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893.33 Annotation The sub. (5) owner-in-possession exception to the sub. (2) 30-year recording requirement applies to adverse possession claims. O'Neill v. Reemer, 2003 WI 13, 259 Wis. 2d 544, 657 N.W.2d 403, 01-2402. See also O'Kon v. Laude, 2004 WI App 200, 276 Wis. 2d 666, 688 N.W.2d 747, 03-2819.
893.33 Annotation The owner-in-possession exception found in sub. (5) does not apply to holders of a prescriptive easement because such holders are not owners. Once the right to a prescriptive easement has accrued by virtue of compliance with s. 893.28 (1) for the requisite 20-year period, the holder of the prescriptive easement must comply with the recording requirements within 30 years under sub. (2) or lose the right to continued use. Schauer v. Baker, 2004 WI App 41, 270 Wis. 2d 714, 678 N.W.2d 258, 02-1674.
893.33 Annotation More specific statutes, govern a municipality's interest in an unrecorded highway and therefore the 30-year recording requirement under this section does not apply to a municipality's interest in an unrecorded highway. City of Prescott v. Holmgren, 2006 WI App 172, 295 Wis. 2d 627, 721 N.W.2d 153, 05-2673.
893.33 Annotation An easement continuously recorded since 1936 for which no efforts were made to establish and use it until the 1990's was not abandoned. Spencer v. Kosir, 2007 WI App 135, 06-1691.
893.33 Annotation The label of the documents here — "access easement agreement" — and the fact that each was signed by both parties did not transform the grants of easement into contracts subject to contract law. The plaintiffs alleged that a driveway could not be built on the easements described in the agreements because of a wetland delineation and sought a modification of the easements. This claim for relief was an action to enforce the recorded easements, albeit a modified version, and was therefore governed by s. 893.33 (6), not the contract statute, s. 893.43.
893.33 Annotation An owner-in-possession exception to the statute of limitations applies to owners by adverse possession. The party who initially adversely possessed land for the necessary period of time is not required to continue to "adversely" possess the disputed property to benefit from the exception. At the end of the applicable adverse possession period, title vests in the adverse possessor and the record owner's title is extinguished. Engel v. Parker, 2012 WI App 18, 339 Wis. 2d 208, 810 N.W.2d 861, 11-0025.
893.34 893.34 Immunity for property owners. No suit may be brought against any property owner who, in good faith, terminates a tenancy as the result of receiving a notice from a law enforcement agency under s. 704.17 (1) (c), (2) (c) or (3) (b).
893.34 History History: 1993 a. 139.
893.35 893.35 Action to recover personal property. An action to recover personal property shall be commenced within 6 years after the cause of action accrues or be barred. The cause of action accrues at the time the wrongful taking or conversion occurs, or the wrongful detention begins. An action for damage for wrongful taking, conversion or detention of personal property shall be commenced within the time limited by s. 893.51.
893.35 History History: 1979 c. 323.
893.35 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section is based on previous s. 893.19 (6), without change in substance, but with some expansion of language to make clear that accrual of the cause of action is not delayed until the person bringing the action learns of the wrongful taking or detention. The limitation with respect to an action for damages is contained in s. 893.51. [Bill 326-A]
893.36 893.36 Secured livestock.
893.36(1g)(1g) In this section:
893.36(1g)(a) (a) "Buyer in ordinary course of business" has the meaning provided by s. 401.201 (2) (em).
893.36(1g)(b) (b) "Collateral" has the meaning provided by s. 409.102 (1) (cs).
893.36(1g)(c) (c) "Debtor" has the meaning provided by s. 409.102 (1) (gs).
893.36(1g)(d) (d) "Market agency" means a person regularly engaged in the business of receiving, buying or selling livestock whether on a commission basis or otherwise.
893.36(1g)(e) (e) "Secured party" has the meaning provided by s. 409.102 (1) (rs).
893.36(1g)(f) (f) "Security agreement" has the meaning provided by s. 409.102 (1) (s).
893.36(1m) (1m) An action by a secured party to recover damages or property, based upon the sale of livestock which when sold is the secured party's collateral, against the market agency which in the ordinary course of business conducts the auction of the livestock, or against a buyer in ordinary course of business shall be commenced within 2 years after the date of sale of the livestock, or be barred, if:
893.36(1m)(a) (a) The debtor signs or endorses any writing arising from the transaction, including a check or draft, which states that the sale of the livestock is permitted by the secured party; and
893.36(1m)(b) (b) The secured party does not commence an action, within 2 years after the date of sale of the livestock against the debtor for purposes of enforcing rights under the security agreement or an obligation secured by the security agreement.
893.36(2) (2) This section does not apply to actions based upon a sale of livestock occurring prior to April 3, 1980, nor to an action by a secured party against its debtor. Section 893.35 or 893.51 applies to any action described in sub. (1m) if the limitation described in sub. (1m) is not applicable.
893.37 893.37 Survey. No action may be brought against an engineer or any land surveyor to recover damages for negligence, errors or omission in the making of any survey nor for contribution or indemnity related to such negligence, errors or omissions more than 6 years after the completion of a survey.
893.37 History History: 1979 c. 323 s. 3; Stats. 1979 s. 893.36; 1979 c. 355 s. 228; Stats. 1979 s. 893.37.
893.37 Annotation The discovery rule applies to statutes of limitations that limit the time to sue from the time when the action "accrues," being the time of discovery. The discovery rule does not apply to this section because it is a statute of repose, a statute that specifies the time of accrual (in this statute the time when the injury occurred) and limits the time suit can be brought from that specified date. Tomczak v. Bailey, 218 Wis. 2d 245, 578 N.W.2d 166 (1998), 95-2733.
subch. IV of ch. 893 SUBCHAPTER IV
ACTIONS RELATING TO CONTRACTS
AND COURT JUDGMENTS
893.40 893.40 Action on judgment or decree; court of record. Except as provided in ss. 846.04 (2) and (3) and 893.415, action upon a judgment or decree of a court of record of any state or of the United States shall be commenced within 20 years after the judgment or decree is entered or be barred.
893.40 History History: 1979 c. 323; 1997 a. 27; 2003 a. 287.
893.40 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section has been created to combine the provisions of repealed ss. 893.16 (1) and 893.18 (1). A substantive change from prior law results as the time period for an action upon a judgment of a court of record sitting without this state is increased from 10 years to 20 years and runs from the time of entry of a judgment. The separate statute of limitations for an action upon a sealed instrument is repealed as unnecessary. [Bill 326-A]
893.40 Annotation The defendant was prejudiced by an unreasonable 16-year delay in bringing suit; thus laches barred suit even though the applicable limitation period did not. Schafer v. Wegner, 78 Wis. 2d 127, 254 N.W.2d 193 (1977).
893.40 Annotation A request by the state or an offender to correct a clerical error in the sentence portion of a written judgment to reflect accurately an oral pronouncement of sentence is not an "action upon a judgment" under this section. State v. Prihoda, 2000 WI 123, 239 Wis. 2d 244, 618 N.W.2d 857, 98-2263.
893.40 Annotation This section clearly and unambiguously specifies that the date when a cause of action to collect past-due child support payments begins to run is the date when a judgment ordering payments is entered. State v. Hamilton, 2003 WI 50, 261 Wis. 2d 458, 661 N.W.2d 832, 01-1014.
893.40 Annotation Under the circumstances present in this case where a statute precluded a provision in a judgment, the statute of repose could not begin to run as to that provision until the legislature changed the law such that the provision could be carried out. Johnson v. Masters, 2013 WI 43, 347 Wis. 2d 238, 830 N.W.2d 647, 11-1240.
893.41 893.41 Breach of contract to marry; action to recover property. An action to recover property procured by fraud by a party in representing that he or she intended to marry the party providing the property and not breach the contract to marry, to which s. 768.06 applies, shall be commenced within one year after the breach of the contract to marry.
893.41 History History: 1979 c. 323; 1981 c. 314 s. 146.
893.41 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section has been created to place into ch. 893 the statute of limitations for an action to recover property for an alleged breach of a contract to marry. See also note following s. 768.06. [Bill 326-A]
893.415 893.415 Action to collect support.
893.415(1) (1) In this section, "action" means any proceeding brought before a court, whether commenced by a petition, motion, order to show cause, or other pleading.
893.415(2) (2) An action to collect child or family support owed under a judgment or order entered under ch. 767, or to collect child support owed under a judgment or order entered under s. 48.355 (2) (b) 4., 48.357 (5m) (a), 48.363 (2), 938.183 (4), 938.355 (2) (b) 4., 938.357 (5m) (a), 938.363 (2), or 948.22 (7), shall be commenced within 20 years after the youngest child for whom the support was ordered under the judgment or order reaches the age of 18 or, if the child is enrolled full-time in high school or its equivalent, reaches the age of 19.
893.415(3) (3) An action under this section is commenced when the petition, motion, order to show cause, or other pleading commencing the action is filed with the court, except that an action under this section is not commenced if proper notice of the action, as required by law or by the court, has not been provided to the respondent in the action within 90 days after the petition, motion, order to show cause, or other pleading is filed.
893.415 History History: 2003 a. 287.
893.42 893.42 Action on a judgment of court not of record. An action upon a judgment of a court not of record shall be commenced within 6 years of entry of judgment or be barred.
893.42 History History: 1979 c. 323.
893.42 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section is previous s. 893.19 (1) renumbered for more logical placement in restructured ch. 893. [Bill 326-A]
893.425 893.425 Fraudulent transfers. An action with respect to a fraudulent transfer or obligation under ch. 242 shall be barred unless the action is commenced:
893.425(1) (1) Under s. 242.04 (1) (a), within 4 years after the transfer is made or the obligation is incurred or, if later, within one year after the transfer or obligation is or could reasonably have been discovered by the claimant.
893.425(2) (2) Under s. 242.04 (1) (b) or 242.05 (1), within 4 years after the transfer is made or the obligation is incurred.
893.425(3) (3) Under s. 242.05 (2), within one year after the transfer is made or the obligation is incurred.
893.425 History History: 1987 a. 192.
893.43 893.43 Action on contract. An action upon any contract, obligation or liability, express or implied, including an action to recover fees for professional services, except those mentioned in s. 893.40, shall be commenced within 6 years after the cause of action accrues or be barred.
893.43 History History: 1979 c. 323.
893.43 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section is previous s. 893.19 (3) renumbered for more logical placement in restructured ch. 893. [Bill 326-A]
893.43 Annotation A bonus plan to compensate for increased profits is a contract. Younger v. Rosenow Paper & Supply Co. 51 Wis. 2d 619, 188 N.W.2d 507 (1971).
893.43 Annotation An action to recover benefits under a pension plan is an action to enforce a contract, not an action for wages. Estate of Schroeder v. Gateway Transportation Co., Inc. 53 Wis. 2d 59, 191 N.W.2d 860 (1971).
893.43 Annotation An action for personal injuries resulting from medical malpractice, although based on contract, is subject to the 3-year limitation for injuries to the person. Estate of Kohls v. Brah, 57 Wis. 2d 141, 203 N.W.2d 666 (1973).
893.43 Annotation An action by an insured against an insurance agent for failing to procure requested coverage is not an action against the insurer on the policy, but is an action resting upon the agent's contract with the insured to procure the insurance coverage agreed upon subject to the statute of limitations for contract. Estate of Ensz v. Brown Insurance Agency, Inc. 66 Wis. 2d 193, 223 N.W.2d 903 (1974).
893.43 Annotation A cause of action for contribution is based upon a contract implied by law and must be brought within 6 years after one joint tortfeasor has paid more than his or her share. Hartford Fire Insurance Co. v. Osborn Plumbing, 66 Wis. 2d 454, 225 N.W.2d 628 (1973).
893.43 Annotation When an employer deducted a "hypothetical tax factor" from salaries of its overseas employees so as to equalize compensation of its employees worldwide, an action to recover amounts so deducted had to be brought within the limitation period on wage claims, and not the period on other contract claims. Sussmann v. Gleisner, 80 Wis. 2d 435, 259 N.W.2d 114 (1977).
893.43 Annotation If the object of a disputed contract is the end product or fruit of human labor rather than the labor per se, s. 893.19 (3) [now s. 893.43], applies rather than s. 893.21 (5) [now s. 893.44]. Rupp v. O'Connor, 81 Wis. 2d 436, 261 N.W.2d 815 (1978).
893.43 Annotation Partial payment of an obligation made prior to the running of the statute of limitations tolls the statute and sets it running from the date of payment. St. Mary's Hospital Medical Center v. Tarkenton, 103 Wis. 2d 422, 309 N.W.2d 14 (Ct. App. 1981).
893.43 Annotation A breach of a roofing contract occurred when the faulty roof was completed, not when the building was completed. State v. Holland Plastics Co. 111 Wis. 2d 497, 331 N.W.2d 320 (1983).
893.43 Annotation An unjust enrichment claim accrues when a cohabitational relationship terminates. The court does not determine what statute of limitations, if any, applies. Watts (Bischoff) v. Watts, 152 Wis. 2d 370, 448 N.W.2d 292 (Ct. App. 1989).
893.43 Annotation A contract cause of action accrues at the time of the breach. The discovery rule is inapplicable. CLL Associates v. Arrowhead Pacific, 174 Wis. 2d 604, 497 N.W.2d 115 (1993).
893.43 Annotation This section applies to actions for the recovery of sales commissions. Erdman v. Jovoco, Inc. 181 Wis. 2d 736, 512 N.W.2d 487 (1994).
893.43 Annotation A party's deficient performance of a contract does not give rise to a tort claim. There must be a duty independent of the contract for a cause of action in tort. Atkinson v. Everbrite, Inc. 224 Wis. 2d 724, 592 N.W.2d 299 (Ct. App. 1999), 98-1806.
893.43 Annotation For actions seeking coverage under an underinsured motorist policy, the statute of limitations begins to run from the date of loss, which is the date on which a final resolution is reached in the underlying claim against the tortfeasor, be it through denial of that claim, settlement, judgment, execution of releases, or other form of resolution, whichever is the latest. Yocherer v. Farmers Insurance Exchange, 2002 WI 41, 252 Wis. 2d 114, 643 N.W.2d 457, 00-0944.
893.43 Annotation The label of the documents here — "access easement agreement" — and the fact that each was signed by both parties did not transform the grants of easement into contracts subject to contract law. The plaintiffs alleged that a driveway could not be built on the easements described in the agreements because of a wetland delineation and sought a modification of the easements. This claim for relief was an action to enforce the recorded easements, albeit a modified version, and was therefore governed by s. 893.33 (6), not the contract statute, s. 893.43.
893.43 Annotation An unconscionability of contract claim is governed by this section. Dairyland Power Coop. v. Amax Inc. 700 F. Supp. 979 (1986).
893.44 893.44 Compensation for personal service.
893.44(1) (1) Any action to recover unpaid salary, wages or other compensation for personal services, except actions to recover fees for professional services and except as provided in sub. (2), shall be commenced within 2 years after the cause of action accrues or be barred.
893.44(2) (2) An action to recover wages under s. 109.09 shall be commenced within 2 years after the claim is filed with the department of workforce development or be barred.
893.44 History History: 1979 c. 323; 1985 a. 220; 1995 a. 27 s. 9130 (4); 1997 a. 3.
893.44 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section is previous s. 893.21 (5) renumbered for more logical placement in restructured ch. 893. Actions to collect fees for professional services are brought under s. 893.43. [Bill 326-A]
893.44 Annotation A stock-purchase plan as a reward for increased profits is not subject to s. 893.21 (5) [now s. 893.44]. Younger v. Rosenow Paper & Supply Co. 51 Wis. 2d 619, 188 N.W.2d 507 (1971).
893.44 Annotation Professional services by a physician or attorney, although not customarily performed in the profession, may be classified as professional if requested by reason of the professional's expertise and training, if the professional then utilizes that knowledge and training. If the services are so classified depends upon the facts of the particular employment. Lorenz v. Dreske, 62 Wis. 2d 273, 214 N.W.2d 753 (1974).
893.44 Annotation Section 893.21 (5) [now s. 893.43] does not apply unless services are actually rendered. Yanta v. Montgomery Ward & Co., Inc. 66 Wis. 2d 53, 224 N.W.2d 389 (1974).
893.44 Annotation If the object of a disputed contract is the end product or fruit of human labor rather than the labor per se, s. 893.19 (3) [now s. 893.43] applies rather than s. 893.21 (5) [now s. 893.44]. Rupp v. O'Connor, 81 Wis. 2d 436, 261 N.W.2d 815 (1978).
893.44 Annotation An unjust enrichment claim accrues when a cohabitational relationship terminates. The court does not determine which statute of limitations, if any, applies. Watts (Bischoff) v. Watts, 152 Wis. 2d 370, 448 N.W.2d 292 (Ct. App. 1989).
893.44 Annotation This section applies only to actions for wages already earned. Lovett v. Mt. Senario College, Inc. 154 Wis. 2d 831, 454 N.W.2d 356 (Ct. App. 1990).
893.44 Annotation This section does not apply to actions for the recovery of sales commissions. Erdman v. Jovoco, Inc. 181 Wis. 2d 736, 512 N.W.2d 487 (1994).
893.44 Annotation The distinguishing feature of personal services under this section is whether the human labor itself is sought and is the object of the compensation or whether the end-product of the service is purchased. Paulson v. Shapiro, 490 F.2d 1 (1973).
893.45 893.45 Acknowledgment or new promise. No acknowledgment or promise shall be sufficient evidence of a new or continuing contract, whereby to take the cause out of the operation of this chapter, unless the same be contained in some writing signed by the party to be charged thereby.
893.45 History History: 1979 c. 323.
893.45 Note Judicial Council Committee's Note, 1979: This section is previous s. 893.42 renumbered for more logical placement in restructured ch. 893. [Bill 326-A]
893.46 893.46 Acknowledgment, who not bound by. If there are 2 or more joint contractors or joint personal representatives of any contractor, no such joint contractor or joint personal representative shall lose the benefit of this chapter so as to be chargeable by reason only of any acknowledgment or promise made by any other of them.
893.46 History History: 1979 c. 323; 2001 a. 102.
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2011-12 Wisconsin Statutes updated though 2013 Wis. Act 200 and all Supreme Court Orders entered before April 18, 2014. Published and certified under s. 35.18. Changes effective after April 18, 2014 are designated by NOTES. (Published 4-18-14)