In order to be eligible for entry under the forest crop law the lands must be continuous or contiguous and 40 or more acres in size. 58 Atty. Gen. 8.
Taxation of forest croplands.
After the filing and recording of the order with the officers under s. 77.02 (3)
the lands described therein shall be “Forest Croplands", on which taxes shall thereafter be payable only as provided under this subchapter. The enactment of ss. 77.01
, petition by the owner and the making of the order under s. 77.02 (3)
or (4) (a)
shall constitute a contract between the state and the owner, running with the lands, for a period of 25 or 50 years at the election of the applicant at the time the petition is filed, unless withdrawn under s. 77.10
, with privilege of renewal by mutual agreement between the owner and the state, whereby the state as an inducement to owners and prospective purchasers of forest croplands to come under ss. 77.01
agrees that, unless withdrawn under s. 77.10
, no change in or repeal of ss. 77.01
shall apply to any land then accepted as forest croplands, except as the department of natural resources and the owner may expressly agree in writing and except as provided in s. 77.17
. If at the end of the contract period the land is not designated as managed forest land under subch. VI
, the merchantable timber on the land shall be estimated by an estimator jointly agreed upon by the department of natural resources and the owner, and if the department and the owner fail to agree on an estimator, the judge of the circuit court of the district in which the lands lie shall appoint a qualified forester, whose estimate shall be final, and the cost thereof shall be borne jointly by the department of natural resources and the owner; and the 10 percent severance tax paid on the stumpage thereon in the same manner as if the stumpage had been cut. The owners by such contract consent that the public may hunt and fish on the lands, subject to such rules as the department of natural resources prescribes regulating hunting and fishing.
This section creates a right of access across an owner's non-enrolled lands to reach the owner's landlocked enrolled lands for purposes of hunting and fishing. 71 Atty. Gen. 163
The clerk on making up the tax roll shall enter as to each forest cropland description in a special column or some other appropriate place in such tax roll headed by the words “Forest Croplands" or the initials “F.C.L.", which shall be a sufficient designation that such description is subject to this subchapter. Such land shall thereafter be assessed and be subject to review under ch. 70
, and such assessment may be used by the department of revenue in the determination of the tax upon withdrawal of such lands as forest croplands as provided in s. 77.10
for entries prior to 1972 or for any entry under s. 77.02 (4) (a)
. The tax upon withdrawal of descriptions entered as forest croplands after December 31, 1971, may be determined by the department of revenue by multiplying the last assessed value of the land prior to the time of the entry by an annual ratio computed for the state under sub. (2)
to establish the annual assessed value of the description. No tax shall be levied on forest croplands except the specific annual taxes as provided, except that any building located on forest cropland shall be assessed as personal property, subject to all laws and regulations for the assessment and taxation of general property.
Tax per acre; payment; penalty.
The “acreage share" shall be computed at the rate of 10 cents per acre on all lands entered prior to 1972 or entered under s. 77.02 (4) (a)
. On all lands entered after December 31, 1971, the “acreage share" shall be computed every 10 years to the nearest cent by the department of revenue at the rate of 20 cents per acre multiplied by a ratio using the equalized value of the combined residential, commercial, manufacturing, agricultural, undeveloped, agricultural forest, and productive forest land classes under s. 70.32 (2)
within the state in 1972 as the denominator, and using equalized value for these combined land classes in 1982 and every 10th year thereafter as the numerator. All owners shall pay to the taxation district treasurer the acreage share on each description on or before January 31. If the acreage share is not paid when due to the taxation district treasurer it shall be subject to interest and penalty as provided under ss. 74.11 (11)
, 74.12 (10)
. These lands shall be returned as delinquent and a tax certificate under subch. VII of ch. 74
shall be issued on them. After 2 years from the date of the issuance of a tax certificate, the county clerk shall promptly take a tax deed under ch. 75
. On taking such deed the county clerk shall certify that fact and specify the descriptions to the department of natural resources.
Apportionment of forest cropland income.
Out of all moneys received by any town from any source on account of forest croplands in such town, the town treasurer shall on or before November 15 pay 20 percent to the county treasurer and retain the remainder.
The department of natural resources shall pay before June 30 annually to the town treasurer, from the appropriation under s. 20.370 (5) (bv)
, 20 cents for each acre of land in the town that is described as forest croplands under this subchapter.
No person shall cut any merchantable wood products on any forest croplands where the forest crop taxes are delinquent nor until 30 days after the owner has filed with the department of natural resources a notice of intention to cut, specifying by descriptions and the estimated amount of wood products to be removed and the proportion of present volume to be left as growing stock in the area to be cut. Merchantable wood products include all wood products except wood used for fuel by the owner.
The department of natural resources, after examination of the lands specified in the notice of intention to cut, may prescribe the amount of forest products to be removed, except as provided under subd. 2.
The department of natural resources may not prescribe the amount of forest products to be cut if the notice of intention to cut was provided to the department by any of the following:
A cooperating forester authorized under s. 28.05
to assist the state in the harvesting and sale of timber.
A forester accredited by the Society of American Foresters, Association of Consulting Foresters, or Wisconsin Consulting Foresters.
A person who holds at least a bachelor's degree from a forestry program provided by a nationally or regionally accredited institution of higher education and who has 5 years of experience engaged in the full-time profession of managing forests, including timber harvesting, wildlife management, water quality, and recreation to maintain a healthy and productive forest.
A person who holds a degree or diploma from a 2-year forestry program provided by an accredited technical or vocational school and who has 5 years of experience engaged in the full-time profession of managing forests, including timber harvesting, wildlife management, water quality, and recreation to maintain a healthy and productive forest.
A person who has 5 years of experience engaged in the full-time profession of managing forests, including timber harvesting, wildlife management, water quality, and recreation to maintain a healthy and productive forest.
Cutting in excess of the amount prescribed by the department of natural resources, or cutting that the department finds is inconsistent with sound forestry practices, shall render the owner liable to a forfeiture equal to 20 percent of the value of the timber cut and subject to cancellation under s. 77.10
Appraisal of timber, zones.
Each year the department of natural resources, at the time and place it shall fix and after such public notice as it deems reasonable, shall hold a public hearing. After the hearing the department shall make and file, open to public inspection, a determination of the reasonable stumpage values of the wood products usually grown in the several towns in which any forest croplands lie. A public hearing under this section shall be held prior to August 1 of each year and the determination of stumpage values made by the department of natural resources shall take effect on November 1 of that year. If the department of natural resources finds there is a material variance in the stumpage values in the different localities, it may fix separate zones and determine the values for each zone.
As to any locality or zone in which the department of natural resources deems there has been no material variance from the preceding year in stumpage values, it may omit to make any new valuation in any year, in which event the last preceding valuation shall continue in force until changed in a succeeding year.
Within 30 days after completion of cutting on any land description, but not more than one year after filing of the notice of intention to cut, the owner shall transmit to the department of natural resources on forms provided by the department a written statement of the products so cut, specifying the variety of wood, kind of product, and quantity of each variety and kind as shown by the scale or measurement thereof made on the ground as cut, skidded, loaded, delivered, or by tree scale certified by a qualified forester when stumpage is sold by tree measurement. The department of natural resources may accept such reports as sufficient evidence of the facts, or may either with or without hearing and notice of time and place thereof to such owner, investigate and determine the fact of the quantity of each variety and kind of product so cut during said periods preceding such reports.
Supplemental severance tax.
At any time within one year after any cutting should have been reported, the department of natural resources after due notice to the owner and opportunity to be heard, and on evidence duly made a matter of record, may determine whether the quantity of wood products cut from any such land, did in fact substantially exceed the amount on which the severance tax theretofore levied was based, and if so shall assess a supplemental severance tax which, in all respects, shall have the same force and effect as the former severance tax, except only it shall not be a lien on any property the title of which has passed to a purchaser for value without notice.
False reports, penalties. 77.09(1)(1)
Any person who fails to report or shall intentionally make any false statement or report to the department of natural resources required by s. 77.06
shall forfeit not more than $1,000. An action under this section shall not be a bar to a cancellation of entry and order of withdrawal under s. 77.10
History: 1989 a. 79
Withdrawal of forest croplands. 77.10(1)(1)
Investigations, cancellations, conveyances. 77.10(1)(a)
The department of natural resources shall on the application of the department of revenue or the owner of any forest croplands or the town board of the town in which said lands lie and may on its own motion at any time cause an investigation to be made and hearing to be had as to whether any forest croplands shall continue under this subchapter. If on such hearing after due notice to and opportunity to be heard by the department of revenue, the town and the owner, the department of natural resources finds that any such lands are not meeting the requirements set forth in s. 77.02
or that the owner has made use of the land for anything other than forestry or has failed to practice sound forestry on the land, the department of natural resources shall cancel the entry of such description and issue an order of withdrawal, and the owner shall be liable for the tax and penalty under sub. (2)
. Copies of the order of withdrawal specifying the description shall be filed by the department of natural resources with all officers designated to receive copies of the order of entry and withdrawal and this subchapter shall not thereafter apply to the lands withdrawn. If the owner shall not repay the amounts on or before the last day of February next succeeding the return of such lands to the general property tax roll as provided in sub. (4)
, the department of natural resources shall certify to the county treasurer the descriptions and the amounts due, and the county treasurer shall sell such lands as delinquent as described in s. 77.04 (2)
. Whenever any county clerk has certified to the taking of tax deed under s. 77.04 (2)
the department of natural resources shall issue an order of withdrawal as to the lands covered in such tax deed. Such order may also be issued when examination of tax records reveals prolonged delinquency and noncompliance with the requirements of s. 77.04 (2)
Whenever any owner of forest croplands conveys such land the owner shall, within 10 days of the date of the deed, file with the department of natural resources on forms prepared by the department a transfer of ownership signed by the owner and an acceptance of transfer signed by the grantee certifying that the grantee intends to continue the practice of forestry on such land. The department of natural resources shall immediately issue a notice of transfer to all officers designated to receive copies of orders of entry and withdrawal. Whenever a purchaser of forest croplands declines to certify his or her intention to continue the practice of forestry thereon, such action shall constitute cause for cancellation of entry under par. (a)
Election to withdraw lands. 77.10(2)(a)1.1.
Any owner of forest croplands may elect to withdraw all or any of such lands from under this subchapter, by filing with the department of natural resources a declaration withdrawing from this subchapter any description owned by such person which he or she specified, and by payment by such owner to the department of natural resources within 60 days the amount of tax due from the date of entry or the most recent date of renewal, whichever is later, as determined by the department of revenue under s. 77.04 (1)
with simple interest thereon at 12 percent per year, less any severance tax and supplemental severance tax or acreage share paid thereon, with interest computed according to the rule of partial payments at the rate of 12 percent per year.
The amount of the tax shall be determined by the department of revenue and furnished to the department of natural resources, which shall determine the exact amount of payment. When the tax rate or assessed value ratio of the current year has not been determined the rate of the preceding tax year may be used. On receiving such payment the department of natural resources shall issue an order of withdrawal and file copies thereof with the department of revenue, the supervisor of equalization and the clerk of the town, and shall record the order with the register of deeds of the county, in which the land lies. The land shall then cease to be forest croplands.
Upon receipt of any taxes under this section by the state, the department of natural resources shall first deduct all moneys paid by the state on account of the lands under s. 77.05
with interest on the moneys computed according to the rule of partial payments at the rate of interest paid under par. (a)
by the person withdrawing such lands. The department shall within 20 days remit the balance to the town treasurer who shall pay 20 percent to the county treasurer and retain the remainder.
Land subject to a contract under s. 77.03
that is withdrawn and the ownership of which is transferred to the federal government, the state or a local governmental unit, as defined in s. 66.0131 (1) (a)
, is not subject to the tax payment calculated under par. (a)
if the land will be used for a public road, railroad, utility right-of-way, park, recreational trail, wildlife or fish habitat area or a public forest.
Taxation after withdrawal.
When any description ceases to be a part of the forest croplands, by virtue of any order of withdrawal issued by the department of natural resources, taxes thereafter levied thereon shall be payable and collectible as if such description had never been under this subchapter.
The department may not issue an order of withdrawal under s. 77.10 (1)
based on the cutting of timber or other forest crops or other activities on forest cropland if all of the following requirements are met:
The cutting or activity is necessary to engage in bulk sampling, as defined in s. 295.41 (7)
The area that will be affected by the cutting or the activity does not exceed 5 acres.
A bulk sampling plan has been filed with the department under s. 295.45
and all approvals that are required for bulk sampling have been issued by the department.
The revegetation plan that is part of the bulk sampling plan described under par. (c)
includes forestry practices that will ensure that the timber, forest crops, and other vegetation that will be cut or otherwise affected will be restored to the greatest extent possible.
The requirement under sub. (1) (d)
does not apply to forest cropland that is within a mining site described in a preapplication notification under s. 295.465
or in an application for a ferrous mining permit under s. 295.58
History: 2013 a. 1
Accounts of department of natural resources.
The department of natural resources shall keep a set of forest croplands books in which shall always appear as to each description in each town containing any forest croplands, the amount of taxes paid by the state to the town and received by the state from the owner. All tax payments shall be paid out of and receipts credited to the forestry account of the conservation fund.
History: 1977 c. 29
Review of findings, venue.
Any finding of fact made under this subchapter after due notice and hearing is final unless it is set aside or modified by the circuit court for either Dane County or the county in which the land lies. Any person may bring an action for that purpose in either of those courts within 30 days after the making of the finding sought to be reviewed.
History: 1985 a. 332
s. 251 (2)
; 1997 a. 253
The signature of an official or an employee of the department of natural resources may be stamped, printed, or otherwise reproduced on an order under ss. 77.01
after the official or employee adopts the stamped, printed, or otherwise reproduced signature as his or her facsimile signature.
The signature or the facsimile signature under sub. (1)
of an official or an employee of the department of natural resources meets the requirement under s. 706.05 (2) (a)
History: 2009 a. 365
Termination of forest croplands program. 77.13(1)(1)
On and after July 20, 1985, no person may petition the department of natural resources requesting it to approve any land as forest croplands under this subchapter.
On and after January 1, 1986, the department of natural resources may not act on any petition requesting the designation of land as forest croplands, issue any order entering land as forest croplands or enter into a renewal of any forest croplands contract under this subchapter.
Forest croplands information, protection, appropriation.
The department of natural resources shall publish and distribute information regarding the method of taxation of forest croplands under this subchapter, and may employ a fire warden in charge of fire prevention in forest croplands. All actual and necessary expenses incurred by the department of natural resources or by the department of revenue in the performance of their duties under this subchapter shall be paid from the appropriation made in s. 20.370 (2) (mv)
upon certification by the department incurring such expenses.
Contracts for land in the lower Wisconsin state riverway.
An owner of timber that is exempt under s. 30.44 (3) (c) 1.
shall comply with a rule regulating timber cutting and harvesting promulgated under s. 30.42 (1) (d)
If the rule is not inconsistent with the contract entered into under s. 77.03
If the owner agrees to modify the contract entered into under s. 77.03
to require compliance with the rules.
History: 1989 a. 31
; 2013 a. 54
REAL ESTATE TRANSFER FEE
In this subchapter:
“Conveyance" includes deeds and other instruments for the passage of ownership interests in real estate, including contracts and assignments of a vendee's interest therein, including instruments that are evidence of a sale of time-share property, as defined in s. 707.02 (32)
, and including leases for at least 99 years but excluding leases for less than 99 years, easements and wills.
“Mergers of entities" means the merger or combination of 2 or more corporations, nonstock corporations, limited liability companies, limited partnerships, or other entities, or any combination thereof, under a plan of merger or a plan of consolidation permitted by the laws that govern the entities.
“Partition" means the division among several persons of real property, including noncontiguous real property, that belongs to them as co-owners.
“Real estate" includes, but is not limited to, fixtures; roots, vines and trees of perennial crops; stock in a cooperative building; improvements on leased land; timber; and minerals.
“Register" means the register of deeds for the county in which particular real estate is located.
In the case of any conveyance not a gift, the amount of the full actual consideration paid therefor or to be paid, including the amount of any lien or liens thereon; and
In case of a gift, or any deed of nominal consideration or any exchange of properties, the estimated price the property would bring in an open market and under the then prevailing market conditions in a sale between a willing seller and a willing buyer, both conversant with the property and at prevailing general price levels.
See also ch. Tax 15
, Wis. adm. code.
A memorandum announcing a reorganization of a land-owning partnership into a limited liability company and that the LLC was now the owner of the real estate was a document intended to transfer title to real estate. The receipt by members of ownership interests in the LLC was for value so that there was a conveyance under sub. (1) subject to taxation under s. 77.22. Wolter v. DOR, 231 Wis. 2d 651
, 605 N.W.2d 283
(Ct. App. 1999), 99-0671
Imposition of real estate transfer fee. 77.22(1)(1)
There is imposed on the grantor of real estate a real estate transfer fee at the rate of 30 cents for each $100 of value or fraction thereof on every conveyance not exempted or excluded under this subchapter. In regard to land contracts, the value is the total principal amount that the buyer agrees to pay the seller for the real estate. This fee shall be collected by the register at the time the instrument of conveyance is submitted for recording. Except as provided in s. 77.255
, at the time of submission the grantee or his or her duly authorized agent or other person acquiring an ownership interest under the instrument, or the judgment creditor in the case of a foreclosure under s. 846.16
, shall execute a return, signed by both grantor and grantee, on the form prescribed under sub. (2)
. The register shall enter the fee paid on the face of the deed or other instrument of conveyance before recording, and, except as provided in s. 77.255
, submission of a completed real estate transfer return and collection by the register of the fee shall be prerequisites to acceptance of the conveyance for recording. The register shall have no duty to determine either the correct value of the real estate transferred or the validity of any exemption or exclusion claimed. If the transfer is not subject to a fee as provided in this subchapter, the reason for exemption shall be stated on the face of the conveyance to be recorded by reference to the proper subsection under s. 77.25