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822.21 Note NOTE: The above annotations cite to the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act, the predecessor statute to the current Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.
822.21 Annotation Under prior law, there were 4 different bases for initial jurisdiction, which conceivably could allow more than one state initial jurisdiction. The current uniform act changed this rule. Under the uniform act, home state jurisdiction always receives priority, and other jurisdictional bases are available only when there is no home state, or when the home state declines jurisdiction. Hatch v. Hatch, 2007 WI App 136, 302 Wis. 2d 215, 733 N.W.2d 648, 06-2259.
822.21 Annotation A claim must be affirmatively asserted by the caretaker in the context of a custody proceeding in order for the caretaker's residence to drive a jurisdictional determination of the child's home state under sub. (1). A grandparent who had physical custody of a child for a period of six consecutive months within one year of the commencement of the proceedings, but had never been awarded and did not claim legal custody, no longer cared for the child, and had no plans to resume caring for the child was not a "person acting as a parent" as defined under s. 802.02 (13). Stephen R. v. Ilana C. 2011 WI App 13, 331 Wis. 2d 108, 794 N.W.2d 533, 10-0363.
822.22 822.22 Exclusive, continuing jurisdiction.
822.22(1) (1) Except as provided in s. 822.24, a court of this state that has made a child custody determination consistent with s. 822.21 or 822.23 has exclusive, continuing jurisdiction over the determination until any of the following occurs:
822.22(1)(a) (a) A court of this state determines that neither the child, nor the child and one parent, nor the child and a person acting as a parent have a significant connection with this state and that substantial evidence is no longer available in this state concerning the child's care, protection, training, and personal relationships.
822.22(1)(b) (b) A court of this state or a court of another state determines that the child, the child's parents, and all persons acting as parents do not presently reside in this state.
822.22(2) (2) A court of this state that has made a child custody determination and that does not have exclusive, continuing jurisdiction under this section may modify that determination only if it has jurisdiction to make an initial determination under s. 822.21.
822.22 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.23 822.23 Jurisdiction to modify determination. Except as provided in s. 822.24, a court of this state may not modify a child custody determination made by a court of another state unless a court of this state has jurisdiction to make an initial determination under s. 822.21 (1) (a) or (b) and one of the following applies:
822.23(1) (1) The court of the other state determines that it no longer has exclusive, continuing jurisdiction under s. 822.22 or that a court of this state would be a more convenient forum under s. 822.27.
822.23(2) (2) A court of this state or a court of the other state determines that the child, the child's parents, and all persons acting as parents do not presently reside in the other state.
822.23 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.23 Annotation An action for legal custody commenced in Wisconsin after entry of a custody decree in California was an action to modify the California custody decree requiring Wisconsin jurisdiction and no California jurisdiction at the time of commencement. In Interest of A.E.H., 161 Wis. 2d 277, 468 N.W.2d 190 (1991).
822.23 Note NOTE: The above annotation cites to the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act, the predecessor statute to the current Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.
822.24 822.24 Temporary emergency jurisdiction.
822.24(1) (1) A court of this state has temporary emergency jurisdiction if the child is present in this state and the child has been abandoned or it is necessary in an emergency to protect the child because the child, or a sibling or parent of the child, is subjected to or threatened with mistreatment or abuse.
822.24(2) (2) If there is no previous child custody determination that is entitled to be enforced under this chapter and a child custody proceeding has not been commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23, a child custody determination made under this section remains in effect until an order is obtained from a court of a state having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23. If a child custody proceeding has not been or is not commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23, a child custody determination made under this section becomes a final determination, if it so provides and this state becomes the home state of the child.
822.24(3) (3) If a previous child custody determination is entitled to be enforced under this chapter, or a child custody proceeding has been commenced in a court of a state having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23, any order issued by a court of this state under this section shall specify in the order a period that the court considers adequate to allow the person seeking an order to obtain an order from the state having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23. The order issued in this state remains in effect until an order is obtained from the other state within the period specified or until the period expires.
822.24(4) (4) A court of this state that has been asked to make a child custody determination under this section, upon being informed that a child custody proceeding has been commenced in, or that a child custody determination has been made by, a court of a state having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23, shall immediately communicate with the other court. A court of this state that is exercising jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23, upon being informed that a child custody proceeding has been commenced in, or that a child custody determination has been made by, a court of another state under a statute similar to this section, shall immediately communicate with the court of that state to resolve the emergency, protect the safety of the parties and the child, and determine a period for the duration of the temporary order.
822.24 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.25 822.25 Notice; opportunity to be heard; joinder.
822.25(1)(1) Before a child custody determination is made under this chapter, notice and an opportunity to be heard in accordance with the standards of s. 822.08 shall be given to all persons entitled to notice under the law of this state as in child custody proceedings between residents of this state, any parent whose parental rights have not been previously terminated, and any person having physical custody of the child.
822.25(2) (2) This chapter does not govern the enforceability of a child custody determination made without notice or an opportunity to be heard.
822.25(3) (3) The obligation to join a party and the right to intervene as a party in a child custody proceeding under this chapter are governed by the law of this state as in child custody proceedings between residents of this state.
822.25 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.26 822.26 Simultaneous proceedings.
822.26(1) (1) Except as provided in s. 822.24, a court of this state may not exercise its jurisdiction under this subchapter if, at the time of the commencement of the proceeding, a proceeding concerning the custody of the child has been commenced in a court of another state having jurisdiction substantially in conformity with this chapter, unless the proceeding has been terminated or is stayed by the court of the other state because a court of this state is a more convenient forum under s. 822.27.
822.26(2) (2) Except as provided in s. 822.24, a court of this state, before hearing a child custody proceeding, shall examine the court documents and other information supplied by the parties under s. 822.29. If the court determines that a child custody proceeding has been commenced in a court in another state having jurisdiction substantially in accordance with this chapter, the court of this state shall stay its proceeding and communicate with the court of the other state. If the court of the state having jurisdiction substantially in accordance with this chapter does not determine that the court of this state is a more appropriate forum, the court of this state shall dismiss the proceeding.
822.26(3) (3) In a proceeding to modify a child custody determination, a court of this state shall determine whether a proceeding to enforce the determination has been commenced in another state. If a proceeding to enforce a child custody determination has been commenced in another state, the court may do any of the following:
822.26(3)(a) (a) Stay the proceeding for modification pending the entry of an order of a court of the other state enforcing, staying, denying, or dismissing the proceeding for enforcement.
822.26(3)(b) (b) Enjoin the parties from continuing with the proceeding for enforcement.
822.26(3)(c) (c) Proceed with the modification under conditions it considers appropriate.
822.26 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.26 Annotation An Indian tribal court custody order is given full force and effect under the doctrine of comity. Custody of Sengstock, 165 Wis. 2d 86, 477 N.W.2d 310 (Ct. App. 1991).
822.26 Note NOTE: The above annotation cites to the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act, the predecessor statute to the current Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.
822.27 822.27 Inconvenient forum.
822.27(1)(1) A court of this state that has jurisdiction under this chapter to make a child custody determination may decline to exercise its jurisdiction at any time if it determines that it is an inconvenient forum under the circumstances and that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum. The issue of inconvenient forum may be raised upon the motion of a party, the court's own motion, or the request of another court.
822.27(2) (2) Before determining whether it is an inconvenient forum, a court of this state shall consider whether it is appropriate for a court of another state to exercise jurisdiction. For this purpose, the court shall allow the parties to submit information and shall consider all relevant factors, including all of the following:
822.27(2)(a) (a) Whether domestic violence has occurred and is likely to continue in the future and which state could best protect the parties and the child.
822.27(2)(b) (b) The length of time that the child has resided outside this state.
822.27(2)(c) (c) The distance between the court in this state and the court in the state that would assume jurisdiction.
822.27(2)(d) (d) The relative financial circumstances of the parties.
822.27(2)(e) (e) Any agreement of the parties as to which state should assume jurisdiction.
822.27(2)(f) (f) The nature and location of the evidence required to resolve the pending litigation, including testimony of the child.
822.27(2)(g) (g) The ability of the court of each state to decide the issue expeditiously and the procedures necessary to present the evidence.
822.27(2)(h) (h) The familiarity of the court of each state with the facts and issues in the pending litigation.
822.27(3) (3) If a court of this state determines that it is an inconvenient forum and that a court of another state is a more appropriate forum, the court shall stay the proceedings upon condition that a child custody proceeding be promptly commenced in another designated state and may impose any other condition that the court considers just and proper.
822.27(4) (4) A court of this state may decline to exercise its jurisdiction under this chapter if a child custody determination is incidental to an action for divorce or another proceeding while still retaining jurisdiction over the divorce or other proceeding.
822.27 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.27 Annotation Section 801.63 does not control inconvenient forum motions in custody proceedings. Mayer v. Mayer, 91 Wis. 2d 342, 283 N.W.2d 591 (Ct. App. 1979).
822.27 Annotation When children were abducted from their home state to Wisconsin, the trial court properly assumed emergency jurisdiction but erred in failing to stay the proceedings under s. 822.07 (5). Vorpahl v. Lee, 99 Wis. 2d 7, 298 N.W.2d 222 (Ct. App. 1980).
822.27 Annotation Contempt proceedings in a visitation matter do not involve a custody determination or modification, and this section is not applicable to a jurisdictional objection. In re Paternity of J.L.V. 145 Wis. 2d 308, 426 N.W.2d 112 (Ct. App. 1988).
822.27 Annotation UCCJA jurisdictional requirements must be met only at the commencement of proceedings in this state. A TPR action commenced after the entry of a guardianship decree constituted a request for modification of custody that required reexamination of jurisdiction. In Interest of A.E.H. 161 Wis. 2d 277, 468 N.W.2d 190 (1991).
822.27 Note NOTE: The above annotation cites to the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act, the predecessor statute to the current Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.
822.28 822.28 Jurisdiction declined by reason of conduct.
822.28(1)(1) Except as provided in s. 822.24, if a court of this state has jurisdiction under this chapter because a person seeking to invoke its jurisdiction has engaged in unjustifiable conduct, the court shall decline to exercise its jurisdiction unless any of the following occurs:
822.28(1)(a) (a) The parents and all persons acting as parents have acquiesced in the exercise of jurisdiction.
822.28(1)(b) (b) A court of the state otherwise having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23 determines that this state is a more appropriate forum under s. 822.27.
822.28(1)(c) (c) No court of any other state would have jurisdiction under the criteria specified in ss. 822.21 to 822.23.
822.28(2) (2) If a court of this state declines to exercise its jurisdiction under sub. (1), it may fashion an appropriate remedy to ensure the safety of the child and prevent a repetition of the unjustifiable conduct, including staying the proceeding until a child custody proceeding is commenced in a court having jurisdiction under ss. 822.21 to 822.23.
822.28(3) (3) If a court dismisses a petition or stays a proceeding because it declines to exercise its jurisdiction under sub. (1), it shall assess against the party seeking to invoke its jurisdiction necessary and reasonable expenses including costs, communication expenses, attorney fees, investigative fees, expenses for witnesses, travel expenses, and expenses for child care during the course of the proceedings, unless the party from whom fees are sought establishes that the assessment would be clearly inappropriate. The court may not assess fees, costs, or expenses against this state unless authorized by law other than this chapter.
822.28 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.29 822.29 Information to be submitted to court.
822.29(1) (1) In a child custody proceeding, each party, in its first pleading or in an attached affidavit, shall give information, if reasonably ascertainable, under oath as to the child's present address or whereabouts, the places where the child has lived during the last 5 years, and the names and present addresses of the persons with whom the child has lived during that period. The pleading or affidavit shall state whether the party:
822.29(1)(a) (a) Has participated, as a party or witness or in any other capacity, in any other proceeding concerning the custody of or physical placement or visitation with the child and, if so, shall identify the court, the case number, and the date of the child custody determination, if any.
822.29(1)(b) (b) Knows of any proceeding that could affect the current proceeding, including proceedings for enforcement and proceedings relating to domestic violence, protective orders, termination of parental rights, and adoptions and, if so, shall identify the court, the case number, and the nature of the proceeding.
822.29(1)(c) (c) Knows the names and addresses of any person not a party to the proceeding who has physical custody of the child or claims rights of legal custody or physical custody of, or visitation with, the child and, if so, the names and addresses of those persons.
822.29(2) (2) If the information required by sub. (1) is not furnished, the court, upon motion of a party or its own motion, may stay the proceeding until the information is furnished.
822.29(3) (3) If the declaration as to any of the items described in sub. (1) (a) to (c) is in the affirmative, the declarant shall give additional information under oath as required by the court. The court may examine the parties under oath as to details of the information furnished and other matters pertinent to the court's jurisdiction and the disposition of the case.
822.29(4) (4) Each party has a continuing duty to inform the court of any proceeding in this or any other state that could affect the current proceeding.
822.29(5) (5) If a party alleges in an affidavit or a pleading under oath that the health, safety, or liberty of a party or child would be jeopardized by disclosure of identifying information, the information shall be sealed and may not be disclosed to the other party or the public unless the court orders the disclosure to be made after a hearing in which the court takes into consideration the health, safety, or liberty of the party or child and determines that the disclosure is in the interest of justice.
822.29 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.295 822.295 Appearance of parties and child.
822.295(1) (1) In a child custody proceeding in this state, the court may order a party to the proceeding who is in this state to appear before the court in person with or without the child. The court may order any person who is in this state and who has physical custody or control of the child to appear in person with the child.
822.295(2) (2) If a party to a child custody proceeding whose presence is desired by the court is outside this state, the court may order that a notice given under s. 822.08 include a statement directing the party to appear in person with or without the child and informing the party that failure to appear may result in a decision adverse to the party.
822.295(3) (3) The court may enter any orders necessary to ensure the safety of the child and of any person ordered to appear under this section.
822.295(4) (4) If a party to a child custody proceeding who is outside this state is directed to appear under sub. (2) or desires to appear personally before the court with or without the child, the court may require another party to pay reasonable and necessary travel and other expenses of the party so appearing and of the child.
822.295 History History: 2005 a. 130.
subch. III of ch. 822 SUBCHAPTER III
ENFORCEMENT
822.31 822.31 Definitions. In this subchapter:
822.31(1) (1) "Judicial day" means each day except Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday under s. 995.20.
822.31(2) (2) "Petitioner" means a person who seeks enforcement of an order for the return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination.
822.31(3) (3) "Respondent" means a person against whom a proceeding has been commenced for enforcement of an order for the return of a child under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or enforcement of a child custody determination.
822.31 History History: 2005 a. 130; 2007 a. 97.
822.32 822.32 Enforcement under Hague Convention. Under this subchapter, a court of this state may enforce an order for the return of the child made under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction as if it were a child custody determination.
822.32 History History: 2005 a. 130.
822.33 822.33 Duty to enforce.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 324 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 25, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 25, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-25-14)