereafter be brought against the male with respect to the child.
This section does not apply unless all of the following apply to the statement acknowledging paternity:
The statement is made on a form prescribed by the state registrar for use beginning on April 1, 1998.
The statement was signed and filed on or after April 1, 1998.
The statement contains an attestation clause showing that both parties, before signing the statement, received oral and written notice of the legal consequences of, the rights and responsibilities arising from and the alternatives to, signing the statement.
Parties who signed and filed a statement acknowledging paternity before April 1, 1998, may sign and file a new statement that fulfills the requirements under par. (a)
. The new statement supersedes any statement previously filed with the state registrar and has the effects specified in this section.
The notice requirements under s. 69.15 (3) (b) 3.
apply to this section beginning with the acknowledgements of paternity that are prescribed by the state registrar on April 1, 1998.
A Michigan Affidavit of Parentage was a conclusive determination of paternity in Wisconsin. The affidavit was not voided under sub. (5) (a) by a Wisconsin child support action in which tests found the signer of the affidavit not to be the biological father when there was no showing of fraud, duress, or a mistake of fact in relation to the signing of the affidavit. Sub. (5) (b) does not prevent the child from bringing a paternity action based on having been unrepresented at the original paternity proceeding. Daniel T. W. v. Joni K. W. 2009 WI App 13
, 315 Wis. 2d 181
, 762 N.W.2d 444
A circuit court does not have the power to change the name of a child when paternity has been determined on the basis of voluntary acknowledgment under this section. Scace v. Schulte, 2018 WI App 30
, 382 Wis. 2d 180
, 913 N.W.2d 189
Wisconsin's Custody, Placement and Paternity Reform Legislation. Walther. Wis. Law. April 2000.
The summons shall state the purpose of the action.
The process shall be signed by the clerk of the court or by the petitioner's attorney.
Every summons shall specify a return date and time before the court. The clerk of the court shall set the date and hour at which the summons is returnable.
The summons and petition shall be served in the manner provided in s. 801.11 (1) (a)
or, notwithstanding s. 990.001 (13)
, by registered or certified mail, with return receipt signed by the respondent.
The summons shall be in substantially one of the following forms:
STATE OF WISCONSIN, CIRCUIT COURT: ....COUNTY
In re the Paternity of A. B.
STATE OF WISCONSIN
C. D. (Mother-Petitioner)
City, State Zip Code File No. ...
vs. S U M M O N S
Address .... (Case Classification Type):.... (Code No.)
City, State Zip Code
THE STATE OF WISCONSIN, To the Respondent:
You have been sued. .... claims that you are the father of the child, .... born on .... (date), in .... (city) (county) (state). You must appear to answer this claim of paternity. Your court appearance is: